Wave resistance

The twentieth century was a breakthrough in a huge number of areas of technological progress, namely to increase the speed of the TT. For ground speed of these vehicles have grown many times, for air — by orders of magnitude. But at sea the world's population reached a dead end.

The main high-jump occurred in the nineteenth century, when instead of sailing ships appeared steam. But it soon became clear that the main limitation to the speed of ships is not a weakness of the power plant, and water resistance. In the end, the speed record set by Russian destroyer "Novik" August 21, 1913 (37.3 knots), has become the practical limit of desires for large displacement vehicles (recall that the site — is one nautical mile, in other words 1852 m / h).

This broke the record, of course. Before the second world very rapidly ran around the Mediterranean French and Italian favorites and destroyers, getting from time to time right up to 45 knots. It is not clear, in general, for which they needed this rate, particularly since the Italian and French navies during the second world war were all terrible. Broke the record, "Novik", won the first 1950 "Blue Ribbon Atlantic", the South American liner "United jersey states" (38.5 knots). But even these speeds are achieved and count the number of vehicles at very small distances. In general, for a maximum speed of warships and now rarely exceeds 32 knots and cruising speed (which achieves the greatest distance swimming) was always lower than 30 knots. For cargo ships and 25 knots was a unique achievement, most of them hitherto dragged through the seas at speeds not exceeding 20 knots, in other words, less 40 km / h

The emergence of diesel, gas turbine, nuclear engines even in the best case, gave an allowance of speed on multiple nodes (another thing that diesel engines and nuclear energy have allowed the installation dramatically increase the cruising range). Characteristic impedance rising wall. An important means to combat it was to raise the case of the hull length to its width. Very narrow boat, but had a bad self-righting, in a storm, he could just roll over. In addition, in the narrow body was hard to shove various systems and equipment. Because only some destroyers due to the narrowness of the bodies set their speed records, this trend was not even for warships and cargo vessels for narrowing corps was unacceptable in principle.

Aviation actually quite replaced marine vessels in terms of passenger traffic, but that's what the transport of goods, almost all of them to this day fall on aqua and railway transport. Load capacity for the aircraft remains virtually the same critical issue, as the speed of the courts. Because engineers continue to struggle with a solution to both problems.

For commercial navigation problem of low speed to a large extent offset by a huge number of ships on the lines. If tankers (container bananovozy, timber, etc.) come from Fr And once a day, and come to point B, they will be once a day, regardless of the speed of each individual vessel. Most importantly, to have enough ships to maintain such schedule.

For Navy speed obviously more important. And for the combat ships (where clarification is perhaps unnecessary), and for transport and landing craft carrying troops. The latter at the moment when the war have acquired a global dimension, it has become more important than the first (the more so that the warships of some of its low rate of compensation was the presence of missile weapons: rocket catch anyone).

Since unsolvable difficulties impedance has long been clear, then, together with the pursuit of units of units due to improved hull forms and shapes of screws, gain energy installations on ordinary ships, the search began for something extraordinary.

Back in the late XIX century, was discovered the effect of lift acts on the plate, a towed underwater at a small angle to the horizontal. This effect is similar to the aerodynamic effective on wing aircraft and allowing him to fly. Since water is about 800 times more dense than air, the area of the hydrofoil could have as many times smaller than that of an airplane wing. If you put on the wings of a ship, then at fairly high speed lift will raise it above the water, it will remain only under the wings. This will allow many times lower water resistance and, accordingly, increase the speed movement.

First experiments with hydrofoils conducted in France and Italy, but they have gained greater development in the USSR. The main designer of such vessels was Rostislav Alexeyev, who led a corresponding CDB (it was in the city of Gorky). Was created by a number of passenger ships and combat hydrofoils. But quickly it became clear that the displacement of the hydrofoil is very limited. The higher it is, the sheer size and weight must reach underwater wing and the stronger must be the power plant. Which is why even the frigate hydrofoil do virtually impossible.

Anti-submarine hydrofoil project 1145 "Falcon"

In the end, it did not go the "commuter transport" — "Rocket", "Comet" and "Meteor" — and a certain number of combat hydrofoils. For the Navy and Border was ranked 2 anti-submarine ships with hydrofoils, etc., etc. 1145 and 1 1141, 1 small missile ship (MRK), etc. 1240, 16 patrol boats, etc. 133, 18 missile boats, etc. 206MR. Most of them at the moment is written off. One rocket ship hydrofoil etc. 206MR Georgian boat turned out to be "Tbilisi", which in August 2008, in accordance with the legends and legends agitprop, was sunk by Russian IRAs "Mirage" in a naval battle, and in fact abandoned his crew in Poti and blown up by our paratroopers.


Abroad hydrofoil as the development does not actually have. In the U.S., was ranked 6 rocket ships with hydrofoils like "Pegasus", in Italy — 7 RK type "Sparvero 'in Israel — 3 RK-type M161, in the Land of the Rising Sun — 3 RK type PG01. At the moment, they are all, except for the Japanese, written off. China shtamponul 200 torpedo boats, hydrofoils like "Huchuan", they are also exported to Romania, Albania, Tanzania, Pakistan, who then handed them over to Bangladesh. At this point in the ranks left only four Bangladeshi and 2 Tanzanian "Huchuanya." In general, the Navy worldwide PDA were dead-end.

A somewhat more promising steel hovercraft (DPC). It is this cushion is created by injecting compressed air fans under the bottom of the ship, on the ship rises above the water and the wave resistance vanishes at one hundred percent. That allows you to not only develop the giant speed (50-60 knots), and go to the land.

The greatest development of hovercraft were again well in the USSR (since 1920). West began to develop this area until the late 1950s. It soon became clear that, for these ships, there is almost the same fundamental problem of what to ship and a hydrofoil — their desired weight can not be large. To keep the weight heavy vehicle must be placed very massive fans. And for the movement of the ship requires large and massive propellers, which occupy a lot of space strongly and very vulnerable in combat.

Ultimately, implementing such ships has been very limited. In the Soviet Union built up a lot of landing craft air cushion (hoverborne assault landi
ng ship) of different types. Very pretty much seemed possible (due to the possibility of such courts go-sparing) landed troops "feet wet." However, their Troops capacity was rather limited, and the vulnerability of even small weapons fire — very highest (in particular were particularly vulnerable to propellers). The largest steel hoverborne assault landing ship Project 12322 "Bison" (displacement of more than 500 tons, length 56 m, speed up to 60 knots, capable of taking on 3 tanks or 140 Marines). In the Russian Federation at the moment there are only two such ships, but we have sold 3 in Greece. Do we have at the moment about 10 hoverborne assault landing ship of old times, etc. 12321, 1206 and 1205 of the smallest size.

Project 12322 "Bison

Apart from the Russian Federation, landing boat Hovercraft LCAC (150 tons, 50 knots, carries 1 tank) made in the USA. Such boats built around 100, they are based on U.S. amphibious assault ships and landing ships, docks. Landing craft etc. 724 in an amount of about 30 pieces were built in China. It is, for sure, the smallest hovercraft in the world: 6.5 m, length 12 m, taking on board the 10 paratroopers.

Amphibious hovercraft project 1 (LCAC)

Small (15 to 100 m) guard hovercraft in the 1970s, the British were building, including for implementation in Iran (even under the Shah) and Saudi Arabia. An Iranian British Hovercraft construction type VN.7 died during the war with Iraq.

In the end, both Russian and zabugornye designers came to the idea to change the rubber "skirt", supporting air cushion to hard plates called skegs. They are significantly better than the "skirt" trap air inside the cushion that allows mass increment ship. In addition, as skegs enter the water, they can be installed on propellers or water jets, removing from the deck of the ship and vulnerable massive propellers. In this case the resistance skeg is naturally larger than the "skirts", but still lower than the hydrofoils. Their only drawback — ship deprived of the ability to get to dry land. Because skeg KVP advisable to build in the option attack ships or trawlers. In the latter case, the benefit is that the lowest part of the ship is in the water and the higher the speed, the less chance hit a mine.

While the monopoly on such ships at the Russian Federation and Norway. We in the Black Sea Fleet has 2 skeg IRAs, etc. 1239 ("Bora" and "Simoom") naikrupneyshie hovercraft in the world (the displacement of more than 1 million tons). They possess high impact strength (8 supersonic anti-ship missiles "Mosquito") and a speed of 53 knots. Drawback of these ships — rather weak defense and, most importantly, the last difficulty in operation.

Rocket hovercraft "Simoom"

The structure of the Norwegian Navy comes in 6 skeg missile boats of the "Skeld" and minesweepers of the "Oksey." They are significantly less than our IRAs (250-400 m). With all this missile boats are 8 supersonic anti-ship missiles NSM. It may be noted that (apart from the Russian Federation and Norway) supersonic anti-ship missiles is still in China.

Skjold class missile boat. Norway

Although hovercraft and more promising hydrofoil ships, and they are not in any way do not solve the problem of speed due to the huge number of constraints outlined above, as costly and difficult to operate.

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