Military — Strategy advocates of nuclear terror — perhaps disappointed that World is over so quickly. Indeed, nowhere else in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, to conduct large-scale trials failed. In the case of Third World nuclear forces are not trained to operate in a new environment, could easily lose this war. Therefore, it was necessary at all costs to ensure the test with real people. But how to do in peacetime?
Tactic requires sacrifice
There was only one answer — to organize major exercises with the use of nuclear weapons. The United States has about two dozen trials in the military, and only two — the Soviet Union. But these Soviet tests are still portrayed as atrocities of the communist regime.
Say, in the Soviet Union soldiers' lives were worthless, that they and thrown into the atomic furnace. "September 14, 1954 [Soviet] state over its citizens held a monstrous experiment, no equal in world history — a test of atomic weapons on his own people — in the heart of the densely populated area of the Orenburg region" — with these words came out in 1999 a collection of the party " apple. " "How many people died, no one said" — echoes magazine Newsweek Polska article "follies of Soviet scientists knew no bounds …"
But is it really?
During the existence of the Soviet Union in the country took place twice, atomic testing with troops in the area of the explosion — because the probability of nuclear war at the time was viewed as very real. Army was able to act in such circumstances. September 14, 1954 was held Totskoye military exercises, where the attacking side practiced breakthrough Rifle Corps trained tactical defense with atomic weapons, and the defenders were trained in the organization and conduct of the defense in the same conditions.
Contrary to stereotypes, the command was not going to ruin his subordinates. To protect against the damaging factors of nuclear explosion the entire personnel of the troops involved in the exercise, was issued clothing: cotton overalls and caps, underwear soaked in a special solution, gas masks and protective stockings, shoe covers and gloves. To conduct decontamination and decontamination troops had the required number of decontamination kits. In the pocket of the overalls lay black, sealed capsule dosimeter drive with a unique number by which it was possible to find out who it belonged to, if you happen irreparable.
Generally, documents about the exercises indicate that the measures exclude the impact of security factors affecting the explosion on personnel above approved limits. For example, the rules allowed contamination of personnel and equipment have been reduced by several times as compared to the standards defined 'Manual on the anti-nuclear force protection. "
This came to fruition — the results of the last survey radiological Totsky landfill indicate that the radiation situation on the territory characterized by the parameters of the natural background radiation. Cancer mortality in the area is not higher than in the Russian Federation and the European countries.
Two years later, on 10 September 1956, at the Semipalatinsk test site took one more exercise, which simulated the situation of tactical air assault after nuclear attack in order to keep the affected area until the arrival of the explosion the attacking forces. The main purpose of the training was to determine the time after which you can airborne landings near the epicenter of the explosion, as well as the calculation of the distance from the lowest point of his landing.
Directly to the area of the epicenter parachuted second Parachute Battalion 345th Regiment, encompassing what is world famous thanks to Fyodor Bondarchuk Ninth Company. For delivery of troops in the landing area was brought Regiment of Mi-4 of 27 military vehicles, and officers dosimetrists accompanying paratroopers had the right to ban land in an area where the background radiation exceeds the maximum allowable safe for humans.
After 43 minutes after the explosion of a nuclear bomb landing was thrown, even after 17 minutes division reached the line and fought off a counter-conventional enemy. Two hours after the explosion, the equipment and personnel were taken for cleansing and decontamination. Data on injuries were reported.
Thus, both times exercises were conducted with maximum precautions.
Of course, it was impossible to foresee. Of the local population near Totskoye defied the order to take refuge in the basement and watched the blast from the rooftops. Individual soldiers against orders saved, not cull form.
But all the more vivid contrast between Soviet scientists and scientists of Western, where, despite the high-profile prosecution of the Soviet Union in inhuman experiments, the mass of its soldiers herded into a radioactive tomb.
The United States has begun to examine the effects of radiation on living organisms much earlier USSR. July 23, 1946 in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll (which gave its name to the famous swimsuit — that was first presented to the public four days after a sensational explosion) under water to a depth of 27 meters was made nuclear explosion capacity of 21 kilotons. Two hours later, after testing the combined team of marine and infantry entered the lagoon and explored the destruction and radiation levels in the empty test ships. In these studies, many military men highly exposed to radioactive water that has fallen on the deck and the interior of the target vessels.
March 1, 1954 an explosion in the same region, brought the first casualties: 64 residents of the Marshall Islands (Rongerik atolls, Rongelap, and Aylingiae Utirik) received a dose of 175 X-ray irradiation (at the maximum permissible dose of 5 x-rays per year), and the crew of the Japanese vessel "Fifth Happy Dragon "(" fukuro Maru number 5 ") of the 23 300 people received a dose x-rays.
Testing in Nevada
November 1, 1951 at the Nevada Test Site held military exercises in which the combined team (consisting of the 188 th Airborne, 127th Engineering and 546th Artillery Battalions) maneuver at a location to the epicenter of the explosion site. After that, a special technique evaluates the behavior of officers and soldiers, which influenced factors affecting the explosion, and their response to orders. Behavioral and psychological characteristics of military personnel following exposure to the injurious effects of a nuclear explosion were studied there, and four days later, after the air nuclear explosion capacity of 31 kilotons.
February 8, 1955 in the same range air nuclear explosion capacity of 1 kiloton ruined trenches, which hid the infantry, and the soldiers had to get out from under the debris itself. Two years later, August 31, 1957, nuclear explosion capacity of 44 kilotons saw thousands of troops units stationed at 29 kilometers from the epicenter. Two days later (September 2, 1957), most of them participated in the maneuvers carried out in five kilometers from the place of another explosion. A day later, all these soldiers were involved in the exercise, as close to combat conditions, as well as dismantling and transportation of contaminated equipment.
And on newsreel footage and photographs from the tests can be seen: American soldiers marching briskly near the epicenter, are not equipped with special suit protection. Not only that, they do not even have gas masks! So it is easy to conclude, what state over its citizens held a monstrous experiment, no equal in the history of the world …