Pre-Christian history of Russia is often shown in a dark color, our ancestors in it — "wild" barbarians in animal skins, live by hunting and fishing in the woods and swamps, writes Alexander Samsonov.
The only bright spots of the Vikings, the Normans look, "brought" the light of the foundations of civilization to Russia (according to Norman theory), and Princess Olga, trying to instill the principles of Christianity savages. As a result, for the majority of Russian citizens pre-Christian history of Russia — a real terra incognita ("unknown land" in Latin).
Tribes or the state
When people talk about the Old Russian state ("proto"), you can often hear about tribes — clearing, Slovenes, drevlyans, Krivichi, radzimichy and many others. At the word "tribe" there is an image of the North American Iroquois kakih-nibud or Papuans, but never developed community.
Although in reality, any Slavic-Russian alliance or tribe was supersoyuzom tribes who controlled the huge space (equal to European kingdoms and many more). The Union has developed a system of control: an elected prince, the magistrates, the army (brigade), the council of the nobility — boyars, the People's Assembly (Chamber).
Confederacy of tribes was not a generic phenomenon, but a political, territorial. Each "reign" or "earth", was not only "his reign," but also "the laws of their fathers," ie, the legal system.
In Western Europe, while very serious about the title. For example, in a message Bertinskih annals of the Embassy of the "people Ros" francs to the emperor Louis the Pious (in 839), Bishop Rousseau called the "king." After more than a century Princess Olga (her Christian name — Helena) was called the "Queen Helen" ("Chronicle of a successor Reginona").
Eastern sources call the rulers of the Rus "kings" and "Hagan" (imperial title). Russian land was considered by the state. Thus, an Arab Ibn Haukal said: "Ar-Rus — as well as al-Khazar and al-Serir — is the name of the state, not the people, and not the city."
And the fact that in the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) did not recognize the dignity of "kings" of neighboring lands, calling them "archons" (elders), said only about politics Constantinople. Romans considered themselves the heirs of the Roman Empire, and all the surrounding nations were for them "barbarians." In Constantinople did not recognize the royal title, and for the Bulgarian king (although the Bulgarians repeatedly threatened the empire's capital), and for the emir of Egypt, and the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.
But for most contemporary Russia was a powerful nation — is not worse kingdoms of Europe or the rich and powerful Khazar Khanate.
The ancient Scandinavians called the Old Russian state "Gardarica" (Gardariki), meaning "city state". Do not be surprised that this term means "fence, fence, strengthening" or "yard, enclosed space." While the principal value of the city — is strengthening the fortress.
For example, the largest city in the Mediterranean Constantinople was called the Scandinavians Miklgard. And according to the German chronicler Titmara Merzeburg, Kiev was a rival of the capital of Byzantium — Constantinople. Noted a large number of cities in Russia and Eastern sources, an Arab Ibn Rust wrote that the Rus "many cities."
The people of the East who are familiar with Baghdad and Cairo, and Scandinavians who saw the city in England, France, Spain and Italy, are unanimous in asserting that the pre-Christian era were ruses city. Moreover, in such an amount that it was surprising seasoned traveler.
Such a source is "Bavarian geographer" (this is the list of nations and alliances of tribes, mostly of Slavic origin, who inhabited in the IX century, the area east of the Frankish state), according to the tens and hundreds of cities in the East Slavic principalities. So, the bougie was 231 degrees (city), in Ulichi — 418.
And if the city were, then, there were craft "ends" (quarters). Russia was famous for its craftsmen. Russian weapons had already been quite sold goods; Russian swords, according to contemporaries, did not yield to the Frankish and Arab blades. Ibn Rust mentions the beautiful armor of the Slavs, and the French poem "Renaud de Montauban," speaks of "the great chain mail of Russia", which became the main character.
Many believe our primeval ancestors Gentiles, though, if you try to understand the faith of their ancestors, it becomes clear that it was a sunny, bright belief, full of universal harmony, goodness and justice. The concepts of our ancestors, that we absorb from childhood through fairy tales, ancient Russian folk tales, has yet to give us a completely degrade, become a "two-legged vegetables."
It is foolish to think that "paganism Russes" — a wild, backward beliefs. Modern Japan, India, but in many ways, and China retain their ancient beliefs and do not suffer from this. They make the life of their people more intelligent, help contain the onslaught of "universal" (Western) values.
Interestingly, in many respects faith Russ alive today. It has survived not only in fairy tales and epics, but was absorbed into Christianity by making it Orthodoxy ("Glory to the Government"). Key mifoobrazy saved. Christian Trinity, the image of the Virgin and George defeating the serpent — Slavic Triglav, Mother Lada (Rozhanitsa) and Perun, defeating the serpent (Veles-Volos).
Significant amount of work to restore the image of our ancestors, their history, faith, spiritual and material culture. It may be recommended in connection with this wonderful encyclopedia M. Semenova, "We — the Slavs" (the author of the famous novel "Wolfhound"), the study of Leo Prozorov ("Russian Seasons heroes", "Varangian Rus").
It all started in the basin of the Oka
Artania — state, whose territory was in the area from the North Sea to Tmutarakanskoy land (north to south) and from the Bryansk forests to the east of the Volga (from west to east), states, in turn, Yuri Ulyanov. Confirmation of these boundaries is very light brown-Aryan culture, expressed in the form of a special pattern — Yargi.
This "bow-legged" yargo-swastikas ligature had its own peculiarities, were reflected in the plex chetyrehrozhkovyh Järg in a diamond. A similar pattern is found on the towels, skirts, bibs, table cloths, towels, shirts and Kichko only in the following areas: Ryazan, Tambov, Penza, Voronezh, Bryansk, Smolensk, Vladimir, Vologda, Arkhangelsk, Tobolsk and partly on the north-east of Novgorod.
However, some researchers believe that "Artania" located exclusively on the Taman peninsula. According to other versions, Artania was the region of Taman to Oka.
Both are right, and others. All these lands were part of the "Arzanov" (Arsan, Artania) — one of the three Russian states mentioned since IX century earlier Persian and Arabic geographers (along with two other Russian states — Kujawy and fame).
The first person to mention the country Artania as an "Island Russov", was an Arab historian — Ibn-Rust. It is derived from one of the largest craft cities Artania — Arta (according to some researchers, Art located at the junction of the rivers Oka and Pra).
Arab merchants who bought the goods from the Ruthenians in T'mutarakan and Kujawy have wondered how such a good product (especially swords), to which he replied — "Out of Arta." And the swords of Artania really were some of the best on the continent (even better Damascus blades). The whole secret is in the special forging and Meshcherskaia bog ore, which was added rusichi sacred manner charmed additive.
Self-melt sheet metal forged in several layers, which gave him strength and elasticity. These forged plates called "posters". A sword forged from a steel can be easily bent into an arc, after which he took the starting position. Plate "posters" were kept in the secret cellars of Arts and was a "strategic metal" for the whole Artania.
In addition to good swords in Artania done and a good brew from a special yeast. This starter was made of leavened bread, which was called "Artus". When this magnificent drink found its admirers and fans in the Balkans, the ancient Greeks asked, "Where did this ferment and is called?" To which he replied, "Artus of Artania." So in the ancient Greek language, this ferment and came under the name of "Artos". Later, in the Christian religion, leavened bread, lit at Easter and was called — Atra. For it is this bread, according to legend, was on the table at the Last Supper …
The capital Artania was a beautiful city at the time, "RSHAN" (Rashani, Räsänen, cutting, Ryazan), who was standing on the bank of the deep river Oka near the site of the confluence of the rivers Prony.
Sami foreign authors of this town have not seen since the Rus-rshane to their country of alien merchants were not allowed, and traded only with the relatives of Kujawy. In addition, they are in communication with aliens through its most southern port — Tmutarakan. The shortest way of Arta in Tmutarakan been waterway along the Oka River, then across the river to a couple of portages, and from there through the river and Pozhva Voronzhets (Voronezh) in Don.
This route was carefully guarded by Cossacks belopomestnymi of regimental settlements (usually called Shilovo such settlement, and later simply — Cossack), and no foreigner could not pass them by unnoticed. Subsequently, these "Cossack settlements" have become "Zasechnaya line" between the "Wild Field" and Russia.
Unfortunately, all of the descriptions that relate to the country Artania made with other people's words. Hence, the distortion and the pronunciation of the name, and in determining the location of this ancient country.
Were mentioned capital Artania: Rshan, Rashani, Razanj, Räsänen, Razanov, cutting, Ryazan. And the natives of this land carried a reflection of her in the self — raseny. It is they who, according to the ancient Italian historians have come to Northern Italy from the East, led by Prince Rasen. There they were later name the Etruscans. In Italy, by the way, is still common surname Razin.
The Great Golden Horde can be considered the successor of the ancient tradition, when the earth was the center of the city of cut. Now mound Old Ryazan rests on the bank of the Oka River. In ancient literature, in the annals since the XI century, the Golden Horde is referred to as the Great. In Ryazan Meshchora even have the name of the lake — great.
In oral mythology, ancient legends, as well as a medium of the Russian folk traditions focus yargo swastikas, the pattern is exactly Meschera. Ryazan edge is regarded as the spiritual center of ancient Vedic tradition. And not without reason there is a perception that it is this land is legendary and mysterious Artania.
On Ryazanschine have Skopin town, which anciently renowned for its pottery production, especially jellied dishes greenish white to paint swastikas in a circular pattern with dots on the edges. These signs yargicheskie make a lasting impression by its special contours and hidden meaning. Yargichesky ornament Ryazanschine presented in the Volga-Oka-Don region, and among the many samples of weaving and embroidery, where there is a wide variety of intricate patterns swastikas.
In many cities of Ryazan principality prospered sorts craft. In ancient chronicles describing the "Gardar Rousskie", and there is mention of the old city of Lvov, Ryazan, and later — Lvov-Volyn (now Lviv was founded as a fortress Ryazan warriors on their path to the west).
On ancient maps of the eastern territory of the Volga-Oka-Don region referred to as the "Land of Ripskih tribes." This Kostenki-Musketeers archaeological culture (30,000 BC).
Russ came to this land from the Urals (Ripskih Repeyskih or mountains) during the last glaciation, and not by accident bur was another sign in the ancient traditions of our ancestors. It fits well into an intricate pattern, called the "Repeyki." Similar patterns — "Repeyki" — a special way of old embroidered on the prince and the royal robes (carrying a special sacred meaning.) Fabrics with a symbolic ornament called repeychatymi …
Mention of Artania as an ancient country is not only in the Arab, but in Byzantine sources. So, the patriarch Nicephorus in his short stories for the year 764 mentions of the bloody feud in the Danube in Bulgaria, so that the land left 208,000 Slavs, Alans, Huns and Bulgarians. They are, according to Nicephorus, moved to mate Artania whose southern lands were devastated by the invasion of the Arab commander Marwan in 737.
These many immigrants from the Balkans have settled between the Don and the Seversky Donets, occupying vacant land and adding to the ranks of the Cossacks in the belopomestnyh "Zasechnaya line."
It is noteworthy that in modern Spain (in the province of Castellón) is an autonomous community — art. In the commune of the same name exists in France. Natives of Slavic Artania preserved the memory of the ancient country?
See also: Riddles in Antarctica, Strange archaeological finds. Photo.