A few days ago at the International Space Station (ISS) had to include engine module "Zvezda" to make an emergency maneuver. It was necessary to avoid the rapidly by wearing dangerously close track of the old Russian rocket "Cyclone-3 ', which 20 years ago put into orbit two satellites.
Managed to escape by removing the station from Earth in about 5 kilometers. But it is possible that such maneuvers will soon become useless. And dodge will not work.
The sky in the nuts
Old broken satellites, nuts, bolts, brackets, screws, lost astronauts, rocket stages and even tons of any nonsense — this is the space debris, which for several decades, since the early development of the near-Earth space, accumulates and accumulates. Plus satellite debris destroyed intentionally during the test of a "space weapons" — from 1968 to 1986, the United States and the Soviet Union shot down in orbit for at least 20 vehicles. And more, however, these experiments were carried out. But for them come from the Chinese, who January 11, 2007, firing, smashed to pieces own a weather satellite. Than seriously frightened professionals. No, that began to develop the technology of "Star Wars." Other — they are disgusting namusorili.
In 2009 — lrugoy svalny sin collided in orbit two satellites — the U.S. current Iridium and Russian "Kosmos-2251" the end of their term. The result — a cloud of fragments with pieces apart. worn out. The clash resulted in a cloud of small fragments.
By early 2007, as reported by then the main "garbage man" Nicholas Johnson of NASA, the number of objects larger than 10 centimeters exceeded 10,000. Those objects for which you can watch even from the earth — they are visible. Now these have about 22 thousand. That is, large debris was twice. A small — less than 10 centimeters and not to consider. Millions of pieces, flying at a speed of 40,000 kilometers per hour.
Will you "Kessler syndrome" on his head!
There are cases when the particle debris pierced details of any vehicles and even the scrapping of the satellites. A hole with traces of paint were found in at least two shuttles. And the International Space Station (ISS) regularly maneuver to avoid a collision threatens.
But soon it will be impossible to dodge, warn Donald Kessler (Donald Kessler). And threatens "Kessler syndrome."
Donald, now retired, was formerly the main space "garbage man" NASA and a pioneer "rubbish" studies. Back in 1978, he noticed a hidden threat posed by the orbital dump. Like, with its sprawl will surely come a time when the impact will trigger a sort of chain reaction. Objects will collide with each other, break up, scattering in all directions like an avalanche and dramatically multiply. This nightmare and was named "Kessler syndrome."
In the end, sooner or later there will junk around Earth shell, through which no one can fly — neither there nor here. And that space exploration is over. At least a couple of hundred years, until the piece of trash does not get or do not burn up in the atmosphere. Such a perspective, by the way, talent shows in the movie about love and junk "Wally" — there kosmichsky ship literally break through the crust of the satellites and other debris that covers the Earth.
Clean up after themselves
Recently, the Ministry of Defense has issued a special report called "Catcher's Mitt", which reviewed the proposals by various developers methods of catching and destroying debris — magnetic network, huge umbrellas, lasers, and other tricks. Experts have concluded that while the available technology is better not to go, they say, they are no use, and soon will not be. And you just need to continue to monitor the behavior of the garbage. And if anything, to dodge.
Kessler insists: NASA should refer to specialists, offering cleaning services for the orbit. Moreover, the obligation to help them — and the money and organization.
Cascade of collisions between debris could begin "tomorrow", threaten supporters Kessler, who show a "serious concern" about since 1995. Then near the planet spun "only" 8,000 hazardous sites.
Now the situation has escalated so critical that "prophecy" Kessler is about to begin to come true.
Experts urge at least not to litter more. And going into space devices provide special motors terminator, which were transferred to the exhaust satellites in low orbits, so they were burned.
Leader in near-Earth space zagazhivanii Russia, followed by the U.S., China hold third place.
Familiarity with the inner world of the American astronauts
Crews first space station with debris, including human waste, there were simple. At the "Salute", for example, filled the containers and discarded through a special gateway to space. Already in the "World" wastes were stored in bags and sent to a re-entry to the cargo ship "Progress". But anything can happen. Expert on space Yaroslav Golovanov told a tale. Though in 1987 failed the first time to dock to the base station "Mir" module "Kvant". Do not place tie. In MCC decided that prevents a subject which is on the outside hatch. Sent for inspection by the crew. The astronauts went out into space, found the metal piece primerzshy sewage. In other words, the danger is even a "garbage".
On U.S. shuttle toilet emptied, "vystrelivaya" full container overboard. Sometimes he is not waning in the atmosphere, while humans more familiar with the inner world of American astronauts.
Americans, by the way, and on the moon pretty shit — all of the expedition, who have been there, of course, did not take the Earth accumulated waste their life. And someday, when the moon will fly again people, these toilets along with their contents will be a weighty proof that Americans really landed on the surface of our cosmic neighbors.
Amazing Adventures of debris
Star? No, not a star …
Twenty years ago, astronomers Shomburgskoy Observatory in Canada reported the explosion of a supernova in the constellation Perseus. Then it turned out that this is reflected rays of the sun shone one of the Soviet long since dead and disoriented satellite "Cosmos" series.
UFO? No, it's not a UFO …
In September 2002, several American observatories announced that detected in near space, "the mysterious body, which may be alien aircraft." Information was confirmed by the Minor Planet Center in Massachusetts, which tracks objects approaching Earth. By September 20, experts Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena (California) have defined the parameters of the orbit, "the stranger." And found out that it came from the moon, before completing the maneuver. Here it is — the long-awaited visit?
Case cleared after UFO photographed astronomers military base in Sokkoro (New Mexico). They assured that the object is not an alien, and the stage of the rocket, "Apollo 12," dropped in 1969 for the Moon. And "to make the maneuver," and go to the Earth she was forced to gravitational forces. Thus, experts have confirmed the hypothesis that space debris is able to navigate through complex trajectories, making, in fact, interplanetary travel.