So hundreds of millions of years ago looked ancient continent Aldred. 570-500 million years ago, the distribution of land on the surface of the Earth was different than today. At the site of the North American continent and Greenland existed Lavrentsov. Further south Lavrentsov extended Brazilian mainland.
The African continent include Africa, Madagascar and Arabia. It was located north of the Russian mainland, corresponding to the platform in the Russian border — the delta of the Danube, Dniester, Vistula, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Pechora River, Ufa, White, north of the Caspian Sea, the delta of the Volga River, north of the Black Sea. Center of the platform — the city of Vladimir in the rivers Oka and Volga.
On the Russian platform Cambrian occur almost everywhere in the northern part of, and are also known in the western parts of Belarus and Ukraine. East of the Russian mainland was located Siberian mainland — Angarida, including the Siberian platform and the surrounding mountain structures. At the site of present-day China was Chinese mainland, south of it — Australian mainland, covering the territory of present-day India and Western Australia.
In the early Paleozoic (500-440 million years ago) in the northern hemisphere of the ancient platforms — Russian, Siberian, Chinese and North American — formed a single continent Laurasia.
Hindustan (island of Madagascar, the Indian subcontinent, south of the Himalayas), Africa (excluding the Atlas Mountains), South American (east of the Andes), Antarctic platform, as well as Arabia and Australia (west of the mountain ranges of the Eastern Section) entered the southern continent — Gondwana.
Laurasia separated from Gondwana Sea (geosyncline) Tethys (Central Mediterranean, Mezogeya) that took place in the Mesozoic Era by the Alpine orogeny zone: Europe — the Alps, the Pyrenees, Andalusian mountains, Apennines, Carpathians, Dinaric Mountains, Stara Planina, the Crimean Mountains, the Caucasus mountains in North Africa — the northern part of the Atlas mountains in Asia — Pontic Mountains and the Taurus, the Turkmen-Khorasan mountains, Elbrus and Zagros mountains Suleymanov, the Himalayas, folded chains of Burma, Indonesia, Kamchatka, Japanese and Philippine Islands, in North America — folded ridges of the Pacific coast of Alaska and California, and in South America — Andes; archipelagos framing Australia from the east, including the island of New Guinea and New Zealand. The area covered by the Alpine folding, retains high tectonic activity in the modern era, resulting in an intensely dissected relief, high seismicity and continuing in many areas of volcanic activity. Pratetisa are a relic of the modern Mediterranean, Black Sea and Caspian Sea.
Laurasia existed before the mid-Mesozoic, and its change is the loss of territories in North America and the subsequent rearrangement of Laurasia in Eurasia.
The skeleton of a modern Eurasia spliced fragments of several ancient continents. In the center — the Russian mainland. In the north-west to adjoin the eastern part of the former Lavrentsov that after Cenozoic subsidence in the area of the Atlantic Ocean separated from North America and Europe formed a projection of Eurasia, located west of the Russian platform. In the north-east — Angarida that in the Late Paleozoic was articulated with the Russian continent folded structure of the Urals. In the south — to Eurasia prichlenilis northeastern part of the defunct Gondwana (Arabian and Indian platforms).
The collapse of Gondwana began in the Mesozoic, Gondwana was literally stolen by piecemeal. By the end of the Cretaceous — early Paleogene periods became isolated modern postgondvanskie continents and parts thereof — South America, Africa (excluding the Atlas Mountains), Arabia, Australia, Antarctica.
Climate data on the state of the Earth at that time also opens additional opportunities for knowledge of interest to us.
In Terminal Riphean (680-570 million years ago) large areas of Europe and North America were covered by extensive glaciation Lapland. Glacial deposits of this age are known in the Urals, in the Tien Shan, on the Russian platform (Belarus), in Scandinavia (Norway), Greenland and the Rocky Mountains.
In the Ordovician period (500-440 million years ago), Australia located near the South Pole and the North-West Africa — in the area of the pole, which is confirmed by documenting the Ordovician rocks in Africa signs of widespread glaciation.
In the Devonian period (from 410 million to 350 million years ago) the equator at an angle of 55 — 65 ° to the modern and passed around via the Caucasus, Russian platform and southern Scandinavia. North Pole was in the Pacific Ocean in the range 0 — 30 ° N and 120-150 ° east longitude (in Japan).
Therefore, on the Russian platform was equatorial climate — hot and dry, a greater diversity of the organic world. Part of the territory occupied Siberia Sea, where the water temperature is not lower than 25 ° C. Tropical (humid) zone, at different times of the Devonian period extended from the modern West Siberian Plain in the north to the south-western edge of the Russian platform [1, VN Pacific, Art. Devonian period]. On the basis of the paleomagnetic study of rocks found that for most of the Paleozoic and North America was located in the equatorial zone. Fossils and widespread limestone that time showed dominance in the Ordovician warm shallow seas.
On the contrary, in the Gondwana was circumpolar climate. In South Africa (in the Cape Mountains) in the entourage of Table Mountain, in the basin of the Congo and in southern Brazil are glacial formations (Tillite) — Witnesses cold circumpolar climate. In the upper Proterozoic and Carboniferous developed extensive glaciation. In South Australia, China, Norway, South Africa, southern Europe, South America within this zone show signs of Ordovician glaciation. Verhnekamennougolnogo traces of glaciation known in Central and South America, southern South America, India and Australia.  Freezing installed in the lower Proterozoic of North America, in the upper Riphean (Riphean — 1650-570 Ma), Africa and Australia, in the Vendian ( 680-570 million years ago) in Europe, Asia and North America, in the Ordovician of Africa, in the late Carboniferous and early Permian in the continent of Gondwana. The organic world was different this belt of depleted composition. In the Carboniferous and Permian periods on the continent Gondwana developed a peculiar flora of temperate and cold zones for which it was characterized by an abundance glossopterisov and horsetails.
In the Devonian, northern (arid — dry) zone covers Angarida (North Asia) and the folded structures adjacent to it from the south and east, dominated by continents: Angarsk, Kazakh, the Baltic and the North American.
In Colorado (part of the former Lavrentsov) in Ordovician sandstones found fragments of the most primitive vertebrates — jawless (ostrakoderm).
After the end of the cycle geosynclinal development may repeat itself, but there is always some part of the geosynclinal regions at the end of the next cycle becomes a young platform. In this regard, during the geological history of the area occupied by geosynclines (seas), decreased, and increased space platforms. It geosynclinal system were a place of education, and the further growth of the continental crust with its granitic layer.
The periodic nature of the vertical movements of the tectonic cycle for (mostly lower in early and mostly raised in the end of the cycle) each time led to corresponding changes in surface topography, in a change of transgressions and regressions of the sea. Those periodic movement influenced the nature of the sediments are accumulated, as well as the climate, which experienced periodic changes. Already in the Precambrian era punctuated by glacial warm. In the Paleozoic glaciation covered for the days Brazil, South Africa, India and Australia. The last glaciation (the North) was in the Anthropogenic [1, p. Earth]
The above-considered position of the continents is supported by faunal zoning, according to which the earth's land is divided into four faunal kingdom: Arctogaia, Paleogeya, Neogeya, Notogeya. Antarctic land, inhabited mainly by marine animals are not included in any of the kingdoms.
Arctogaia ("northern land") from the center of the grouping in the Russian platform also includes the Holarctic, Indo-Malay, Ethiopian region and has the Eurasia (excluding the Indian subcontinent and Indochina), North America, North Africa (including sugar). Fauna Arktogei shares a common origin. In Arktogee live only placental mammals.
Neogeya ("new earth" that is later in time, formed from the decay products of Gondwana) is South, and Central America from Baja California and southern highlands of Mexico in the north to 40 ° S. to the south and adjacent to the Central American island. Common placenta.
Notogeya ("southern land") is Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. Prolonged isolation Notogei led to the formation of fauna, rich in endemics (isolated species). The number is relatively small placental mammals: mouse, bats, canids.
Paleogeya is mainly tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. For the Paleogene characteristic of animals of the ancient Gondwana fauna — its Brazilian-African continent: ostriches, lungfish, turtles and proboscidean, apes, and other predatory
See also: Ice floes in Antarctica were not always Civilizations Antarctica.