Back in April of this year, Dmitry Rogozin, read about the fact that the construction of new residential areas for the Far East "Star City" for the spaceport "East" will be launched as early as the 4th quarter of 2012, and the launch site will be ready by 2015. In any other scenario, the Deputy Prime Minister has pledged to donate his tooth. According to Dmitry Rogozin, in Q4 2012 in parallel with the construction of residential areas will begin construction of spaceport infrastructure that will display a space rocket "Soyuz-2", which can be attributed to the class of light rockets. This coming here are going to use the acceleration kits "Frigate", is also more languid rocket.
According to Dmitry Rogozin, cosmodrome "East" will help to make Russia a more balanced in terms of population density, particularly highlighting what is now the east Our home is adjacent to the densely populated countries such as China, Japan, India, North Korea, and South Korea. New cosmodrome "East," the Russian Federation will decide whole gallakticheskoy range of tasks in the field, in other words to create start-ups in the near and far space. Southern latitudes spaceport will display ships with a fairly heavy load on the data of the orbit with the lowest cost. In addition, it was decided to build a unique and satellite city, a comfortable life and very beautiful. Besides near the spaceport will be built Akademgorodok, which would be an additional incentive for young people, in order to go to work and live in the Far East.
What will the new spaceport RF
The new launch site on Russian Far East will be able to give the country:
— gallakticheskoy independence of the whole range of tasks, from the socio-economic and scientific, to manned space flight;
— guaranteed performance of commercial and international gallakticheskih programs (as opposed to the existing cosmodrome "Baikonur", whose work sometimes prevents Kazakhstan);
— improving the socio-economic situation in the Far East, the development of the local industrial production, verbovanie personal capital and investment to the area of the creation of the launch site;
— in the long term reduction of costs for the rental of the Kazakh "Baikonur".
Advantages of the cosmodrome "East"
According to Roscosmos disk imaging, cosmodrome will own subsequent benefits:
— the original plot line of motion flight launch vehicles will not pass over densely populated areas of the country, also over the territory of foreign countries;
— impact areas separating parts launched missiles placed in neutral waters or sparsely populated regions of the Russian Federation;
— the location of the launch site placed in juxtaposition with advanced auto and railway lines and airports.
Separately mentioned reduction of political risk — in recent years, Kazakhstan a couple of times blocked the Russian launches, using various pretexts. With all of this priority is to reduce the load on the cosmodrome "Baikonur", but not the full replacement, at least until the end of the lease — 2050. Local authorities at the expense of built space center will try to solve their regional tasks. Namely cosmodrome "East" is seen as a cornerstone for the realization of the state program to resettle citizens.
Disadvantages cosmodrome "East" versus "Baikonur"
— the need to build its own airport (on "Baikonur" there are 2 modern), or laying w / d line from the Baikonur before the coming aerodrome (gallakticheskih need to transport vehicles);
— increase in transportation costs (both time and money). At the current time the main business gallakticheskie RF located in Moscow, Samara and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk Territory), specifically from there launch vehicles gallakticheskie phones and staff delivered to the "Baikonur" aviation or railway transport over a distance of 2500 km and 1500. respectively. In the case of the new cosmodrome "East" distance delivery will rise to 5,500 km.
— cosmodrome "East" is located 6 degrees north of Baikonur, which leads to a reduction in output in the greatest mass of cargo space (other things being equal criteria for start-up)
— remanufactured parts rockets landing in the forest can be a precursor of forest fires, which in this region of the Russian Federation are quite severe discrepancies;
— lack of infrastructure and housing for employees, leading to enormous amounts of money to create a practically new town population of up to 100,000 people (and their families staff the Baikonur).
The cost issue
Price of construction cosmodrome "East" is estimated at $ 300 billion. rubles, which is comparable to the cost Russian budget for the Olympics in Sochi and the APEC summit. Such a staggering amount of construction voiced G. Naginsky Director of the Federal Agency Spetsstroy. It should be noted that the country's government formally approved the estimate of 81 billion. rubles to 2015. However, soon enough in speeches bureaucrats began to sound the phrase 251 billion. rubles, now was voiced by newcomer number — 300000000000. rubles.
Baikonur is expensive, but so far nothing has actually made. At the end of September 2012, the work has not gone on the stage of clearing forest belts and digging ditches. With these schedules to meet the deadline will be hard, most likely to carry the construction time will pass. At the current time, they say that the first launch of the carrier rocket from the Baikonur "East" is scheduled for 2015, the first manned flight will take place in 2018, and the final completion of construction is scheduled for 2020 year.
a wimp may wonder why so slowly? Of course, to build a space launch complex task. In order to assess the scale of the data structures, you should be aware of their size. For example, "Baikonur" with its 15 starting complex, 2 airfields, five hundred w / d paths are spread over an area of 6700 square meters. km. On the terrain — it's more of Transnistria or Cyprus. Total world built spaceports 28 (5 for all that has been decommissioned). But the truly great sites from which could start languid missiles that can orbit the Earth manned spacecraft, only 3 pieces. Besides the "Baikonur" and South American gallakticheskogo Center. Kennedy is China Jiuquan space center, covering an area by 2800 square meters. km.
By the time the "East" will be built at all, it will be one of 4 big space centers of the planet and become more modern of them. This will not only launch complex to start the languid carriers, and 2 fuel plant: hydrogen and nitrogen. In total, the launch site will include about 1,600 different plants. In addition Roscosmos and showed pictures of the star of the modern, yet at 30,000 inhabitants. Judging by the pictures, spaceport workers to live in the midst of the burgeoning ultra-modern home gardens.
That's only a miracle will have to wait for it for a long time. At the time when the superpower chased each other gallakticheskoy race launch pads built in the blink of an eye. For example, "Baikonur" was built less than 2 years. First work in Kazakhstan began in June 1955 and the year, and the first launch of a ballistic missile took place in May 1957 and the year, 4 months later went into orbit the first satellite in the world.
On the "East" priority project has not worked from the beginning. Formally, the work on the site come from November 2007, from the moment the Russian President signed a decree on the development of a new launch site. In fact, the process slowed down as they could. Many attribute this to the position of the former head of Russian Federal Space Agency A. Perminov, who actually openly opposed cosmodrome "East". Calculation was subsequently herein. Our homeland and Kazakhstan agreed to lease terms "Baikonur" to 2050. Once a year, our own homeland lists other — 115 million dollars (3.7 billion. Rubles), the rental price is fixed at whole term. We have to admit that this contract was advantageous for Russia. Total payments for the remaining 38 years of rent will be 140 billion dollars. rubles, which is less than what is required to build a new cosmodrome. The savings can be fully used for different purposes, for example, to develop new launch vehicles.
Selecting a location for the upcoming launch site
But the eyes of the Kremlin's position Perminov dispersed. Upstairs decided that gallakticheskaya independence is more important than saving money. According to the plans, after 2030 on the Russian countryside will be 90% of all our launches. After that Kazakhstan is likely to be required to almost completely preserve the "Baikonur" because of his conversion of a missile launch another's expensive and difficult. Likely to continue to operate only one launch pad — Baytrek that is designed to launch new missiles "Angara". The cost of its construction of 1.6 billion dollars. bucks and takes for himself Kazakhstan. Here, of mutual benefit. Our home will sell missiles to Kazakhstan, and he make a commercial launch.
Having defined the fate of "Baikonur" in Russia have been looking for a new place spaceport. Some experts at the time tended to Nakhodka. Choosing one of the more southern points on the territory of Russia, which, even at 3 degrees south of the "Baikonur". In addition to this gem by the sea and because of this massive gallakticheskie devices could be driving up the aqua transport. It's cheaper than deliver them from the plants by aircraft. Specifically on the transportation cost savings expected Beijing to finish building when finished 4 th in a row Wenchang space center, located on the coast.
But all the same choice fell not on the Primorsky Territory, and the Amur region, although a number of professionals and does not consider it good. The start point is moved to 9 degrees north latitude regarding Finds spaceport located close to the border with China. The line of motion of flight operations, such that in the event of a tragedy on the rise rescue unit, most likely, will land in the sea, where it is more difficult to get to. With all of this, many infrastructure projects, including roads and housing, will need to build from scratch. Impact on the price of the work and a one-year fluctuation in temperature — from +35 to -40 degrees. That there is only one training ground when the samples have to take with a depth of 70 meters.
Cosmodrome Nakhodka would be good, except for the fact that the rocket into orbit could fly into the air space adjacent land of the rising sun. In addition, in the case of possible accidents, our eastern neighbor is not primenul would inflate an international scandal. As a third option considered the option of building in the Russian harbor in the Khabarovsk Territory, and it did not come as yet placed closer to the land of the rising sun.
Sources disk imaging: