In the second half of the nineteenth-century China experienced a period of anarchy and disintegration. Qing Dynasty kings, descendants of former Manchu horsemen arrived from the north-eastern Amur land and captured Beijing in 1644, the year, it has lost its own militant determination Protz, not acquiring a love of their own citizens. The huge empire, provide at the end of the 18th century, almost a quarter of world output, after half a century, is defeated by the armies of the Western countries, went on more and more territorial and economic concessions. Even the proclamation of the Republic in the course of the Xinhai Revolution, which was held under the slogans restore its former power and independence in 1911, did not really change anything. The opposing generals divided the country into-independent principality, without annoying fighting together. Control over the border regions of the country was completely lost, foreign powers have increased their influence, as the newest president of the republic had yet lower power than the previous government.
In 1925, in the nationalist Kuomintang Party, which controlled the south-western area of China came to power, Chiang Chung Cheng, known under the name of Chiang Kai-shek. Having completed a number of active reform efforts of the army, he undertook an expedition to the north. By the end of 1926 under its control has got the whole south of China, and later in the spring of Nanjing (which was moved to the capital) and Shanghai. These victories made the KMT a major political force, which gave hope to the unification of the country.
Seeing the rise of China, the people of the country of the rising sun decided to step up its forces on the continent. And it had the prerequisites. The top of the rising sun was very unhappy with the outcome of the First World War. Like the Italian elite, Japan after winning the general beheld himself as the underdog. Unresolved issues after a military confrontation, usually, lead to the latest fighting. Empire sought to expand the current space, the population was growing and needed new arable land, the raw material base for the economy. All this was in Manchuria, where the impact of the Land of the Rising Sun was a very good deal. At the end of the year 1931 belonged to the land of the rising sun of the South Manchurian railways explosion occurred. Under the guise of a desire to protect its own people, the Japanese army invaded Manchuria. Trying to get away from open conflict, Chiang Kai-shek led the attention of the League of Nations, to turn China's legitimate rights and to condemn acts of the Japanese. Long hearing was fine with the conquerors. During this period, some of the Kuomintang army had been destroyed, the seizure of Manchuria ended. March 1, 1932, it was announced foundation of a new country — Manchukuo.
Seeing the impotence of the League of Nations, the Japanese military are shifting their attention to China. Using anti-Japanese performances in Shanghai, their air force bombed the Chinese positions, and landed troops in the town. After 2-weeks of street fighting people of the country of the rising sun captured the northern part of Shanghai, but the diplomatic efforts of Chiang Kai-shek give up — the ambassadors arrived from the United States, Britain and France manage to stop the bloodshed and start negotiations. After some time, the League of Nations verdict — the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun should get out of Shanghai.
But that was only the beginning. At the end of 1932, Japanese troops added to the Rehe province of Manchukuo, coming up very tightly to Beijing. In Europe, meanwhile, was the economic crisis, the growing tension between the countries. The West has paid less attention to the protection of the sovereignty of China, Japan, that suit, revealing her ample opportunities for further action.
In 1927, the year in the Land of the Rising Sun Prime Minister Tanaka posted Emperor memorandum "Kodo" ("The Path of the Emperor"). His basic idea was that Japan can and must achieve world domination. For this purpose it is useful to capture Manchuria, China, the Soviet Union and the United States to kill and to form a "Prosperity Sphere majestically East Asia." Only at the end of 1936, the proponents of this doctrine completely overpowered — Japan, Italy and Germany signed the "Anti-Comintern Pact." The main opponent of the Japanese in the Battle of the future became Russian Alliance. Realizing that for this they need a strong foothold land, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun staged provocation for provocation on the border with China in order to find an excuse to attack. The last straw was the incident July 7, 1937 the year of about Marco Polo Bridge, which lies to the south-west of Beijing. Through the teachings of the night, Japanese soldiers began firing at the Chinese fortifications. Retaliatory fire destroyed the 1st person that gave the aggressors right to seek the withdrawal of Chiang Kai-shek in the region. The Chinese have not responded to them, and on July 20 the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun started coming large-scale, capturing the end of the month of Tianjin and Beijing.
Soon after that the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun made an attack on the Shanghai and Nanjing, is the economic and political capital of the Republic of China. To get the support of Western society, Chiang Kai-shek decided to show the world the ability to beat the Chinese. All the best division under his personal control stormed the Japanese troops, landed in Shanghai in the late summer of 1937. To the residents of Nanjing, he appealed not to leave city. In Shanghai massacre has taken the role of a million people. Three months of continuous clashes have brought untold sacrifices. The Chinese have lost more than half of the personnel. A December 13 Japanese fighters, unopposed, occupied Nanjing, in which there were only unarmed civilians. Over the next 6 weeks in the town had been created unprecedented scale massacre, a real horror, went down in history as the "Nanking Massacre."
Occupiers began by saying that bayoneted in the country 20 thousand men of military age, so that they could never again wage war against them. Then the people of the country of the rising sun fled to the destruction of old men, women and children. The murder took place, with particular brutality. Samurai tore his eyes and heart disease in living people, cut off heads, guts turned inside out. Firearm is not applied. People bayoneted, buried alive, burned. Before the murder adult ladies, beautiful girls, old women were raped. Immediately sons were forced to rape mothers and fathers — daughters. The inhabitants of the town was used as a "stuffed" for employment with a bayonet, set dogs. Thousands of corpses floating on the Yangtze, preventing the courts to stick to the banks of the river. Residents of the country of the rising sun, so get on the ship, had to use floating pontoons as dead.
In 2007, the year of the documents
came to light in the light of a single international charity organization, working in Nanjing at the time. According to them, also records confiscated by the Japanese can come to the conclusion that in the 20 massacre of eight soldiers killed more than 200,000 civilian inhabitants. About 150 000 people were killed separately. The largest number of victims seeking 500,000 people.
The remaining Europeans in Nanjing, in the main missionaries and businessmen tried to save the local population. They organized an international committee, headed by John Rabe. Committee walled plot, received the title of "Nanking Safety Zone." Here they were able to save about 200,000 Chinese people. The last member of the Nazi Party Rabe was able to achieve by the time the authorities, immunities, "security zone."
Authorities of the country of the rising sun so far unwilling to officially recognize the fact of the massacre descendant, finding data on victims is very high. They never apologized for war crimes committed in China. According to their data, winter 1937-1938-th years in Nanjing killed "only" 20,000 people. They refute call the incident a "massacre", saying that it is the Chinese propaganda aimed at humiliation and insult to the Land of the Rising Sun. In their school history books just written that in Nanjing "Many people have died." Photos of massacres in the town, is by far the evidence nightmares of those days, according to the Japanese authorities are fakes. And this despite the fact that most of the photos were found in the archives of the Japanese soldier, taken by them as souvenirs.
Chinese ladies who are forced into prostitution or subjected to rape, appealed to the Tokyo authorities with a request for compensation. Japanese tribunal said that the corresponding verdict can not be imposed because of the limitation period of the commission of crimes.
In the spring of 1938, residents of the country of the rising sun, in the end, suffered a first defeat — a Tayerchzhuanom. They failed to take the city, and have lost more than 20,000 man. Stepping back, they turned their attention to Wuhan, which housed the government of Chiang Kai. Japanese generals believed that the capture of the town would surrender the Kuomintang. But after the fall of Wuhan October 27, 1938 On the capital was moved to Chongqing, and thrust all the Kai also refuses to give up. To break the will of the Chinese people fighting, residents of the country of the rising sun began bombing civilian objects in all large cities are not employed. Millions of people have been killed, injured or left without a roof.
In 1939, both in Asia and in Europe there was a premonition of World War II. Realizing this, the Chiang Kai-shek decided to buy time to stand up to the hour when Japan to grips with the United States that looked very possible. Future actions have shown that a similar strategy was correct, but in those days looked a stalemate situation. Large advent of the Kuomintang in Guangxi and Changsha ended without bringing of success. It was clear that the final will be only one, or Japan would intervene in the war in the Pacific, or the KMT will lose control over the remnants of China.
Back in the 1937 election campaign began to build in the middle of the Chinese population of good emotions to the Land of the Rising Sun. The goal was to strike at the regime of Chiang Kai-shek. At the beginning of the inhabitants of certain places really met the Japanese as brothers. But the attitude towards him changed very rapidly right on the reverse, as the Japanese propaganda, like the German, very very assured of their own fighter in their divine origin, giving an advantage over other nations. Living in the country of the rising sun did not hide his haughty attitude, looking for foreigners, as second-class people as cattle. It's also a heavy labor service, rapidly took up arms against the inhabitants of the occupied territories against the "liberators". Soon the people of the country of the rising sun has almost controlled the occupied land. Garrisons not enough, managed to keep under control only of the town, the main centers and basic communication. In rural areas, the guerrillas in full sway.
To the actions of guerrilla captors answer sweeps territories. In the summer of 1940, led the North China Army General Yasuji Okamura has invented a truly strshnuyu strategy "Sankoh sakusen." Translated, it meant "Three
all": burn all, kill all, loot all. 5 provinces — Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, Shaanxi Chahar and divided into sections: "peace", "polumirnye" and "non-peaceful". Okamura troops burned entire villages were rounded up and confiscated grain farmers at work digging trenches and building many kilometers of roads, walls, towers. The main goal was winding up opponents masquerading as local, and all the guys from fifteen to sixty behaving suspiciously. Even Japanese researchers believe that their army was so makarom enslaved about 10 million Chinese. In 1996, a scientist Mitsuosi Himeta made a statement that the policy of "sakusen Sankoh" has led to the death of 2-a-half million people.
By mid-1940, it became quite clear that the undeclared war in China lasts another eternity. Meanwhile, the Fuhrer in Europe subdued one country after another, and the Japanese top and pulled to join the division of the world. The only glitch in their direction caused the strike — south or north? Since 1938, on the 1939th year battle with Halkin-Gol River and Lake Khasan showed residents of the country of the rising sun, that an easy victory over the Russian Union will not. April 13, 1941 the first was signed the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact. And do not even paying attention to the urgent demands of the German High Command after June 22, his condition has not been violated. By this time, the Japanese army was determined to make war with the United States, releasing the Asian colonies of European countries. An important prerequisite for a ban of the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun of fuel and steel, proposed by the U.S. to its allies. For a country that does not have its own resources, it was a very palpable hit.
December 7-8, 1941, Japanese aircraft bombed Pearl Harbor, the base of the South American Navy in the peninsula of Oahu. Already on the day after the Japanese planes stormed the British Hong Kong. On the same day Chiang Kai-shek declared war on Germany and Italy. After four years of fighting the Chinese have a chance to win.
European allies to help China came just in time. They pinned down the largest number of Japanese armed forces, also helped by the adjacent fronts. After the KMT sent two divisions to help the British in Burma, President Roosevelt directly announced that after the war, the situation in the world should keep control of the four countries — the U.S., the USSR, Britain and China. In practice, of course, the Americans ignored their own Eastern ally, and their management was trying to command at the headquarters of Chiang Kai-shek. Yet, the very fact that after 100 years of public humiliation of China dubbed one of the four major powers of the planet, has been very significant.
The Chinese have coped with the task of their own. In the summer of 1943, they held Chongqing and ran over to the offensive. But, obviously, the final victory brought them allies. On Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6 and 9, 1945 fell nuclear bomb. In April, Russian Alliance broke the neutrality pact with Japan and in August entered into Manchuria. The nuclear bombing and a record of its own speed the coming of the Russian troops made aware of the Emperor Hirohito that continue to resist worthless. August 15, he said on the radio to surrender. It must be said that not enough who waited such developments. Americans generally implied that military action will continue until 1947.
September 2 aboard the U.S. battleship "Missouri" representatives of the Land of the Rising Sun and allied countries signed an act of unquestioning surrender of the Japanese armed forces. Second global ended.
Unfortunately, in China, the war lasted. From 1945 to the 1949th year was armed struggle for power between the Communists gained strength and Chiang Kai-shek troops. The more troops won the battle of Mao, the greater was the help from Moscow. In the end, 1 October 1949, has been created by China and the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek evacuated to Taiwan. The war, which lasted for several decades, was over. Both China and Taiwan at this moment is the very brand-new story.