Geography Iranian forces

Geography Iranian forcesFor the writing of this article used excerpts from the latest book by Robert Kaplan, "The Revenge of Geography: What card says to us about future conflicts and the Battle Against Fate", which was released on September 11, a number of other sources.

Most people know almost nothing about Iran other than what the media say about him. And the liberal media is biased on many issues (if not all) because show a very one-sided picture.

More basic facts about Iran go unnoticed because they are so manifest beforehand. Even the high-spirited look at the map utter us what they are. These facts explain how Tehran could significantly change the geopolitics of the Mediterranean to the Indian subcontinent and beyond.

Virtually all of the Middle East oil and natural gas lies either in the Gulf or the Caspian Sea region. As the trajectory of oil tankers from the Persian Gulf crawl and crawl pipelines from the Caspian region to the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, China and the Indian Ocean. The only country that is surrounded by both energy-producing regions — Iran, stretching from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf. In a sense, Iran is the universal unifier of the Near East.

The Persian Gulf has for some 55% of the estimated global reserves of crude oil, and Iran dominates the Gulf, from the Shatt al-Arab on the Iraqi border to the Strait of Hormuz in over 990 kilometers (615 nautical miles). Because of their own bays, inlets, islands and shelters (beautiful places of refuge for high-speed suicide boats) Iranian coastline inside the Strait of Hormuz — is perfect place for defense. Its length is 1,356 nautical miles from the United Arab Emirates of 733 miles. Iran also has 480 km of the coast of the Arabian Sea, including the port of Chabahar near the Pakistani border. This makes Iran important principle for access warm waters of the Indian Ocean to the Central Asian countries of the former Russian Union. At the same time the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea in the far north, mountains covered with forest complex, stretches about 650 km from Astara in the west (on the border of the former Russian Azerbaijan) around Bandar-e Torkaman in the east to the border of Turkmenistan's natural gas supply.

Look at the relief map shows something else. Broad base of the Zagros mountains passes through Iran from Anatolia to the north-west to Balochistan in the south-east. To the west of the Zagros mountains all the way to Iraq opened. When the English geographer and travel writer Freya Stark studied Lorestan in Iran's Zagros Mountains of first-1930s, she naturally began the journey from Baghdad, not Tehran. To the east and north-east of the open road to Khurasan, Kara Kum (Black Sand) and Kizil Kum (Reddish Sand) — the desert of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, respectively. As well as providing energy encircled Iran Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea, he girded Middle East and Central Asia. No other Arab country can not declare itself (as well as non-Arab country located between 2-energoprodutsiruyuschih zones). In fact the Tatar invasion of Iran, which destroyed hundreds of thousands of people and destroyed an irrigation system existed, it was such a serious specifically due to the release of Iran to Central Asia.

Iranian influence in the former Russian republics of the Caucasus and Central Asia, potentially large. At the same time, as in Azerbaijan in the north-western border of Iran is home to around 8 million Azerbaijani Turks, they are twice as many in the adjacent provinces of Iranian Azerbaijan and Tehran. Azeris are the co-founders of the first Iranian politics since the spread of Islam in the seventh century. First Shiite Iran Khan (Ismail in 1501) was an Azeri Turk. In Iran, many of the principal of the Azerbaijani entrepreneurs and ayatollahs, including most of the current Supreme Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. On this basis, the Iranian influence in the west (including Turkey and the Arab world) is not represented in the media, and its impact on the north and east are also deeply, and in the future will deepen Iran's influence, coupled with the growth of the cultural and political contacts.

Also there is the fact that the English historian Michael Aksvort called the "Idea of Iran", which, in his opinion, was also in culture and language, as in the race and terrain. He believed that Iran is the attractor of civilization as ancient Greece and China, drawing other nations and languages in their linguistic orbit: in other words, it is the very essence of myagenkoy force. Grant, Tajik, Urdu, Pashto, Hindi, Bengali and Iraqi Arabic versions are either Persian or under its significant impact. Therefore it is possible to travel from Baghdad in Iraq to Dhaka in Bangladesh and stay inside the Persian cultural area.

Moreover, Iran is not some invention of the 20th century with the introduction of the family and religious ideology as Saudi Arabia, the Saudi government has designated the arbitration boundaries. Iran almost completely corresponds to the Iranian plateau ("Castile Near East", referred to him as the Princeton historian Peter Brown), even if the dynamism of its civilization is already out far beyond it. The Persian Empire, even in the days when she was besieging Greece "is deployed as the dragon's tail … stretches across the Oxus, Afghanistan and the Indian Valley," says Brown. Barthold, dignified Russian geographer of the early 20th century, agrees, describing stately Iran between the Euphrates and Indus, and identifying the Kurds and Afghans as part of the Iranian people.

Of old peoples Near East only Jews and Iranians "have the texts and cultural tradition that has survived to this day," writes linguist Nicholas Ostler. Persian (Farsi) was replaced by Arabic and many other languages, and it has the same form as in the 11th century, even if adopted Arabic writing. Iran has an even more venerable history as a country and a city civilization than most places in the Arab world (and the world in general), and of all of the places in the "fertile crescent", including Mesopotamia and Palestine. Therefore it is not surprisingly that Iran has several competing centers inside its own form of clerical rule, which indicates the highest level of institutionalization, greater than is actually in the whole region, including Israel, Egypt and Turkey.

Lofty Iran began its history in the year 700 of our era with the Medes, the ancient Iranian people, who established by the Scythians beyond the government in the north-western Iran. By the year 600 before our era empire stretched from central Anatolia to the Hindu Kush (from Turkey to Afghanistan), and south to the Persian Gulf. In the year 549 before our era, Cyrus Lofty, Prince of Persia home Ahaemenesov, captured the capital Median Ekatabanu (Hamadan) in western Iran and went to make further gains.

Map Ahaemenidov empire ruled from Persepolis (near Shiraz) in southern Iran, indicates ancient Persia at its apex, the sixth to the fourth century before our era. It stretched from Thrace and Macedonia in the north-west and from Libya and Egypt to the southwest, to the Punjab in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Caspian and Aral Seas in the north to the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea in the south. No empire in history until then could not compete with her. Persia was the first superpower of the world and the Iranian favorites in our era (and the late shah, and of Ayatollah) absorbed the story in their bones. Despite the pan-Islamism, the ruling elite is partly drawn to Iranian nationalism.

The Parthians have shown the best of the
Iranian genius — is tolerance for all cultures, they ruled that allowed them to produce Myagenko suzerainty. By placing their capital in the northeastern region of Khorasan, Iran and the adjacent Kara Kum and Iranian languages, the Parthians ruled between the third century before our era, and the third century of our era, in the main from Syria and Iraq in central Afghanistan and Pakistan, including Armenia and Turkmenistan. So Makar, not only within the boundaries of the Bosphorus to the Nile or from the Nile to the Oxus, as Ahaemenidskaya Persia, the Parthian Empire is closer to reality the vision of Greater Iran for the 21st century.

The Parthian Empire was very decentralized, represented more of a zone of impact than direct control, which significantly to display the art, architecture, and administrative practices acquired from the Greeks. As to what is now Iran is not a secret that the clerical form of government is a very impressive and sustainable, despite the significant demographic, economic and political dynamics of Iran.

Medieval records cartographic and linguistic traces of the old, and more than even the narrow way. In the eighth century the political locus of the Arab world has shifted eastward from Syria to Mesopotamia (from the Abbasids to the Umayyad caliphs), indicating, in turn, the growth of Iran. The second caliph, Omar ibn al-Khattab, in whose kingdom Islamic Army captured Sassanid Empire, adopted the Persian administration system, called "Divan".

The Abbasid Caliphate in its zenith in the middle of the ninth century, the rules of Tunisia in the east to Pakistan, and from the Caucasus and Central Asia to the Persian Gulf. Its capital was the new city of Baghdad, close to an old Sassanian Persian capital of Ctesiphon, Persian and bureaucratic practices that have added whole strata of the hierarchy, have surrounded this latest empire. The Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad has become a huge symbol of Iranian despotism than the Arab sheiks.

Some historians refer to the Abbasid Caliphate "cultural Reconquista" Near East by the Persians under the guise of Arab rulers. The Abbasids also succumbed to the Persian influence as the Umayyad, who lived closer to Asia Minor, succumbed to the Byzantine. "Persian titles, Persian wines and his wife, Lady Persian, Persian songs, as well as Persian ideas and thoughts have won," writes historian Philip K. Hitti. "In the Western imagination," says Peter Brown, "Islamic (Abbasid) is the quintessential eastern empire of power. Islam has this important orientation is not Muhammad or adaptive conquerors of the seventh century, and the revival of bulky eastern Persian tradition in the eighth and ninth centuries. "

As for the Shiites, is a fundamental component of the Iranian cultural dynamism. While the arrival of the Mahdi in the form nestled Twelfth Imam means the end of injustice, and it serves a constructive stimulus activity, rest in Shi'ism is not enough clergy declining to an open political role, even considered the Shia branch of Islam, meek, obedient to the authorities, and developed under the strong influence of Sufism.

As an example of the former favorite of Iraqi clerics, Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani (an Iranian in origin), which is exclusively made in the critical moments of political judgment and advice from behind the scenes.

French scholar Olivier Roy says to us that historically the Shia Arab phenomenon that later came to Iran, but with the passage of time has led to the establishment of the spiritual hierarchy. Shiism has increased due to a strong tradition and bureaucratic countries that Iran was in antiquity, relatively similar structures in the Arab world, and it's kind of a gift of the spatial coherence of the Iranian plateau.

Shia Safavids brought to Iran in the 16th century. Their title comes from a militant Sufi order, Safaviyeh, which initially was a Sunni. Safavids were one of the huge number of horse fraternities mixed Turkic, Azerbaijani, Georgian and Persian origin in the late 15th century that captured the plateau between the Black and Caspian seas, where the Eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus and north-western Iran converge together. To build a measured on the Iranian plateau government, speaking in Farsi, the new owners are very eclectic on linguistic and geographical origin, was twelfth Shiism as the state religion, which is waiting for the return of the Twelfth Imam, a direct descendant of Mohammed, who was killed, and fell into a lethargic sleep.

Safavid Empire at its zenith stretched from Anatolia and Syria-Mesapotamii to central Afghanistan and Pakistan — another option anymore Iran in history. Shiite Iranian agent acted emergence as a modern state of the country, although Iranization non-Persian Shia and Sunni minorities throughout the 16th century also assist in this process. Iran was the majestic state and the people, from antiquity, but specifically Safavids his intervention and introduction of Shi'ism in the Iranian plateau of Iran prepared to modernity.

Indeed, the revolutionary Iran late 20 th and early 21 th century is a fitting expression of this strong and unique heritage. "Persia — the land of poets and roses!", So begins the accession of James Moriera books "The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan."

But the comparison, as you know, is the beginning of at least some serious research. And in comparison with the upheavals and revolutions in the Arab world during the initial and middle phases of the Cool War, which appeared as a result of the Iranian Revolution of 1978-79's new order was superbly innovative and modern.

The truth is (and this is directly from Ahaemenidov antiquity) that the Iranian past and present are all very superior properties, whether the dynamism of his empire from Cyrus majestically to Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (who can refute his obvious Iranian talent to support military networks in Lebanon, Gaza and Iraq, which is an essential nuance of imperial rule!), or political thought and the work of his Shiite clergy or mount effective bureaucracy and security services.

Tehran revolutionary order consists of highly governmental structure to the diffusion of power centers, it is not rough sole state of bandits such as the one that produced Saddam Hussein in the adjacent Arab Iraq.

Again the same, which makes the clerical regime in Iran as effective in the pursuit of their own interests, from Lebanon to Afghanistan, it is his unity with the Iranian government, which is the product of history and geography.

"Green Movement", which was intended for anti-government demonstrations after the 2009 elections, very muddy and contradictory standards for the region, and this is another demonstration of the Iranian genius. "Green" is "democratic" movement, who have mastered all the new technologies of communication (Twitter, Facebook, SMS), to augment its own organizational weight and adopt a mix of nationalism and western moral values to promote their own business.

But the Iranian government has driven sophisticated "green" underground. In fact, Iran's "tyrannical" government was even more surgical and Myagenko to neutralize the "green" than the adjacent "democratic" regimes in Saudi Arabia, Oman and Bahrain, which are often just use of force and oppression executions of dissidents.

Iran, because of the strong and vibrant country ideology can affect the entire Middle East, providing a political voice for the overwhelming majority of Persian, Turkish, Kurdish, Azeri and Arab population, with a variety of movements both Shiite and Sunni.

Read in terms of the fate is not safe, as it involves taking rock and determinism, but given Iran's geography, history, and human capital, the entire Middle East and Eurasia as a whole, even under critical influence Iranian policy.

According to the vision of government and Ir
an has the highest purpose, and it is prepared to fulfill it. Iran's geography, as previously mentioned, gives access to Central Asia, as in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. And the disintegration of the Russian Union gave Iran a definite plus when you take into account the history of Greater Iran in the region.

Sam suffix "Istan" used in the Central and South Asian countries (which means "place"), a Persian. Channels for Islamization and civilization in Central Asia have been Persian language and culture. Used intellectuals and other elites in Central Asia right up to the beginning of the 20th century there were different forms of Persian. But after the 1991 Shiite Azerbaijan to the northwest adopted the Latin alphabet and turned to Turkey for care. As for the republics to the north-east of Iran, Uzbekistan Sunni aimed more at a nationalist, not Islamist base, for fear of their own homegrown fundamentalists — which makes it apprehensive of Iran.

Tajikistan, a Sunni, but saying in Persian, finds the patronage of Iran, but Iran is limited horror receive new enemies in the middle of many Turkish-speaking Muslims in Central Asia. In addition, as nomadic or semi-nomadic inhabitants of Central Asia are sincere Muslims occasionally, and 70 years of communism have only strengthened their secularist tendencies.

Naturally, there is also a positive development from the standpoint of Tehran. Iran, as evidenced by its nuclear program that is one of the most technologically advanced countries of Near East (in totality with its culture and politics.) And as he was building a huge amount of hydroelectric power, road and railways in these Central Asian countries, then one day it will attach them all to discover — either directly or through Afghanistan.

Moreover, gas pipelines now connect the south-eastern Turkmenistan to the north-eastern Iran, bringing Turkmen gas to Iran's Caspian region, which releases its prey in the southern Iranian gas exports to Iran through the Persian Gulf (these two countries also connects the steel road built in the 1990s). Turkmenistan has the fourth-largest supplies of natural gas and is tied to their exports to Iran, China and Russia.

Hence, it is possible the creation of the Eurasian energy axis, the combined major in geography three continental forces opposed to Western democracy. Iran and Kazakhstan have built a pipeline connecting the two countries, and Kazakh oil is pumped to the north of Iran, while an equivalent amount of oil exported from the south of Iran across the Persian Gulf. Kazakhstan and Iran will also soon will be joined by the railroad, providing direct access to Kazakhstan Strait. Steel road must also connect the mountainous Tajikistan and Iran through Afghanistan. Iran builds the shortest routes for all of these resource-rich countries, so that they can have access to the international market.

Now imagine for themselves, as in the case of an invasion of western Iran coalition cuts pipelines in Central Asia, in conjunction with their "younger countries," creating something like a guerrilla empire in the Middle East. Given the prestige enjoyed by Shiite Iran in particular sectors of Sunni Arab world, not to mention the Shi'ite south Lebanon and Shiite Iraq (because of irreconcilable support the Palestinian cause and its inherent anti-Semitism), at least in Central Asia, its influence is weaker, but the ability to Iranians get mass support outside their own borders is very high.

As for the former Russian republics, they maintain diplomatic affairs with Israel and did not have sufficient hatred for him, as it is everywhere vserasprostraneno in the Arab world. But Iran has great linguistic and cosmopolitan appeal, acquired in over their own stories in a cultural sense.

For example, in Ashgabat, capital of Turkmenistan, Tehran and Mashad have always been perceived as a cosmopolitan center of trade and pilgrimage, in contrast with his Turkmen and sparsely populated landscape of wandering. Iranian influence widely, in all its cultural glory, and in recent years, thanks to the active anti-American policy, it has only increased. Americans many Arab countries rightly perceived as invaders and imperialists to blame for the death of millions of Muslims. And Iran is one of the few states that do not be afraid to have its position in international politics, even if it is contrary to the wishes of decrepit imperial global hegemony. Iran, because of the geographical advantage of its own country, has the ability to inspire the hundreds of millions of Muslims in the Arab world and Central Asia.

With its rich culture, vast territory and abundant and sprawling campuses, Iran, like China and India, a civilization in itself, whose future in almost all will be determined by domestic politics and the state of society. As Ahaemenidy, Sassanid, Safavids and other Iranian empires of the past, good or really inspiring in the moral and cultural sense, the current Iranian empire ruled by the mind of poets and scientists intensively developing the science and serves a peninsula in the ocean of truth neo-liberal heresy.

And the main factor in the fate of Iran is Iraq. Iraq, history and geography is intertwined with that of Iranian politics as much as with any other state. Shiite Imam Ali shine (cousin of the Prophet and his adopted son) in An Najaf and Imam Hussein (grandson of the Prophet) in Karbala, both in southern Iraq, Shiite theological societies have created that look similar to the Iranian Cuomo. When a South American influence in Iraq will inevitably fall (which is already happening) inconstancy in Iraq left the conquerors would be suitable ground for the gradual profound influence Iranian policy on Iraq's holy town.

In a broader sense, free Iran can serve as an attractor with which Iraqi insurgents are in the near future to get an advantage. When the Iranians will become more deeply involved in Iraq policy, the very closeness of 2-people with longish common boundary may work for the overthrow of the US-backed puppet government (which, in general, in almost everything and wants to free itself from the nanny USA). No wonder the Arab world wide distribution received the phrase "ugly Americans." Using this, Iran today is heavily influenced by Iraqi politics through ethnically Arab Shia community.

Iran not only uses the Iraqi Shia against Sunni party, which was calculated by the Americans, trying to push the representatives of different faiths. The Iranians are intensively promote constructive ideas of Islamic universalism to which Iran is committed to pan-Sunni world, making it cute and outside the Shiite community.

And despite the ineffective economic sanctions, the Iranian economy continues in much of the work normally because the wisest Iranian control long years painstakingly created autarky, achieving what is now Iran itself provides everything needed its economy by 96%, almost without depending on outdoor exposure.

The South American invasion of Iraq in 2003, as long-standing occupation, which was spent trillions of dollars, and as a result of which destroyed over half a million lives ruined in the war in the end will be without result. Americans practically cleaned their hands made them as anti-Iranian regime of Saddam Hussein, it created the conditions for the growth of Iranian influence in the region. Geography determines almost inevitable Iranian colonization of Iraq policy.

Americans, and echoing those liberal media, krivodushno called on Iran to "tyranny", with all this, not noticing the real tyranny that reigns in the middle of their allies in Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE and Bahrain. For some reason legitimately elected President Ahmadinejad "illegitimate," and the hereditary rulers and sheikhs of the monarchies of the Arabian peninsula (which in general no one ever picked) — "democratic." The hypocrisy of the U.S. State Department knows no bounds.

Americans are planning to open the te
xt, that "given the huge Kurdish, Azeri, Turkmen and other minorities in the north and elsewhere, Iran will also have the least centralized state, with ethnic peripheries, drifting from the orbit of Tehran." In other words, in their own official documents they intend to interfere in the internal affairs of a sovereign country, violating the UN Getting tired of all this (they do not get used, they constantly do), strongly reinforcing the separatist sentiment in the country. And this is called "liberation from the tyranny of Iran."

The ruling regime the U.S. has "liberated" several States, plunging them into chaos and destruction, the killing and terrorism. List of countries with which the "democratic" United States invaded in the last 70 years, tens. Meanwhile, the Islamic Republic of Iran after the overthrow of the Shah at no one attacked. On the contrary, it was attacked in 1980 by a South American protégé of Saddam Hussein (which they also later hanged).

So at the moment the United States is planning to management that Arabic world, the actual ruined countless invasions, will be shipped in internal conflicts, and will no longer show independence and anger at Israel. And Iran is the last obstacle to the implementation of the plan.

Preparing public opinion for a possible U.S. aggression against Iran, we are trying to show that Iranians — it's a bunch of dirty bearded fanatics, leading a wandering life style. In fact, Iran (Media, Parthia, Persia) — It is an ancient civilization, its greatness is not inferior to ancient Greece and significantly superior to Old Egypt.

Iran has always been not the state government and the multinational empire. Empire in the best comprehension of the word — the state, which has always found a method of peaceful coexistence of different ethnic groups and cultures. Its actual size was always larger than officially shown on the maps. North-west of modern Iran consists of Kurdish and Azeri Turks, the western part of Afghanistan and Tajikistan, culturally and linguistically close to the Iranian state. Iran — it is always more than just a place on the map.

Ayatollahs are not gloomy obscurantist, what they Renders (faster it can be said of the Pope, who only 30 years ago, acknowledged that the Earth is round), and intensively promote science and technology. The Supreme Ayatollah Ali Khamenei personally oversees the development of a descent of several branches of science — not only promising nuclear power, and the search for pharmaceuticals against cancer (in which Iranians have gained significant success), and even experiments in cloning and the use of stem cells.

The whole life of modern Iran was based on profound moral principles. And these moral framework not only declared, as in most "Christian" countries (as verbally "love your neighbor", but in fact, the "dog eat dog"), and really put in the base of all sectors of life, including this translates into features of the economy and banking.

For example, Islamic banking does not use interest loan. By the way, the Christian canon is also a long time, it was forbidden, as is trade time, and time belongs to God. But Christians have succumbed to the golden calf and canceled their own bans, and the Muslims have remained true to their own teaching.

Islamic banking is based on trust. And the word conscientious banker is more important than complex contract and legal technicalities. For us it was too, but "porasteryalos" in the process of liberalization.

The system of government ayatollahs reasonable painstakingly obmyslena and morally. Maybe this moral and different from the "Western values", but it is only to the best — it's too many of these nasties stuck to Western values.

Ayatollah correspond to the highest rank of his own moral authority. For their unimaginable scandals, such as those that occur constantly with the Orthodox Patriarch Kirill. Neither expensive watches nor limousine or luxury apartments, no more so blatant heresy, you will not see. And, of course, there is no hard-core type clowns Vsevolod Chaplin.

No, the ayatollahs are not perfect. Over the past thirteen years has been recognized in cases when any of the Ayatollahs "suddenly" found either unaccounted apartment in a prestigious area, either due to a Western bank, or the child received a grant to study at Oxford. But they all have either been excluded from the ayatollahs in disgrace, or in general with them "suddenly" unfortunate incidents occurred.

The moral authority (and specifically on it, and not on the strength of guns or money based power ayatollahs) are very difficult to capture, and it is not difficult to lose. And they cherish it, and cherish it in every way and comply. Against the backdrop of the Western (and, of that there is no secret, our) licentiousness and lawlessness it is a special honor.

In the framework of the municipal unit of Iran put the doctrine of "Wilayat al-faqih" — "protection of fair (Good)" until the Mahdi will appear. And for decades, it is imperative to observe, and the Supreme Ayatollah necessarily correspond to his own career.

Moreover, the Supreme Ayatollah is the chief executive of the country, but only evaluates actions to choose the president, as they correspond to the Quran and the teachings of the Twelfth Imam. Conceptual power — is the sort of thing that is hard to call tyranny. And for some reason the pope no one calls for the undemocratic nature of the bomb, although his regime is based almost similar in all the same way. Just Iranians — it's a different culture with its own values, and the West in all the monasteries climbs with his (very simple) charter.

And in Iran, colorful nature, rich mineral resources, florid speech, distinctive architecture and unique poetry, rich and old culture and are very lovely people. And, if you recall the Indo-Iranian migration of peoples, it turns out that our forefathers also one of those places. Things are always harder than they look, and what they show on the news, and Iran is no exception — faster, he is even more difficult than I wrote.

East is a delicate matter, and there is a narrow country in the east than Persia /Iran. And sample the Yankees and their allies invade another monastery with its charter, imposing its will and conditions are doomed to failure because they do not know and do not understand Iran.

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