Admiral Dmitry Senyavin, naval commander and diplomat

Today is a day of memory of Admiral Dmitry Nikolayevich Senyavin naval commander and diplomat


Dmitri Senyavin(6.8.1763-5.4.1831) was born in the village of Komlevo Borovsky district of the Kaluga region to the family of naval officers who started the service in the Navy back in the time of Peter. He graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps in St. Petersburg. In 1780, a graduate of Midshipman Senyavin participated in a voyage to Lisbon, the results of which command marked his "great zeal in the service." In 1782, he was sent first to the Azov flotilla, and then to the Black Sea Fleet. Senyavin participated inBased on Russian Fleet Sevastopol, was the flag-officer and aide to the commander of the Sevastopol port Rear Admiral Makenzie, and after his death in 1786 — MI Voinovich. Repeatedly delivered to Constantinople pouches Russian Ambassador in Turkey. Diplomatic missions tied him with Prince Potemkin G., who made Senyavina officer for special assignments.

The war of 1787-1791 with Turkey. become a school of combat experience Senyavina. During the trip to Varna Black Sea squadron only vigorous action saved the Senyavina flagship of death during the storm. The hold was already full of water, all prepared for death, but Dmitri Nikolayevich was able to organize the rescue work.

The following year, at the same Admiral's ship, he took part in the battle with the Turkish fleet at the island Fidonisi (now the Snake). Home Turks attack was aimed at the Russian avant-garde led byFF Ushakov, but a three-hour battle given the opportunity to excel and Senyavin. It was the first major naval battle of the young Black Sea Fleet, Senyavin was promoted to captain of the 2nd rank and enlisted in the retinue of Potemkin as Adjutant General. In autumn 1788 Potemkinencamped Ochakov,
Senyavin charged at the head of the armed vessels to act against the Turkish fleet, who helped the beleaguered. Senyavin successfully led a dangerous expedition into the sea, killing more than a dozen Turkish transportov.Byl awarded the Order of St.. George 4-th degree and St.. Vladimіra 4th degree.

In the seabattle in 1791 at Kaliakria, glorified the new commander of the Black Sea Fleet Ushakov Senyavin commanded the largest ship "admiral." He acted bravely and skillfully, but the young to consider that Ushakov overly cautious, and these thoughts are expressed in society. Rear Admiral endured until the captain of the 2nd rank has not violated the order by sending more ships to the untrained sailors. Potemkin severely punished Senyavina, stripped of his command and sent a ship under arrest, threatening to demote a sailor. Only at the request of Ushakov Senyavin brought apologies, returned to duty. "I do not like Senyavina — admitted Ushakov — but he's a good officer, and in all circumstances, it may be an honor to my successor in predvoditelstvovanii fleet."

In 1796 Senyavin was promoted to Captain 1st rank and appointed commander of the 74-gun ship of the line "Saint Peter." On it, he went to the Mediterranean expedition Ushakov 1798-1799 gg. UndertakenEmperor Paulto counter revolutionary France. Dmitri took part in all the fighting against the French Black Sea squadron. For the capture of the island of St.. The Moors, who had a strong fortress, and for administrative activities in the liberated territories of the Emperor bestowed on him the rank of captain-general of major's rank and the Order of St. Anne 2nd degree. In the famous battle for the island of Corfu, "Saint Peter" was the flagship on which Sinyavin distinguished himself as a close aide Ushakov in organizing the successful storming of the fortress. Actions Dmitri Nikolaevich in the Mediterranean brought him fame and a well-deserved reputation. After the return of the Black Sea fleet at home, he headed the Admiralty and the port of Kherson. In 1803, already inAlexander Iwas appointed chief commander of the port of Sevastopol in the rank of rear admiral.

In 1804 Senyavina withdrew to the Baltic and was appointed commander of the port of Revel. Since the beginning of the war the anti-French coalition against Napoleon, Vice Admiral Senyavin Adriatic expedition led by the Baltic squadron of 1805-1807. Upon arrival to the Ionian Islands, he organized their defense, distracted forces of France with the Danube and the Crimean directions seized the strongholds of the French on the Dalmatian islands, freed from the occupation of Montenegro. In January 1806 Senyavin became commander of all Russian forces in the Mediterranean.

Even before the completion of the Adriatic expedition started a new war between Russia and Turkey, and Senyavin led the main force of his squadron moved from the base on the island of Corfu in the Aegean Sea with the task to block the Strait of Dardanelles. Skillful actions and landing ships of the squadron in March 1807 he won the Turkish island of Tenedos, near the Dardanelles and started a near blockade of the Strait. In May Senyavin came with a fierce battle with the Turkish fleet, forcing him to take refuge in the depths of loss Strait. And on June 19 atSt.. Mount AthosTurks gave a decisive battle. They lost three battleships, four frigates and corvettes, while the Russian squadron had only minor compared to the losses in the Turkish part of the human (77 killed, 181 wounded). The reward was the naval commander OrderSt.Alexander Nevsky.
Lesions on land and sea forced Turkey August 12, 1807 to sign a truce.

At the same time, Alexander I ofTreaty of TilsitNapoleon was forced to cede the Ionian Islands, Dalmatia, Turkey to return the island of Tenedos. All these victories were Senyavina crossed … Besides changes in the international balance of power turned out for Senyavina very unpleasant situation. It's an order from the Emperor to return to the Baltic fleet, but in a way a strong headwind that was transformed into a storm forced the Russian squadron on October 30 to go to Lisbon. This squadron was blocked by the British fleet, as Treaty of Tilsit on Russia and England were enemies and were in a state of war. In a bind August 24, 1808 Senyavin was forced to surrender to the British ships "in charge" (without venting the Russian flag), and the crews on the transports were sent to Russia.

Unauthorized decision aroused strong dissatisfaction of Alexander I, and vice-admiral of three years has been returned to its former position of commander of a squadron of Revel, which was singed. DuringPatriotic War of 1812Revel squadron carried Senyavina patrol off the coast of England, which has again become an ally. Assuming this omission, naval commander wrote a report to the Minister of War with a request to translate it to "the kind of service, with this title, which will be awarded capable of carrying mine." But his appeal went unanswered. In 1813, Dmitri was generally dismissed.

Only in 1825, when ascended to the throneEmperor Nicholas I,
remembered about the merits of a talented naval commander. The king appointed him as his adjutant-general, and then the commander of the Baltic Fleet, and in 1826 he was promoted to admiral, from December appointed a senator. The next year, following the victory of Russian-British-French squadron on the Turkish-Egyptian fleet at Navarino he was presented with diamond signs to the Order of St.. Alexander Nevsky. Dmitry died in 1831, his funeral took place solemnly, the Emperor organized a ceremonial burial in Dukhovskoy church of Alexander Nevsky Monastery and personally commanded the honorary escort of the Life Guards regiment.

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