National characteristics analysis of intelligence
Everyone knows about the naizloveschih basement of the Lubyanka. But in the life of the KGB were the least strshnye page. During the development of socialism Committee, in the main, analytical work — offers solutions to various problems of "collective brain" of the country, the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Most episodes of this work has been anecdotal. Tales of the KGB under Brezhnev, Gorbachev and Yeltsin told the Major General of the FSB's Stores Alexander Mikhailov, during a lecture at the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences. "Free Press" publishes more notable pieces of his speech.
KGB and Chernobyl
— I came to the organs of state security in the 1970s. KGB was created in 1954 to protect not only the country from subversion zabugornyh intelligence, and in order to somehow keep control of the situation in the country, considered the eyes and attitudes. On the basis of this analysis, we have forms the flow of information to the authorities and management.
In fact, the KGB was the only information structure, which collected information and report "in court" — the Central Committee or the Capital City Party Committee (IGC). We still says — "to report to the authorities." The main objective of which is put in front of him and his KGB chairman Yuri Andropov — not only to prevent bad processes, and reduce tension in the society.
For example, there was such a thing — "pockets of public excitement." For example, a person does not pay the wages, the factory did not transfer funds. And — immediately builds up a negative attitude to the authorities, to the course of the party. Maybe the course was not always correct. But the task before us was to protect this course, and — most importantly — his adjustments as needed.
Correct — meant to suggest how to correct the situation. This, by the way, is different from the past years the KGB secret service today. Always our notes we wrote to the authorities, ended with the phrase: "In the light of the above, would be considered …" Note went to the Central Committee of the CPSU MGK, in party organs. There shall be addressed in the respective department, which had to reach a verdict: agree with the views of the KGB or disagree.
You might ask how it was possible to disagree with the views of the KGB? It is possible, the hierarchy of power was well built. People who have analyzed our documents, could not agree with our views, so how — and explained their position.
It must be said, when our held view did not agree very often — but much less often than now — it interferes with corporate interests. Higher intelligence in the form of the Central Committee of suppressing these interests. But from time to time, the company won the dispute, and this has led to grave consequences.
In the middle 1980s, my colleagues who work on the security of strategic facilities in Ukraine, have written more than 40 notes to the Central Committee of the inadmissibility of the use of the nuclear reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant for laboratory purposes. Naturally, it was difficult to compete in the rhetoric with scientists, nuclear physicists. From our notes shrugged: say what they know about it? This lasted until May 1, 1985. What is done — the well-known case: during laboratory tests has been removed automatic protection, and exploded so that certain areas of Ukraine to this day is very contaminated with radiation.
It must be said, the main task of information management, of course, has been associated with global neuvvyazkami to protect strategic sites. But the most exciting was the work associated with the scanning of public opinion. In the Soviet Union it was attached very great importance. Without a scan to make municipal decisions virtually impossible.
I will tell you a secret: I have worked all my life and the creative intelligentsia. So now, the main task of scanning processes in the middle of public intellectuals was to contribute to the development — as we read as — Russian literature and art.
By the way, censorship, which was beyond the scope of the KGB, made it possible to implement very much. If we compare the literature of 1960-1980's to today, we can see that her artistic level was higher then than now. Now you can write everything. And so that, for example, Yuri V. Trifonov could put "old man", it was necessary to think: how to describe the revolutionary movement, to say all, but all this does not violate the Ethics inside our country.
In those years the society were complex processes. After the XX Congress, when she went to "thaw", political solutions to expose the cult of Stalin, literature had a very powerful push forward. Many works just taken out of the table and from afar. Surely, if at that time did not change the position of the political control of the country in many historical nuances, life at the moment would be somewhat different. But it turned out how it happened …
First, 1970 was designated the newcomer the problem: Creative University has an excess amount of culture. Young people finishing Film Institute, GITIS, Shchukin Theater School — and almost found themselves on the street. There were a number of theaters, among them a number of jobs — much less than the newly arrived actors. As a result, we have produced a huge number of young creative specialists in the state of the homeless.
We wrote a note on the situation in the Central Committee of the CPSU. In it, by the way, featured such an example: when the young actor was on a visit to him from time to time there was nothing to put on, and he took a suit in the wardrobe. Later, this note has been implemented in the Central Committee resolution "On the Work with creative youth." Thanks to this ruling was expanded network of theaters, and the situation improved real actors. It was a matter of principle. Such issues are not dealt to safety, but were directly related to the tension in the society.
In 1974, passed the so-called Bulldozer Exhibition. It was a public action of unofficial art in the Soviet Union. Moscow avant-garde artists gathered on the outskirts of the capital, Belyaeva, and exposed to the open air his paintings. In the midst of the action appeared ZIL factory workers in canvas shirts, which specifically on this vacant lot was required Saturday. Paintings left in the truck, broke up the exhibition.
Came a big scandal. West blew it up to unspeakable proportions. About the upcoming exhibition KGB understood in advance. But only after the scandal of the Central Committee sent a note to our attention that we have been contacted in advance — the need for the creation of the criterion for young artists. It was then when gruppkome graphic artists painting section was created, which provided a new venue in the house at the Grand Georgian, in which he lived Vysotsky. In this room the artists could exhibit works quite relaxed.
It must be said before the time, until the exhibition were local and forbidden, the enthusiasm for him was enormous. On them were in charge of Western journalists and TV reporters. But as the exhibition legalized, enthusiasm was gone immediately. With all of this from the protest movement in art has disappeared unlimited amount of people who did not have any work to painting and sculpture, but wanted to express myself.
Gorbachev and Eisenstein
Before coming to power of Gorbachev's KGB Misha carefully observed the principle: if you have something to say — do not settle for rhetoric, and tell me what to do. But with the onset of perestroika and glasnost in the political leadership have finished listening.
Our objection nobody even considered. For a while we were writing notes with variations deal with situations like nowhere, and later finished. Began to write: "in order to inform inform … with respect …"
Was then in the course of the term: to gather reagazh. In other words, find out the reaction of all sectors of society to something Just published ruling party and government.
The party, of course, expect universal approval of their own initiatives. Because we wrote about the subsequent 'anything that meat has risen in price, but the combination of acetate silk can be purchased for 10% less … "," nothing that bread went up, but the carpets are cheaper by 5% … "In other words, the well-being increases. Wrote from the bulldozer, "Likhachev plant mechanic with animation took the decision on such a matter, he enthusiastically read the materials of the XXVI Congress of the CPSU, in particular he liked it …"
These reports had to pass by 11 o'clock in the morning. And here we have the morning was sitting 'Union of Writers ": every employee came to work, laying out the newspaper" Pravda ", stresses the need for a pencil — and wrote all that is needed.
But from time to time tried to gather information to be honest. I remember in the manual I have — Manager Operations Division — was Sergei Chernov. He served the studio "Mosfilm". So he calls his own familiar actor at 9 am, because at exactly 11am summary report goes to Gorbachev's Central Committee.
The actor, of course, after yesterday. Heard him sleepy, drunk voice, "Hello?" "Hey, do not you recognize me?" "No, who's that? '" Sergei Mikhailovich. " "… Sergey Sergey … EISENSTEIN!?"
Well, what is the reaction? Actor is approved, of course. He just starred in the movie "Thieves in Law" by Yuri Kara. His name has given the necessary weight to the report.
Yeltsin was the architect of the stately
And here in the Capital City Committee came Boris Yeltsin. He said, "Guys, let me the truth, I've traveled in the bus …" I recall, there was a story — Yeltsin once rode the trolley around Moscow. "I see everything, and the people talk …"
And Opera rushed to write the truth. Thus, the truth came out only at their mate, "said the plant technician that I have this power …" The authorities were outraged: here nor 1st censorship of speech! Opera shrugged their shoulders: we uttered the truth to write obscenities and they say …
Yeltsin became the first secretary of the Capital City Committee, immediately sensed that behind him, no one. His partners in the Politburo took Yeltsin innovation. And he realized that he can rely on only one structure — the Capital of the KGB.
Head of the Department was then a very intelligent man, Nicholas E. Shuttles. He heartily sick to work and put the puzzle before us: on a periodic basis to prepare surveys on the main dilemmas of artistic, scientific and technical intelligentsia and students. And everywhere in these reports, we again wrote: "Based on the above, would be considered …" These reports are intended to Yeltsin.
Yeltsin did various analytical tasks. His mood motivate workers' societies, police reform — a wide range of issues. On those documents worked seriously drawn up a list of tasks, a list of documents that must be collected on the subject, the opera met with their sources — people who knew the real situation (in this case, to fool the KGB did not work). As a result, the document that went into the Capital City Party Committee, went far beyond the norm reserved for a half or two pages of text.
By the way, these restrictions in other cases aggressively kept. In the City Party Committee could not write a report more than one and a half to two pages, and the annual report of the KGB to the Central Committee of the CPSU did not have to exceed 25 pages.
But Boris succeeds in making the document correctly reflects the nature and scope of his could be virtually any way. Then there was a fascinating story. On Poklonnaya Hill began to build Victory Park. Leonid Brezhnev, Viktor Grishin (last party manager in Moscow) and Peter Demichev (Minister of Culture of the USSR) signed and approved the draft of the main monument. Poklonnaya had to stand stele, and on it — a soldier in a greatcoat with a red flag.
In those years, as well as at the moment, all fighting for the state order. The architect has actually made the monument, but Yeltsin came to power, and the fight escalated. It began with the fact that at the congress of writers made the poet Andrei Voznesensky. His speech was a turbulent and critical. He said that the monument at Poklonnaya not reflect the feat of Russian people in the stateliness Russian war. "Moreover — added Ascension — as a designer I can say the banner of red granite against the sky will appear black, and therefore will fly over Moscow fascist banner …"
Boris is recorded. But he was not consulted with anyone, so he gave the order capital management KGB prepare a document with which you can find how to do in this situation.
In the middle of advisers to the Committee was quite enough architects. Because the final document was released on 42 pages — by the way, quite hidden. It said that in the architectural and artistic medium is the group, each of which is fighting for the value of their own positions. Later considered the positions of all these groups, and the proposed solution to the problem. We offered to hold a competition for a monument place (then argued that explicitly was Victory Park) and create his vision (or to what extent it should reflect the contribution of the rear, the front of the extent to which reflect tankers, gunners, generals, should there be a guerrilla movement).
Hidden in this document was only one thing — that Boris Yeltsin got it in the KGB. In the end, Yeltsin spoke at the congress of the RSFSR painters, and this entire document is laid out on my own. After the performance, the audience stood up and prolonged applause broke out.
Yeltsin, by the way, was the first to seek primary sources, on the basis of which conclusions were drawn. And it was the right move. When it is on primary sources, I am reminded of a tragicomic story. Satire Theater is ready to be a play of Nikolai Erdman's "The Suicide." Was run, which attracted a lot of people — representatives of culture, party and Russian authorities. They all sagely were sitting in the hall. Oh, and by the KGB was an employee in the selection committee — that there was no overt innuendo.
Recently the officer touched, and moved firmly. And when he came to the theater — was run days are — the buffet was still closed, the beer was not. So when he looked at the scene, nothing, except for the anti-Soviet, his head did not climb. Returning to the office, he wrote a little note: the play is anti-Soviet character, a corrupt form indicates the Russian people. I recall talking about traditional Erdman's play — at the moment it goes everywhere. From time to time with a hangover man writes very well. So it was in this case — the head of the note really liked. He, in turn, wrote a note to the First Secretary of the CIM Grishin: direct conclusion of our spices. Aware of? Nevypitaya beer bottle sealed the fate of the show — it was closed.
Geniuses from analysts
Now, I believe we have lost an analytical approach to the work, the sources of disk imaging. We base our conclusions on disk imaging of the Web. Meanwhile, the usual analyst never in a web not climb — there are an unlimited number of "sinks". In true analytical work should be referred to only the information from the horse's mouth.
We now have 90% tipo analytical councils are conceptual nature a la Manilow: Do not build us … In fact, it's voluntarist fant
asy. Real analyst never make conclusions impossible to apply in practice. But analysts do not happen much. I, for example, for all the service met all 2-excellent analysts.
When I was a detective, we had Peter Gluhov … do not like to drink, but just a creative person. Report writing was for him rite. Peter sat at a huge typewriter "Erik" with a slide, and the first that I did — with love changed tape. Later, he wiped the machine. Later inserted snow-white sheet of paper, lit a cigarette … And an hour doing a background paper — without a single amendment. When he gave the document managers, our bosses, who usually have permission first place, not having read the second, looked at Petya's report as to the gospel of God.
A superb second analyst was FSB deputy director Oleg Osobenkov. He worked in intelligence, but with all this, he graduated from the Institute of Literature. According to the standards, at a certain day, we had to prepare a note on certain fronts — to report on the situation on them in real time. But you realize, there are situations that do not evolve over time. For example, the start of the Chechen war, the troops were facing each other — and nothing happens. And in this area every day need something to report.
Oleg — State Secretary of the Federal Security Service — signed the notes. Whenever he would ask: what, man, do we do? Let's here it is and it will write. I remember there was a scandal with the sale of Russian weapons to Azerbaijan during the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The late Rokhlin spoke from the rostrum of the State Duma and said that we sell guns.
The question arose: what to do? Weapons are something we really sell. Excellent analyst Osobenkov loaf and said, we are after the collapse of the Soviet Union signed a contract on the flank limitations, let's see, is not subject to an instrument sold under this contract? I recall a 2-words: Russian alliance fell apart when it turned out that on one flank — Panzer Division, and on the other — an insignificant combat engineer regiment. Then, in the flank, the former republics of the Soviet Union agreed to reconstruct (to purchase) of arms to return the overall defense capabilities.
We picked up a contract — and accurately. It turned out that we, without knowing it, sell Azerbaijan is a number of tanks, and what should have been implemented on the "flank" agreement. We wrote to the conclusion — and closed the subject. And Osobenkova always been the case — one of 10.
Stalin in the maze
Why is it that there is currently no analysts? Disk imaging is not much, and from a small disk imaging can still do something, something can get. But when a lot of disk imaging, you must cut off the superfluous, not always understanding what is cut off.
Let me give an example, that was clear the scale of the difficulties. I once met with Leonid Fedorovich Reichmann, fascinating man of destiny. He was deputy chief of counterintelligence of the USSR, and he was arrested in 1950. While untwist Leningrad case and the case of doctors. Reichman wrote a note to Stalin that the list of people to arrest. A sign along the ground: Lieutenant General Reichman.
Stalin wrote a resolution: "Arrest all." And indeed arrested everyone, including — most Reichman. He spent a year in the slammer without charge or trial. In 1953, a few days after the death of Stalin, he was taken from the bullpen. Reichman thought that he was being taken to be shot — he did not know that Stalin was dead.
General particularistic dressed in a dress, put into a car and taken to Moscow. At the cinema, "Drummer" waving flags with black ribbons. "What happened?" "Stalin is dead." Reichman said that after these words, he wept: "If I uttered that I shot, but Stalin would live, I would have agreed …"
Reichman was brought to the office of Beria. "You have us, Leonid Fedorovich needed." "There is." "Go into the adjoining room, change your clothes." Reichman out of the office in his own general's uniform, with all the orders, as the head of the control inspections to check the implementation of the orders of Minister of Internal Affairs of the USSR.
Reichman said to me the other day why the war, Stalin did not believe in the German attack. At the moment, it is assumed, Stalin was not enough disk imaging. In fact, disk imaging, in contrast, was very high. Infy were so many that believe that it is real, it was unreal. Paul Phytin — Head of the Head of Intelligence of the Red Army — wrote a note to Stalin: "According to intelligence, the war will begin June 22, 1941. Coupled with the fact, in our opinion, it is a British disinformation, and perhaps German intelligence services … "
Now a lot of hard disk imaging, too. Information which is not necessary, especially "merges" to distort the picture. I myself taught servants, when he was the press secretary of the FSB: journalists need to give all the information that has no relationship to the secret. In another, they will dig and reveal excessive.
Now the world the problem is that people have forgotten how to think small and distinct categories. Leo Tolstoy said, that all the thoughts that have severe development on its own indescribable essence of the ordinary. We are now in excess of disk imaging criteria, we live in a maze: a lot of roads, but did not find the correct …
From the file "joint venture"
Alexander G. Mikhailov. Born in 1950 in Moscow. He graduated from the Faculty of Journalism. Since 1974 he worked in the organs of state security, was on the operational work, he held senior positions including the 5th Directorate of the KGB of the USSR (political counterintelligence). In the years 1994-1998 — Managing Public Relations Center of the Federal Counterintelligence Service, then the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation in 1998-1999 — Head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation disk imaging, from May to October 1999 — Managing the Office of Government disk imaging of the Government of the Russian Federation.