William Forstshen (R. Forstchen) is a professor of history and faculty member of the college in Monreate (Montreat), North Carolina. He received his Ph.D. from Purdue University (Purdue) with specialization in "Military History of the American Civil War and the history of technology."
Some time ago, his book "One second after" has been presented in Congress and before the House Armed Forces, Congressman Roscoe Bartlett (R.-MD). Chairman of the House Committee instructed to evaluate the threat of an electromagnetic pulse weapon (EMP), as well as to give a realistic picture of the potential damage in case of EMP for the continental United States.
Although the United States can improve prevention, protection and recovery in the face of EMP attack at levels below those that would have catastrophic consequences for the nation, EMP attack would still cause significant violations, even under the best of circumstances. Many citizens remain without electricity, communications and other services, for a few days and to full recovery may require considerably more time. This time period will be crucial to ensure a reliable channel of information to all citizens, to let them know what happened, what is the current situation where help will come, and what type, what their government, as well as to respond to your questions, because if no answer, then the situation can become even more unstable and cause more suffering of affected individuals, communities and the nation as a whole.
EMP and its effects have been observed in the United States and the Soviet Union during atmospheric testing programs in 1962. Figure 1 shows the flash of a nuclear explosion, is not intended to generate EMP-at an altitude of about 400 kilometers above Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean. Some of the electronic and electrical systems in the Hawaiian Islands, 1400 kilometers have been affected, resulting in a failure occurred in street lighting, electrical system, tripping breakers, tripping the alarm, and damage to the relay in the telecommunications facilities.
During that test, the Soviet Union carried out a series of nuclear explosions, in which they used the weapons capacity of 300 kilotons, about 300, 150 and 60 kilometers on the ground in South and Central Asia. They report that during each explosion, they observed damage to overhead and underground cables at a distance of 600 kilometers. They also noted discharges, fire, sparks, the breakdown of equipment in this period, and the failure of burning fuse failure in power supply systems.
What is important to know about EMP attack is the fact that one or more high-altitude nuclear explosions can lead to EMP-effects that could potentially disrupt or damage electronic and electrical systems in most parts of the United States, almost at the same time, just at the moment when determined opponent.
Gamma rays from a high-altitude nuclear explosion interact with the atmosphere and produce a unique radio frequency, spatially varying intensity, which cover all within sight of the central point of the explosion.
The first component (E1) is a free field pulse energy increases with time, and which is measured in the range of one-billionth of a second to several seconds ppb. This is the "electromagnetic shock" that violates or damages based electronic control systems, sensors, communications systems, defense systems, computers and the like. Their damage or functional disturbance occurs mostly at the same time a very large area, as shown in the figure below.
Average time component covers roughly the same geographical area as the first component and is similar to lightning, depending on the time, but much more widely distributed geographically and has a lower amplitude. In general, this item is not a critical issue for critical infrastructure systems, as they have the systems of protection from random lightning strikes. The most significant risk is the synergies, because the E2 component should be a fraction of a second after hitting the first component that is capable of damaging or destroying many of the protection and control functions. The energy associated with the second component can thus gain access to the system and damage it.
The final major component of the EMP is the subsequent, slower growing, and a longer pulse that creates a destructive currents in long transmission lines, resulting in damaging the transmission and distribution of electricity associated with these lines (Fig. 3). Sequence E1, E2, E3, and then the components EMP important, because each of them can cause damage, and then damage may increase as a result of early lesions. In the example shown in Figures 2 and 3, about 70% of the total electrical capacity of the United States fall within the scope of EMP event.
Illustrative effects of EMP — Slow Pulse protection and restoration of civilian infrastructure (Figure 3)
Professor of History William P. Forstshten discusses possible damage exerted by electromagnetic radiation — an event (electromagnetic pulse), and how can we prepare for such circumstances. In fact, there are two options for creating EMP-events, the military or the sun, he said. Nuclear weapons continue to spread. In countries such as Iran and North Korea are currently ongoing work to create it, and it means that the probability increases that will be implemented altitude, a distance of about 250 km above the Earth's atmosphere, the explosion that would cause electrostatic discharge, hit the surface Earth, will overload the power supply and lead to a malfunction of them, Forstshen details. Soviet EMP tests conducted in 1962, and the power plant at a distance of 500 miles from the center of the explosion lit up because of EMP overload that permeates the transmission line, he leads an example.
Just a few days ago, we were struck by the largest solar storm in the past five years, NASA and NOAA are predicting a significant increase in the cycle of solar storms in the next 18 months, said Forstshen. Sufficiently large coronal mass ejection (CME) from the sun can create a global, all-encompassing EMP events, especially in the northern and southern latitudes. "Event Karingtona" 1859 has affected telegraph lines, and the "output energy was so strong that the sleepers were exploding in flames," he said. Forstshen appeared before Congress for the adoption of measures to protect America's networks, such as have been put forward by Congressman Roscoe Bartlett.
Electromagnetic Pulse EMP (EMR for short) is a surge of electromagnetic radiation. Sharp pulse of electromagnetic radiation usually results from certain types of high energy explosions, especially a nuclear explosion, or unexpected fluctuations in the magnetic field. As a result of the rapidly changing electric and magnetic fields in conjunction with electrical / electronic systems may experience destructive currents and voltage, and power surges.
Mechanism EMP blast at 400 km: gamma rays enter the atmosphere between 20-40 km height, releasing electrons which are then deflected away from the Earth magnetic field. This makes the electron emission EMP covering large areas. Because of the curvature and inclination of the magnetic field of the Earth down to the location of the United States, the maximum EMP strike falls on the south of the detonation and the minimum — to the north.
In military terms, the explosion of a nuclear warhead within a hundred kilometers above the Earth's surface is known as a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse device (HEMP). Impact HEMP depends on a large number of factors, including the height of detonation energy output, the output gamma ray interaction with the earth's magnetic field and electromagnetic shielding purposes.
"Readiness" refers to the state to be prepared for specific or unpredictable events or situations. "Readiness" is an important quality in achieving goals and in the prevention and mitigation of adverse effects. It is one of the main stages of emergencies, and is especially prized in areas based on competition, such as sports and military science.
Training methods include research, evaluation, planning, resource allocation, education, practice and training.
Survival (Survivalism) — the movement of individuals or groups (the so-called "survivalist» — «survivalists» or «preppers»), who are actively preparing for emergencies and possible disruptions in social or political purposes, on a scale from local to international . "Survivalist" is often able to provide emergency medical care and trained to self-defense, have food and water supplies, self-sufficient and create structures that will help them to survive or "disappear" (eg, an underground shelter).
The alleged violations include: Clusters of natural disasters, the apocalyptic model of planetary crisis, or Earth Changes (tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, snow storms, solar storms, severe thunderstorms). Disaster caused by human activity (chemical spills, release of radioactive materials, nuclear or conventional war, oppressive government). General breakdown of society caused by the lack or absence of resources such as electricity, fuel, food, or water. Financial disruption or economic collapse (caused by monetary manipulation, hyperinflation, deflation, or depression). Global pandemic. Wide chaos or other unexplained apocalyptic event.