The Company's October 29 is a black day of the Belarusian literature — in this day in 1937, the NKVD shot a large group of Belarusian writers.
But this day can be considered truly "black" and for the future of the Belarusian democracy — in the modern history of independent Belarus. October 29, 1992 he was lost a chance for the democratic development of the country. On this day, the Supreme Soviet voted against holding a referendum on the new early elections.
Pozniak appealed to all former communists to unite around the construction of a new state. The call was not heeded.
I recall the historical context. Just a day after the restoration of independence, 25 August 1991 and the suspension of the CPB-Party BPF leader Zenon Pozniak appealed to all former communists to unite around the construction of a new state. The appeal was not heard: proposals and bills the opposition Belarusian Popular Front (of his own army, on its own monetary system, the political and economic reforms to reduce its energy dependence on Russia) adrynalisya. In such circumstances, the Popular Front put forward the idea of early elections of the Supreme Council.
The new state — the new supreme legislative body elected by the new conditions.
The Supreme Council has refused to call an election, and then the BNF began collecting signatures for a referendum on the election of the new electoral law, which corresponded to European democratic standards.
April 13, 1992 to the Central Commission for Elections and Referenda (CEC) received more than 440,000 signatures (the law required 350,000).
As reported by the CEC Chairman Abramovich, the commission check each signature sheet. Not only that — 2000 372 letters were sent to the handwriting expert. You can imagine how much time is spent experts grafolyagi, and as for "normal" test, there was involved the whole state apparatus — in the capital, provincial and district centers.
As Abramovich said, "with the clear violations of the law on the referendum was framed number of subscription lists and signatures, which is less than one percent of the total number of signatures." CEC recognized the authenticity of a significantly greater number of signatures than required by law for the purpose of the referendum.
Chairman of the Supreme Council Stanislav Shushkevich had the right and was forced to convene a session of the sun, which was to be set a date for the referendum.
However, it is not was.
Nekaklki months Shushkevich, who had unlimited access to the media, engaged in (along with the propaganda machine of the Prime Minister Kebich) discredit the idea of a referendum and new elections. As a result, the nomenclature got time for consolidation.
The session met only six months. The Chairman of the Commission on Legislation Sun Dmitry Bulakhov made a presentation in which he tried to justify the inappropriateness of the referendum. He was supported by the deputy Alexander Lukashenko. The deputies of the opposition Popular Front denied statements by opponents of the referendum, but decided to arithmetic.
A vote took place on October 29. Against the referendum voted 210 deputies, — 35 (in fact, the opposition Popular Front in full).
Chance of forming higher zakanadavchago authority in democratic sentiments of society was lost.
The main argument against Shushkevich referendum and new elections — "and with that the Supreme Council can work with." If the difference of positions Shushkevich and BNF as succinctly — Shushkievich thought that you ought to adopt a constitution and then hold elections, the formula of the opposition Popular Front was the fact that only a new democratic Supreme Council must adopt a new Constitution.
Life has shown who was right: the Supreme Council elected kamnistychny back in time, refused to political and economic reform and adopted a constitution with the presidency, which instantly trasfarmavalasya into authoritarianism.
However, much later, in an interview with Stanislav S. called more prosaic reason for his position. "Those naive suggestions that were from the BNF -" The Supreme Council resign "… That I have to make such an offer? I am the chairman and I have this to offer? So they will say to me:" Why did you do this to us is necessary, we are now New choose. "
However Shushkevich managed to stay in the chair for long. Next year 1993 was a chain of concessions chairman of Sun nomenclature and imperial forces. In the spring of 1993 Shushkievich agreed to include in the draft Constitution of the head of the presidency in June, held the post of chairman of the parliamentary anti-corruption commission A. Lukashenko, in November, refused to form a coalition government and, finally, December 31, 1993 signed the Treaty on the accession of Belarus to the collective security system CIS. Thereafter it was no longer necessary nomenclature and dismissed.
From the prohibition of the referendum and the elections suffered only society and the whole country, earned the unfortunate title of Europe's last dictatorship.
Date October 29, 1992 in the calendar of democracy will still be encircled by a mourning border.