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Vikings and Ancient Russia

Varangian question in the context of a strictly scientific vocation Vikings.
"Varangian-Russian question", "Varangian question", "Norman problem", "Norman theory" — all these words describe one of the sharp-prolemicheskih nodes Russian historical memory. We have already referred to this subject, and have seen that often falsely understood the imperative of patriotism makes people stand in the public space of the dispute, which lasts for a couple of centuries of science. And the further he goes, the more it is clear that the imposition of a dispute over the scope of science leads to unacceptable vulgarization and distorts reality.

Normannisty antinormannisty and — as an argument?

Who are "normannisty", "antinormannisty", "neonormannisty" and "neoantinormannisty"? The dispute arose in the XVIII century in the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, were invited for academics GZ-Germans Bayer, GF Miller and A. Schletzer, a Varangian question at all stages of its existence was suddenly associated with burning political and national issues. MA Alpatov Norman describes the emergence of the theory: "Shadows of two compatriots — Rurik and Charles XII — hovered over those whose eyes born on this issue. Poltava Victory crushed ambitions Swedish conquerors time of Charles XII, Norman theory, erected Russian statehood to Rurik, to strike at the national ambitions of the Russian with the historical wing. It was an ideological revenge for Poltava. Covered with the dust of centuries old tale about Varangian found new life, became acutely modern storyline. […]

Varangian question, therefore, was not born in Kiev in the chronicles of times, and in St. Petersburg in the XVIII century.

It has emerged as anti-Russian phenomenon, and did not occur in the field of science and policy. The man who produced the first "shot" in this battle was Bayer. " But Alpatov unnecessarily politicizes and also distorts the picture. In the writings of German academics actually seen a genuine academic attitude to ancient Russian history, based on a study of sources. But, as it is clearly stated he Alpatov "main written source to which the whole of medieval history of Russia -" Chronicle "- decide positively — Varangian Prince Rurik certified as the creator of the Russian state, and for centuries — up Tatishchev to — it was considered an oracle. "

Much has been made attempts to present the whole picture of this scientific struggle, but certainly is the best so faroverview V.A.Moshina, published in 1931 in the Journal of the Prague «Slavia». Moshin writes that the representatives of the first areas converge on the issue of Scandinavian origin of Russ, but disagree:

1. In the matter of the ancient homeland of "Russia":

  • a) Most Normanists recognize the true chronicle tradition and looking home designed to Russia in the Swedish coastal upland areas;
  • b) others believe that Russia — Norman tribe that long before the 860-year moved to the southern shore of Lake Ladoga, and hence was called out by Slavs;
  • c) a third adjacent to the second, but the place of the original settlement of the Normans in Eastern Europe believe banks of the Neman and Western Dvina
  • d) The fourth placed first Norman newcomers to the Middle Volga;
  • e) The fifth suggested that Rurik and his brothers were descendants of the Scandinavians, who stayed on the continent after the relocation of their relatives on the Scandinavian Peninsula;
  • e) The sixth claim that Norman is in Eastern Europe, in several stages, as individual colonizing trees, at different times and from different regions;
  • g) the seventh appearance of the Normans in the view of Russia as a long and extensive process of Norman colonization spreads from Scandinavia across Eastern Europe, its river ways.

2. In a question about the way the base of the Russian state:

  • a) Some believe in the mission,
  • b) others believe Russ conquerors Slavic tribes.

3. On the question of chronology:

  • a) Some believe the chronicles,
  • b) others have suggested earlier emergence of Russia in Eastern Europe.

4. And, finally, is in the linguistic interpretation of the name "Rus" and "Vikings."

Many more disagreement exists between antinormanistov:

  1. Some, generally rejecting any historical value of the chronicle tradition, according to Russ autochthonous Slavic people of southern Russia.
  2. Others believe just as Russ Slavs, but, respecting the authority of the chronicler, is subject to the calling and called upon by the Vikings they understand the Baltic Slavs.
  3. Others see in Russia — the Volga Finns.
  4. Fourth — the Finns from Finland.
  5. Fifth Russian name derive from the Lithuanians.
  6. Sixth — from the Magyars.
  7. Seventh — from the Khazars.
  8. Eighth — from ready.
  9. Ninth — from the Georgians.
  10. Tenth — the Iranians.
  11. Eleventh — from yafetidov.
  12. Twelfth — from an unknown tribe.
  13. Thirteenth — from the Celts.
  14. Fourteenth — the Jews.

"It is quite possible that soon we'll have to read about the origin of Russia from the island of Rhodes, from Rhodesia, or, perhaps, from the Solomon Islands," said Moshin. And he was not far from the truth — in our time, and apply these concepts.

So the problem is posed, socially important overtones as it turned out. Delineated polarity.

False alternative

The whole scientific and allied struggle was to a certain extent in the study of brakethe true nature of Russian-Scandinavian relations formative period of the ancient Russian state. In 1939 E.A.Rydzevskaya expressed the need to overcome the very antithesis normannizma and antinormannizma. She believed that

can correct and objective assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both directionsceded, in her view, the past of Russian historiography, use of what was in them positive, and full independence from them in future work.

You can, however, be noted that social reflection almost always lags behind the science.

In the gradual formation of a new approach to the problem of Varangian in domestic science has made great contribution V.T.Pashuto, scientist, whose analysis of the written sources (those which formed normannizm) that resulted in a view of the role of the Vikings in the formation of the ancient Russian state, which adheres to date day, most of the researchers: "A look at the ancient Rus as ethnically diverse state, which grew out of the Confederation of land-principalities, headed Slavic nobility, allows a more accurate assessment of the Old Russian state relations with the Nordic countries. […] Sources indicate activity Norman immigrants in Russia at first (to X c.) As unsuccessful hostile "nahodnikah." Then as mercenaries princes, warriors, merchants, diplomats have played a role in the construction of the vast Slavic nobility and multilingual ancient Russian state. "

Pashuto recognize the union of Russia under the rule of the Varangian princes of the dynasty, but points out that prior to this merger was a confederation of Rus principalities 14, who grew up in the lands of the former tribes. The existence of these principalities were noted only in the ancient, as well as in the Pomeranian Slavs, Prussians, Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians. These reign and their unions could have died as a result of external conquest (as in Prussia, Estonia, Latvia) to reflect the external conquest and unite in an independent state, led by Prince's own dynasty (Lithuania) or inviting the prince from the outside (as in Russia ). But the use of foreign institutions in the process of unification has principalities, according Pashuto, secondary and subordinate role.

In L. Klein and his students, the Slavic-Norman relations in IX-X centuries were far more complex and cover different aspects of Eastern tribes: this trade with the East and the West, and joint military campaigns, and the development of trade, and domestic trade . The authors rightly point out that the study first of these relations will truly understand the important processes associated with the formation of the ancient Russian state.

Since the publication of this article has been twenty-five years. But do not stop the further identification and systematization "Norman antiquities" in ancient territory. Finds and complexes of Scandinavian origin are found in complex composition cemeteries Yaroslavl Volga, South-Eastern Ladoga, Upper Dnieper. Systematic study of the main subject and chronicles centers are "Varangian problem" — Ladoga, Rurik settlement near Novgorod, Novgorod, Izborsk Beloozero, Rostov, Polotsk. Varangian presence in the ancient territory becomes more apparent. But at the same

inconsistency appears brighter concept of "colonization" of the Upper Russia Scandinavia, and the more it "Norman Conquest."

How would it surprise us either, the first reports "Norman Antiquities Russia" are not made by our scientists, and, so to speak, "bystander" — Norwegian researcher Anne Stalsberg. In recent years, the classification of different types of Scandinavian objects found on the territory of ancient Russia, conducted by Swedish archaeologist Ingmar Jansson. General systematization of categories and classes of finds is a prerequisite of objective analysis of the Russian-Scandinavian relations, based on archaeological evidence. To date, this work has been done on Russian treasures IX-XIII centuries, on ancient weapons, in particular categories of jewelry and carving craft. Systematized and numismatic material, and that's what happens.

Arheologiichesky breakthrough and written sources

The geographical distribution of the Scandinavian findings is very revealing. It says the special importance for the Russian-Scandinavian relations waterways crossing the Eastern Europe. As it turns out, the earliest international trade relations were established on the Volga route, bound and Slavs and Scandinavians with the countries of Central Asia and the Near East. Initially, the entire system of the Eastern European Waterways has been focused on the Volga.

Particularly significant were the two areas of the eastern trade: Ladoga — the Western Dvina and Volga — Dnepr — Volga. They are Ladoga and Sockets — centers that Varangian presence can be traced most clearly.

Born of the intrastate line, meridional Volkhov-Dnieper way to the second half of X century gained international significance. That is known as the path "from the Vikings to the Greeks."

Chronology "Norman Antiquities" clarifies being developed in recent years, the periodization of Russian-Scandinavian relations IX-XI centuries. It is essential to the concurrence of the findings in this issue of different investigators. Thus, the proposed E.A.Melnikovoy and V.Ya.Petruhinym chronological scheme is consistent with a fractional scale G.S.Lebedeva taking into account the changes in the Russian-Nordic cooperation in every 25-30 years.

In the first period (mid IX century) are the following steps: 750-830-s (the first contacts with the Slavs Vikings), 840-850-s (worsening of relations, "the expulsion of the Vikings"). The second period, from the second half of the IX for the first half of X century, includes the following stages: 860-880-s ("calling the princes' stabilizing relations with the Vikings in Upper Russia, the addition of international routes), 880-910-s ( Vikings part in bringing the ancient Russian state), 910-950-s (the gradual assimilation of the Normans, the use of temporary wage contingent Scandinavian warriors). The third period, the middle — second half of X century, the consolidation of the early feudal state in ancient Russia, and the Scandinavian countries: 960-970-s (restructuring of the way, the decline of the Volga highway after the campaigns of Svyatoslav, the growing role of the Dnieper way, completely controlled the Old Russian the state). The fourth period, the end of X — the first half of XI century, comprising the steps of: 980-1016-s (military mercenaries, dynastic ties), 1016-1054 years (links are the nature of international relations of the Middle Ages). Like all schemes, both given by me chronological tables rather relative, but still they are backed by facts and use them to redeveloped historians picture is made more specific.

As soon as archeology multiplies its data, the number is gradually transformed into quality, and archaeological material makes it possible to set and achieve new goals. At the same time, the written sources, as techniques improve their analysis, it is possible to read in a new way, and it allows to identify their content to your environment.

Most telling in this regard revision chronicle "legend of the vocation of the Vikings." After the work A.A.Shahmatova showing that the legend of the vocation — artificial later interpolation, full of speculation, some researchers have refused to see in it a reflection of any real facts were. But not all. Others, like Pokrovsky, believed that "only safer," stick text record. Legend thus turned into a historically significant news. Thus, AN Kirpichnikov, IV Oaks and GS Lebedev "calling Rurik" seen as an elaborate share, to settle the relations across the Baltic Sea, and of the Rurik identified with small Danish konung Rurik of Jutland, following a fantastic hypothesis sesquicentennial old Fr. Cruz.

Yet reviewing legend in comparative historical perspective and in the context of early medieval diplomacy allows you to set the historical basis of its individual elements. Another VT Pashuto noted the likely accuracy of the part of the legend, which contains old Russian legal lexicon — "range" and "right" — reflecting the conditions under which he was invited to rule Scandinavian king.

E.A.Melnikova V.Ya.Petruhin and analyzing the message "The Tale of Bygone Years" of the Treaties of Russia, on the regulation of relations with the Vikings, as well as comparing the practice agreements with the Scandinavian kings of England and France, came to the conclusion that the reality of the "row" Varangian legend. According to them, he came to the compiler of the "Tale of Bygone Years" in the oral tradition. Handling the chronicler to the legend of the vocation to the tasks ranneistoricheskogo description.

"A number of" lay representatives of several Slavic and Finnish tribes (to know, which was a top Novgorod tribal confederation) with the leaders of the military unit, "series" are planning to transfer to them the supreme power in the territory of the tribes, "ownership" of the invited restrict the terms "judge rightly" ie follow local regulations.

"A number" was also to include the conditions of detention and ensure the Vikings, the prince and his men. The origins of "a number" Varangian legend can be traced to the ancient practice Veche.

The question of names and titles

Actively carried out in recent years Linguistic research related to "Norman problem." Thus, to explore the possible drevneshvedskih loan words from the ancient language. Able to establish their small number, as well as communication with a team life and trade relations. Scandinavian place names be analyzed ancient. It turns out that place names, preserved in the monuments of Old Norse literature and related to old cities, are focused on phonetic form geographical self.

As seems to find convincing resolution and the issue of the name "Rus". Private, relating to the field of historical ethnonymy, more than two centuries it was included as one of the central problems in the wider problem of origin of the ancient Russian state, and sometimes substituted for it. A series of papers and E.A.Melnikovoy V.Ya.Petruhina greatly clarify this complex issue.

The appearance of the word "Russia" is confined to the area of early explorers — from mid-VIII. — Slavic and Fenno-Scandinavian contacts.

They also traced the evolution of its ethno-social term used to mark the Scandinavians — a grand name multiethnic teams formative period of the ancient Russian state — the ancient name of the early medieval peoples.

The term "Rus" certainly undergone a transformation, traces of this can be seen in the most PVL. In the introduction to cosmographical PVL, which refers to the division of the land among the sons of Noah, Russia belongs to the allotment of Japheth, of Scandinavian tribes "varyazi", "svei" Normans and Russia. This is clearly the Scandinavians. Elsewhere (year 898), where the author will talk about the people who have taken the Slavic alphabet, he mentions Russia among them (Moravians, Czechs, Poles, clearing, which we call Russ …). This is the Slavic "Rus".

Russian historians have so far taken a rather complex pattern of development of the term proposed by Elena Melnikova and Vladimir Petrukhin. The word "Russia" appeared, in their opinion, early (in the middle of the eighth century) in the contact area of the Slavic, Finnish and Scandinavian nations. It has evolved from (1) the term with a predominance of ethnic sense, serves to indicate the Scandinavian (Swedish) rowers (merchants and warriors), followed by (2) the ethnic and social term for a Scandinavian team (squad) Rurik and Oleg, the first rulers of Northern Russia and then through (3) social term defining a multi-ethnic entourage princes of Kiev, to (4) the name of the ancient Russian state, and, accordingly, (5) the name of ancient medieval people.

Scandinavians (or to be more precise, the Swedes), called on the people of the North-West of Russia, called "Rus" but the chronicler puts that Russia among other groups of people called varyazi (plural of "Vikings").

The word "Rus" is mentioned in the sources of the ninth century., Is older than the word of the Vikings (cf. ancient NOK. V? Ringi, plural V? Ringjar; Greek.???, Arab? ?,varank), First appearing in the Byzantine chronicle in 1034

In the first PVL Vikings were enemies "Russia", and then they became warriors of Prince Igor, in 941, when Prince "sent many messengers for the Vikings over the sea, inviting them to attack the Greeks." Up to this point PVL Vikings consistently identifies with Russia. The original meaning of the word "Vikings" as "a soldier on a vow, a vow" (from the ancient NOK. Varar «pledge, vow, warranty"). According to Melnikova and Petruhina, the term did not originate in Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire, but in the Scandinavian environment ancient. Igor made a pact with his mercenaries, which defines the conditions of their service, which gave rise to their self.

The name "Vikings" meant Scandinavian mercenaries (which is different from the "Russia", the prince's guards) and was Applicable to all "foreign" Scandinavians.

In Byzantium, it served first as the designation of the famous Varangian Guard of the Emperor, but gradually the term became the name for all the Scandinavian mercenaries in the service of the emperor.

(To be continued)

Tatiana Jackson

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