In March 1939, plainclothes war in Spain was completed. Republicans have gone through the last Pyrenean passes of France.
The latest power in Spain spiritualized General Franco — he was awarded the rank of generalissimo later. Its position is determined by the position and title of "caudillo" — "leader".
By the beginning of the war in civilian Spain General Francisco Franco Bahamonde-and-Salgado-Araujo was 44 years old.
Leader looked years older than their own. He had an unattractive appearance — a short, (157 cm), short-legged, full-bodied, with a narrow piercing voice and uncomfortable gestures. German friends of the number of "blond beasts" were looking at Franco with astonishment in the face of Generalissimo clearly stood out Semitic features. The grounds were pretty: the Iberian Peninsula for centuries dominated the Arabs, the Jewish population of the Caliphate of Cordoba reached up to one-eighth of the population … In addition, Franco was not "Castigliano" — he was born in Galicia, inhabited by the Portuguese.
Ominously, a romantic version of the uprising Russian Spanish nationalists — heresy. The phrase "Above all Spain unblemished sky" (optional: light) is not served as a prearranged signal. Its July 18, 1936 ended the morning everyday weather forecast — it was he who was the signal.
The uprising against the Spanish right-wing Republican government in almost all provoked by the Republicans.
The Government of the People's Front was a colorful bunch levovatyh, leftists and leftists of all colors — the Social Democrats and the Socialists to Trotskyists and anarchists. The left slope became steeper. Anarchy, guerrilla and economic chaos pushes the country into complete destruction. Everything took on a larger scale political repression of the Leninist-Stalinist reference. Instead of bread and offered the people of the decrees and slogans. Left mode weights hung on the neck of the Spanish peasant, enforced for nothing to feed a horde of leaders, agitators and talkers, for free trade Republicans rebuked.
The political pendulum of the very left position inevitably sought in the very right. There did not appear the center of forces, a point of coordination of interests. Tremendous authority took advantage of the Catholic Church, the Republicans do not dare to dechristianization but amassed a blood enemy of the church, and the masses of believers — sheltered enemies.
The right-wing forces also not shining ins. In the camp of supporters of Franco ruled dull obscurantism and political obscurantism.
Zemlevladetelnaya know much twine and gentlemen rolling out his chest puffed out his cheeks, and without any particular reason — they could not even properly fund the start of the uprising. It is logical that the nationalists immediately seek assistance from Germany and Italy, as the base of their armed forces were mobilized farmers and Arab-Berber hands of Morocco.
Republicans on its territory bourgeoisie were not spared. Yes, and they are not nationalists than enough to concede. The motto of the rebels sounded peculiar — "Lude, the monarchy, the faith." In other words, had little in common with the Italian mottos "fashiio di kombatimento" and the German "state socialists."
Mussolini, the ideologist of corporate country was indifferent to the church and the despised monarchy. Hitler was a militant anti-Christian and anti-Semite. With Franco these leaders came together only in nationalism. But Franco's nationalism was the "internationalist" — the Spaniards he believed all the people of the country without racial and tribal differences. The conceptual basis of the Franco regime was Catholic, but politically he was going to bring back the monarchy.
Standing at the head of the country, Free was in a difficult position. Save power and remove Spain from the quagmire he could only desperately maneuvering. What to do, and began.
Franco realized: with friends like Hitler and Mussolini, he will inevitably be drawn into a world war. If Hitler had overcome — Spain will not win anything if Hitler lose — Spain will not be.
Franco declared neutrality. Gestures toward Hitler did he do to keep each other on a solid distance. Approved by the German ships and submarines of the Navy bunker in Spanish ports, to stuff them with tobacco, oranges and fresh water. Perceived Argentine vessels with grain and meat for Germany, missed the goods across the Spanish countryside. When the war with Russia, he sent out a division, but it is not the command of the Wehrmacht conquered. German troops on the ground is not allowed to enter Spain. Very respectfully responded about Churchill and remained with England diplomatic affairs. Restrained, unconscious read about Stalin.
At Free in Spain was not something that the genocide of the Jews, and the restrictive measures against them.
When the war ended, the troops of the anti-Hitler coalition in Spain is not included — to ensure there was not even a formal occasions. The few surviving military and government officials who lost the war and the Axis smogshih get to Spain, Franco quickly got rid of Latin America.
Situation in the country remains difficult. In assistance "Marshall Plan" of Spain refused to NATO have not, in the UN is not allowed right up to 1955 as the country with authoritarian and dictatorial regime.
In 1947, Franco declared Spain a monarchy with a free throne and appointed the principle of autarky (self-reliance).
Free throne there was someone to take. Dynasty is not cut short. Juan Carlos, the grandson of the deposed in 1931 by King Alfonso XIII, alive and healthy, although at the time was still a nine year old child.
Education of the future monarch caudillos engaged himself, nobody entrusting this fundamental matter. Debated with the young prince looked at his teaching, he was reading books, attending church services with him, instructed on the role of head of civilization. At the same time, frankly Franco gave Juan Carlos realize that not announce the construction of the throne of his coming of age, will have to wait. The leader soundly adhered to the principle of Moses — 40 people drive through the desert until the forgotten past life, he realized that the young lord simply not cope with the legacy of ossified, just might become a plaything in the hands of the old-fashioned mischief and military adventurers.
Lord Juan Carlos later recalled how his attitude struck Franco to religion and church. In compliance with external piety generalissimo was punctual, but the interior features of religious zeal was no different. Prof. military, he took faith as a disciplinary force and a means of politics, but less. Namely, he flatly opposed the growth of monasticism, sought by priests first social, worldly activities.
Franco's regime was pronounced conservative and patriotic. He ruled the military-oligarchic ways. Censor seal angrily suppressed political opposition and national separatists, forbade all parties and trade unions (not counting the "vertical" type of Russian trade unions), did not hesitate to use the death penalty for clandestine activities, did not give the bullpen empty. Interesting: the severity of repression in Spain noticeably softened after the death of Stalin …
For his party, the Spanish phalanx in the middle of the 1950s. renamed the National Movement and became something like "union supporters" in Chief, Franco was skeptical. Substitute for the party in the count
ry was a church congregation "Opus Dei" ("God thing"). First, the 1960 Franco generally banished from the governments of all the Phalangists. A little while ago, despite the resistance of party members, dramatically reduced the number of officers and the general's body. Non-producing estate in Spain has grown so that one army regiment had two generals.
Officially Generalissimo pursued a policy of reconciliation and general amnesty for all automatic, who said of his own loyalty. In Plain Fallen near Madrid at the direction of Franco, was erected a memorial to the great fraternal cemetery civilian victims of the war on both sides. Monument to the Fallen is very simple and impressive — it's a big Catholic cross.
Insulation and the principle of self-sufficiency assist Spain to survive, but not to the growth. Only in the late 1950s, Franco allowed foreign capital into the country and allowed to establish joint ventures. Evenly got rid of all the Spanish colonies, the good of which were not, but the threat of colonial wars hung constantly.
Yet prior to the 1960s. Spain remains one of the poorest countries in Western Europe. After 10 years, it has become clear that the Franco regime has exhausted itself. Generalissimo of blood and iron finished turmoil in the country, crushed the opposition, Ward sovereignty — but "a social world in Spanish" was similar to the beauty of peace poor convent school. The country's population will reach 40 million people, and the economy is not developing, growing unemployment, there was "stagnation in poverty." Mass labor migration of Spaniards, priemuschestvenno to France, and the development of foreign tourism to feed the country could not. The post-war generation of young Spaniards without much respect for the conservative religious values of the regime caudillo.
In 1975, the stretch after spending 36 years in power (and a little short of the "life of Moses"), Generalissimo Franco died. On the free reign of the legitimate heir, the current ruler of Juan Carlos. 6 years aftershocks rocked the country intoxication of freedom, political parties have multiplied like flies. In February 1981, the dashing Colonel Tejera Molina broke into the parliament, shot into the ceiling of the gun and tried to make a coup — but two hours later turned sour and gave up. In the 1982 general election defeated the Socialist Party of Felipe Gonzalez. Country as if back in 1936 — but the inside and outside everything was different.
The Spaniards considered the Franco era is not the worst time in the history of Spain. Especially in light of the constantly proshodyaschego in prslednie desyatidetiya purchased and ongoing socio-economic crises and disasters. Name of the generalissimo in Spain are not erased.