Gas for Manstein

Of early afternoon, in 4 hours 30 minutes 13 June 1942 in the South Bay of Sevastopol became ambulances, "Georgia." When Minna to the pier remained a few meters, to transport with excellent visibility on board reddish crosses dived 5 German U-87. Two bombs hit the target — one in the engine room, the second — in the feed transport. 7 minutes later there was a terrific explosion, and transport 116 meters long was almost torn in half. At 4 hours and 55 minutes of "Georgia" disappeared under the water. Next Russian historians put the bullet for another previously condemned sin fascists, good, admiralty law prohibits medical ships to sink.

Gas for Manstein

Rose to flood

But here in 1948-1949, during the cleaning process Sevastopol bays of wrecks have been raised both parts of "Georgia." Usually raised from the seabed of the court or restored or sent by ship-breaking base — in 1949 the country as the air was needed scrap metal. But both parts of "Georgia" for some reason did not send in Inkerman on a breaker, and was towed to the Cossack bay and there flooded. However, several divers and workers who participated in the rise of "Georgia" were hospitalized. Do they appear on the skin ulcers, lesions related to mustard gas.

In 1956-1959 he was held a new rise of both parts of "Georgia", and this time they towed and scuttled away from the coast and at great depths. What is the deadly secret concealed inside the holds of ambulances?

Toxic ship

Let's start with the fact that in the spring of 1942, the Black Sea Fleet experienced acquired defect in the anti-aircraft vehicles, especially for protection against low-flying aircraft. But the ambulance service "Georgia" had anti-aircraft weapons are better than Russian destroyers so far: 5 45-mm guns, two 12.7-mm DShK and U.S. 6 twin machine guns Colt. Holds of transport were loaded to capacity shells. But that's half the trouble. Worse of all, in the middle of high-explosive shells rovnenky rows were laid hundreds of chemical — the caliber of 130 mm and 76 mm, and the barrels of toxic substance (s) established to equip bombs. That's exactly the cargo and perezahoranivali twice along with the remains of "Georgia."

There is a rhetorical question: why in July 1942, it was necessary to take into Sevastopol chemical munitions? Indeed, defenders of the town experienced an acute shortage of high-explosive shells. Looking ahead, we note that due to the lack of concrete shells and was put Sevastopol. So what was there to carry himsnaryady who previously could not be used?

Yet it was so specifically — "Georgia" has gone into its own last voyage to apply chemical weapon! Note that hundreds of tons of himboepripasov — artillery shells, bombs, spray tanks of different devices, and so to the beginning of the war were kept in the numerous galleries of Sevastopol.

Gas for Manstein

150-mm six-barrel rocket German chemical mortar, called our soldiers "Vanyusha." By the spring of 1942, several divisions of mortars were concentrated at Sevastopol

Brothers in Arms

First himsnaryady for naval artillery arrived in Sevastopol in 1916. Then the planned landing of the Bosphorus, and Admiral Kolchak offered throw Turkish coastal fortifications and infantry chemical shells. As a result, in February 1917 in Sevastopol has accumulated several hundred nautical himsnaryadov caliber from 102 to 305 mm.

After the war, both in Germany and in the Soviet Union to develop himboepripasov for artillery and air was conducted with the utmost secrecy to its population and western countries: Germany signed the Geneva Protocol prohibiting the introduction of chemical weapons in the summer of 1925, in December 1927, the second did and Russian Alliance. And in 1926, turned a full-scale German-Soviet work on the creation of chemical weapons. Naikrupneyshy Cooperative Research Centre for the landfill was created by the village Shihany 130 km north of Saratov. The property received a secret designation "Tomka".

Try to guess

In the Wehrmacht and the Red Army adopted a monotonous system of classification of chemical weapons. Thus, in all the artillery himsnaryady had to have similar weight and ballistics with high-explosive and smoke shells. Because in the firing tables and other documents before the parts in time of peace, himsnaryady never appeared. All German chemical shells were painted in dark khaki color. On shells with different OS are color-ring bands also the marking of the distinctive characteristics of OB equipment and standard shell. And go and guess what it means to the inscription on the projectile — FHGr Gelbring (howitzer pineapple with yellow ring) or FHGr Gruenring (howitzer pineapple with a green ring).

Norms

We Germans had himsnaryady caliber of 75 mm to 150 mm, and the Red Army — from 76 mm to 152 mm. They were divided into chemical, equipped with watery RH, and high-chemical, equipped with rigid agents. Recent provide additional shrapnel defeat the enemy, like the high-explosive projectiles.

The initial rate for the calculation of the amount of chemical shells needed for the fire area, was as follows: one 76-mm chemical grenade on 40 m2 of floor area or one 152-mm chemical shell on the area of 80 m2. Ballistic Data 76-mm chemical grenades were not different from ordinary fragmentation grenades, and of them were made in the ordinary cases of grenades.

Gas for Manstein

Chemical bombs to German 100-mm light field howitzers arr. 16 and 18 have a device similar to the 75-mm shells. These shells are used in 2-versions, which differ among themselves diameter shells glow under a bursting charge

Enthusiasts

Interestingly, in the years 1934-1936 and Ostekhbyuro AANII Red Army were "special work of secrecy" on "Gun carriage." So shrapnel was encrypted with toxic elements. In December 1934, a 76-mm poisonous shrapnel was tested by 3 shots. In small 2-gram and 4-gram pellets were pressed crystal poison. It concluded that shooting were successful.

In the prewar period in the Soviet Union produced an additional 45-mm armor-piercing projectiles chemical. They were intended to poison the enemy personnel the armor of tanks and bunkers. Weight of the armor-piercing projectile chemical was 1.43 kg projectile contained 16 g of the agent who has been placed in the chamber with a diameter of 24 mm. The initial velocity of the projectile was equal to 760 m / s, in other words preserved ballistics shot with the same type of armor-piercing projectile UBR-240.

Bad-smelling "Katyusha"

Interestingly, the emergence of rocket artillery and the Wehrmacht and the Red Army came through chemical projectiles. The fact that the prince "Katyusha" was created initially by chemical munitions and incendiary and high-explosive projectiles were seen as secondary. The first in 1938 was adopted by the chemical practica
l projectile PCX-132 and only later — high-explosive M-13, and later received index RP-941.

In the late 30's by German engineer Nebel were designed 15-cm and a six-barrel rocket tube installation, which the Germans called the six-barreled mortar. Tests mortars were launched in 1937. The system was called the "15-cm chimney mortar type 'D'." In 1941 it was renamed 15 cm Nb.W 41 (Nebelwerfer), in other words 15 cm chimney mortar arr. 41. Naturally, the main purpose "of smoke mortars" was not a production of smoke screens, and shooting rockets stuffed with poisons. It is curious that the Russian soldiers were called 15 cm Nb.W 41 "Vanya", by analogy with the M-13, referred to as "Katyusha".

Gas for Manstein

Illiteracy

It is seen that the chemical weapon perfectly only when massive use. An appropriate example: first the 1990s, our historians have found in the archives of orders to use himsnaryadov in 1921 against members Antonovskoe uprising in Tambov. But the data on casualties from insurgent chemical weapons were found. Not a lot of public surveys conducted for a long time yet before the adjustment, showed that the population in 1921 did not understand the application of communist agents. I myself first 80s debated with the old lady, who boldly spoke of battles with Antonovites, but of chemical shells had never even heard. In fact we used several 10-s 76-mm himsnaryadov who gave no effect because of our ignorance kraskomov.

Common event

But our commanders in the Crimea to prepare for mass use of chemical weapons. Note that the first to use OB 11th Army of General von Manstein in April-May 1942 on the Kerch Peninsula. Colonel General F. Halder in his diary on June 13, 1942 wrote: "The general Oxnard: Report on the participation of chemical forces in the battle of Kerch."

So Makarov, the Russian side is completely impartially had the right to declare the response. The general application of chemical weapons at Sevastopol could lead to the complete defeat of the army stein. Note that the Germans at Sevastopol had a big advantage in guns hanging fight (howitzers and mortars). And the defenders of the town there was a significant an advantage in long-range guns (even without the naval gunfire). But the mountainous terrain made gun with a stunning ballistics powerless against nestled in the folds of the terrain of German mortars. But the chemical shells would just smoked Germans out of their hiding places. By the way, photos, newsreels and countless memories demonstrate that our soldiers until the last day or defense never parted with gas masks. But at half-naked German soldier at Sevastopol masks to be seen. Therefore easy to imagine the effect of the massive introduction of OM. But the death of "Georgia" and the coming of the Germans from Kharkov to Stalingrad forced the Russian commanders to abandon the introduction of OM in the Crimea.

Papanin

Before sending the town on 27-29 June 1942 chemical munitions at night delivered from storage Yuharinoy beams in Cossack Bay, where it is loaded on the schooner "Papaninets", which later were taken out into the open sea near the bay, where the dumped overboard. The depth of discharge was more than 50 meters With all this mustard gas and lewisite, which fueled chemical bombs were stored while in barrels of type A-100. At times, these barrels find on the coast of the Crimea in our days are. "In the 80s near the Cossack Bay divers found the barrel of the type L-100 and took on the saved. It found an oily liquid that smelled of geraniums. Laboratory analysis has shown that in a barrel of Russian production is lewisite, chemical warfare agent. " No one would not wish such a find!

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