October 18, 1866 on a hill, towering above the bay of New Archangel, the capital of Russian America, lined up opposite each other two military detachment. One was the team had just descended from the deck of the frigate "Ossipee", owned by the United States. The other consisted of Russian sailors. Order was given: "Drain the flag!" Officers took off his cap, both stretched out in front of the guard. Black-yellow-white tricolor Alexander's startled, but not desired to go down — confused at the top of the flagpole. Rope, for what it tied up, cut short. Several Russian sailors rushed upstairs to unravel the flag. It was necessary to click the one who was faster than the other, that he did not throw the cloth, and get down along with it, but the fit is not realized. The sailor threw it on top, and it entered directly on the Russian bayonets. The governor of the colony, Dmitry Petrovich Maksutov, hero of the defense of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to attack the Anglo-French squadron, stood stone-faced, his young wife Mary Maksutova looked like tears … the Stars and Stripes U.S. flag was raised without incident.
So was the American Alaska. The wide area, which occupies one percent of Earth's land was sold to the Royal Government for 7.2 million dollars, sold at all, and not leased to 99 years, as we are accustomed to think in Russian years.
Alaska (translated from the Aleut "land rich whale") was discovered by the Russian people (podshturmanom Ivan Fyodorov and surveyor Misha Gvozdev in 1732), mastered Russian people, Russian blood, poured: in 1802, the Tlingit Indians cut the population of New Archangel, and a fortress destroyed. Two years later, the director of the Russian-American Company, Alexander Baranov decided to punish the warlike natives. It is not clear, it would be able to cope with them or not, but, fortunately, the case near the islands of the Alexander Archipelago sailing sloop "Neva" under the command of the famous navigator George Lisnyanskaya (he vorachivalsya of the first in the history of the Russian navy voyage around the world). Guns of "Neva" decided the case — Indians were defeated. Fort Archangel was built anew and became the base for development of Alaska Fri.
What guided the Russian government, selling, in fact, on the cheap — four cents per hectare — its only overseas dominions? The creators of the transaction (and among them was a stately Prince Constantine, Minister of Finance Reitern, salting of in the U.S. window) as different reasons. Among them: loss ratio of Russian-American Company (which is placed under the fluctuation range of modern historians), the need to strengthen the friendly relations with the United States (somehow forgotten that there is still, in 1823 adopted the Monroe Doctrine, all of which were born following the imperial ambitions of the United States and its brutal policies), the ability to reduce our principal enemy of Great Britain (England, U.S. business and were then aggressive, because the position of the head mistress of the seas enemy of the Russian Federation in the Pacific were, indeed, for the time being relaxed, but at the expense of larger geopolitical losses of the Russian Federation) . In the end, pointing to the need to pay the Rothschilds, which was taken at a great credit to compensate landowners after the abolition of serfdom. But this reason is not very convincing: the sum of the US-Russian deal was the least a tenth of the money that was required to give. Leading representatives of the Russian society is not beheld benefits of the Alaska and the first took the government's plans to part with Russian America as an empty rumor. But the October 8, 1866 of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the newspaper "North Mail" published "Imperially ratified a contract of assignment Russian North American colonies." Ah well responded to this message known publisher and publicist Alexander A. Krajewski in the Newspaper "The Voice":
"Today, yesterday and the day or we pass the received and transmitted from New York and London telegrams about the sale of the Russian Federation in North America … We are now, as then, we can not treat a similar incredible ear for another as the most evil joke on the gullibility of society. " Krajewski said that the Russian company has won the South American countryside Alaska with a "huge donation of labor and even the blood of the Russian people" that our homeland more than half a century, spend money on the strong placement and arrangement of their own colonies, fleet maintenance, the spread of Christianity and civilization, that the amount paid by America for Alaska, "to such an extent is negligible, You can almost assume that it could have for our money, not even a real burgeoning of their position, some severe importance. " It is necessary to deprive Russia of these possessions specifically at a time "when carrying through their global telegraph they got hold of the latest value and when motivated by them, as it was written not so long ago, opened a very promising gold mines, the development of which, if the news is true, 2-3 year will bring more than many give their North American States! "Newspaper indignant:" Is dedicated to the works of the Russian Federation shall enjoy people and foreigners gather in the fruits of their own advantage? "
June 20 100 years have passed since the year of opening Alaska. Map this vast land was dotted with Russian names. And suddenly, overnight, 6 percent of local Russian Empire became a stranger. Never before Our homeland is not had trade their possessions. This created a terrible historical precedent. It is worth remembering that the governor-general of Eastern Siberia Ants-Amur in the spring of 1853 gave the idea of Nicholas I on assignment to the United States of Russian America. The Crimean War, and Secretary of State of the United States (then NAUS — North American United States) U.L.Marsi passed through the Russian ambassador in Washington, a proposal to implement possession of empire to the east of the Bering Strait. The governor, but did not do it, but then the situation of the country was much more difficult than in 1866. "Where will Russian leg, you can not go there "- read Nicholas. Alexander II crossed the behest of his father. Our homeland has given land rich in gold, furs, and later, as it turns out, oil and gas, and most importantly — it has lost the important strategic position, the ability to keep control of the northern part of the Pacific Ocean. With all of this for Washington were opened the way for the implementation of the hegemonic aspirations of reincarnation U.S. into a superpower. The alliance with the Russian Federation it was too strong. In the end, our homeland lost in the strategy (instead of 1st and she has two geopolitical enemy — an old Anglo-Saxons and the New World, when the U.S. is not without Russian assistance intensified quickly found a common language), and it has suffered economic loss: Americans vigorously pressed the Russian merchants in the markets of China and other South-East Asia.
Renamed New Archangel in Sitka. There was immediately introduced the Gregorian calendar, as a result of Alaska residents went to bed the 5th of October, and the nineteenth-awakened. In this case, no longer awakened in his own house: their home was ordered to hand over the administration of the newest. Americans were walking through the town, and if they liked the building, people thrown out on the street. This method was evicted 250 man. Was a continuous small r
ain. People had to huddle in the harbor and to live in the holds of ships. In those days of the city blew a hurricane, what did not remember even the most experienced sailors. The storm damaged the court and they can not be immediately heading to the coast of Russia.
How were spent funds acquired from the Yankees? According to one version, the funds were transferred to the accounts of the Bank of England brothers Barringov, where he kept the money august family, where they fell into the hands of trustees stately Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich and the Minister of Finance and Reitern Tipo been used up, as it appears from the document of the Municipal Department of the Treasury, "for the bound for the purchase of supplies for the railways: Kursk-Kiev, Ryazan, Kozlovsky, the Moscow-Ryazan, etc. "
Construction of railways during the reign of Alexander II was not the subject of our article. Let's just say: it is associated with corruption, which did not know of Nicholas Our homeland. Road paving on state funds or with funds guaranteed by the government, that the government has introduced a bolshennye costs. Management of this whole train thing given was personal business in virtually uncontrolled possession. "This case — wrote the Tsarevich Alexander (the future Emperor Alexander III) in his diary — the dirty side Reitern, his company and the Ministry, of course, Uncle Kostya (the majestic Prince Constantine — Ed.) On his side, because his henchman Reitern . " His views on the corruption of the Ministry of Finance, he tried (unfortunately unsuccessfully) to convey to his father: "I'm staying at his own belief, and again I repeat that in this case the Ministry made unclean. — I do not compose and not allowed to read for themselves so bravely, if not all of it was so visible and disgusting. " Just imagine (and some researchers or implied) that the funds acquired from the Yankees for Alaska, not squandered "on accessories for railways," and were simply assigned to a group of high-ranking officials (who will verify the activities of the Minister, which protects the majestic Prince) .
But there is another point of view: the Russian government from the sale of Alaska in general has not received funds from the Yankees. Not a cent! It could be considered an extravagant fiction greedy for sensation journalists, do not be authoritative experts at its supporters. That's why this view is put, the more that statement is reminiscent sharply hooked detective.
Russian salting in NAUS Baron Edouard de Stoeckl was in Washington a check in the amount of seven million May 30 thousand dollars. Of them owed him 21 Thousand as a reward, 144 thousand and he porazdaval down the secret expenditure "on the case, known Emperor" (style statement designating the bribe South American journalists, speaking for the purchase of Alaska, and the senators who voted for the ratification of the contract). The remaining 7,000,000 Russian envoy converted into pounds and moved to London. In the British capital by that amount (less money spent on the conversion) bought gold bullion in the coming year took them to St. Petersburg by sea. But barque "Orkney" who delivered the precious cargo on July 16 on the way to St. Petersburg sank. Was dissolved in it at the moment gold or it never leave the Albion, is unclear. The company insures the ship and cargo, declared itself a zero — the means to ask was not with anyone.
That still left with "Orkney"?
Undercover his death was revealed in seven years. December 11, 1875 when loading luggage on the steamer "Moselle", departing from Bremen to New-york, there was a powerful explosion. 80 man were killed and another 120 were injured. The police came to the cabin Yankees Germanic origin, William Thomson. Seriously injured passenger was lying in a pool of blood beside him lay a gun. Specifically Thomson belonged barrel, in what was fitted with a clockwork bomb. She should have blown up here and there in the ocean, after the owner of the barrel, the insured own weight on a huge amount to come down to the English port of Southampton. But in case of a loading clockwork worked before. Thompson wanted to get off at the store, but the captain, "Mosel" gave orders not to let anyone. Then Yankee tried to commit suicide.
He lived for 6 days and during this time he gave the grateful testimony. It was found that during the civilian war in America, he served in the Confederate commandos SSC (Secret Service Corps). There he mastered the production technology of a time bomb, blowing warehouses, trains and ships northerners. But the war ended, southerners have lost, and Captain Thompson was out of work. He sailed to Britain, where at one point he was arrested for Intoxicated hassle. The camera is put to him a man which promised to break the bank for the implementation of the 1st juicy assignments. It was necessary, going through a few days of freedom, get a longshoreman under the guise of a bag of charcoal to smuggle on board "Orkney" mine with clockwork. As to the ship's arrival in St. Petersburg had a few hours in the coal hold the explosion occurred. Doing the job, Thompson got a thousand pounds and, as recommended, signed by British Prime Minister Disraeli, who immediately left the UK. Thompson settled in Germany, got married a couple of years lived wealthy. But the funds ran out, then he decided to make a living, blowing on the bottom of the court, and receiving payments for its own sunken cargo insured for a huge sum.
The upcoming story villain grows truly mind-boggling detail: Tipo he blew every year journeyed to America ships, the path of which took place in the area of Bermuda. And the sailors began to talk about the mysterious disappearance of ships for a long time before he was born the term "Bermuda Triangle".
Let's go back, but an explosion on board the "Orkney". What was the fate of gold, which was not brought to St. Petersburg: it remains on the sea of days? According to the views of Doctor of Historical Sciences Dr. E.P.Tolmacheva, the creator of the book "Alexander II and His Time" in the Baltic Sea, a group of conspirators tried to grab the gold, but has suffered a disaster. In general, walking rumors that shortly before his death, the ship sailed away from him heavily loaded boat …
It remains to add that kind of information in the 1975 Soviet-Finnish expedition explored the area of flooding, "Orkney" and had found fragments of the ship. She confirmed that the ship was a powerful explosion and massive fire. But gold has been found. Whether on board or gold it had never left the UK, and remains a mystery.