25 years ago, a tragedy occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Currently the world is trying to cope with the nuclear power plant "Fukushima-1". But what is the future of nuclear energy?
When 25 years ago exploded fourth reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, it seemed that nuclear power may come to an end. In the world, people watched with fear as to the direction of the wind spread radioactivity over Europe from the Ukraine. With the attack on fallout for hundreds and even thousands of kilometers from Chernobyl, scientists determined the dose of radiation to find out whether certain non-hazardous area. Up to this time, you can create a manifestation of those concerns. Namely, the British government and currently limits the realization of meat of sheep grazing in some areas of Wales. And in the south of Germany is forbidden to sell meat boars and mushrooms, which they feed.
Although the Chernobyl undermined public confidence in nuclear power, he did not end it. Indeed, after 1986 the construction of new nuclear power plants in the world slowed down. But nuclear power plants now produce 16 percent of the world's electricity. Nuclear industry has been able to achieve this largely by increasing capacity of existing nuclear power plants instead of building new stations. Only a third of the additional power of the atomic origin of the last 20 years is a product of new nuclear power stations.
By the beginning of the new millennium, the memory of Chernobyl, the world began to fade, and the climate for Nuclear Power again become suitable. Rising oil prices and gas prices and concerns about global warming urged the world to talk about the "nuclear renaissance." Currently 64 new nuclear power plants are being built in the world in addition to the 443 that are already there.
And currently reactors of NPP "Fukushima-1" in the land of the rising sun are responsible for a greater release of radiation from the time of the Chernobyl accident, because of an old question with the latest vorachivayutsya force.
Specifically, the environmental activist Mayoka Nakahara on nedavneshney demonstration in Tokyo expressed the feelings of many Japanese. "I was concerned about policy Nuclear Power been a long time. If we do not seize this opportunity, who knows when the anti-nuclear movement once again pick up such momentum. Because I'm here to say that we should get rid of nuclear power, "- said the ecologist.
Growth concerns led several states, including China, to freeze plans to build new reactors. In Germany, the government shut down for three months 7 Oldest Acquisition of nuclear reactors. But rather a serious tragedy in Fukushima and memoirs, which brought with it the anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, to cast the future of nuclear power fluctuation?
South American expert on nuclear dilemmas James Acton believes that the answer will be different in different countries. "Where public opinion means something, I think Fukushima will have a negative impact on the upcoming growth of nuclear energy," — he says.
Countries where public opinion is taken into account more than anyone, just match the list of countries where the most enormous amount of nuclear power plants. In the United States of 104, France — 58, in the Land of the Rising Sun — 54.
But on the views of Acton, in those countries where public opinion does not play a big role in shaping government policy, nuclear power will continue to grow. In the middle of such states — Our homeland, which has currently 32 nuclear power plants, it is the fourth place in the global list.
Researcher at the Stockholm international peace research institute Vitaly Mabuza said that Moscow seems to want to continue to develop nuclear energy.
"As far as I understand, according to the program that made our home a couple of years back on development Nuclear Power, 25 per cent of the country's electricity to be nuclear — he says. — This program is valid to this day, at least officially. I know at the political level, this solution is, and I do not know about the existence of any harsh debate on this issue. "
Most expands the creation of nuclear energy in Asia. China currently has 13 nuclear power plants, and is building another 27. For the country's development of nuclear power is part of the energy strategy. The same litsezreem and in other Asian countries: Vietnam, Indonesia. These countries, Morocco and North Africa, announced their intention to start building nuclear power around 2020. Plans for these small countries are now seriously swap because of the tragedy in the Land of the Rising Sun. After all, they have to borrow billions of dollars to build nuclear power plants in the international capital markets, and this is after Fukushima will cost significantly more. As the capital markets will now create a greater risk of such investments.
At a time when the world is watching the developments around the nuclear power plant "Fukushima-1", the supporters and the opponents Nuclear Power disappointed that many of the questions raised Chernobyl tragedy, now remain unanswered. Can I make a nuclear power plant is quite harmless, to exclude the possibility of a radiation leak due to a problem or a disaster? And, if the tragedy has already occurred, whether the liquidation activities to contain the spread of radiation across vast distances? These issues, as it is seen, and in the coming will be accompanied by the development of nuclear energy in the coming decades.