The Russian New University was a large round table, devoted to the new sensational discoveries in the Russian and world history. First of all, meeting listened to the report of the President of the "Project Civilization" Vladimir Ivanov figure, his life and work that still arouses interest and intense debate: about Peter, who later became the "Great" …
Participants of the round table agreed that Russia's history first started writing and studied under Catherine II. Drafts of the script found in Russian history, compiled by Catherine and known documents that indicate that it is severely punished those historians who dared to write in another. For the execution of his plan, it attracted leading scientists from Germany — Bayer Miller Schlozer, these scientists laid the foundations of the theory of Norman origin Russia, supposedly incapable of independent rule.
First been distorted history, immediately adjacent to the era of Catherine — this is the era of Peter. Original documents of the era were either destroyed or sealed. AS Pushkin was at work on "The Story of Peter" was faced with an enormous challenge for the admission to the archives, but even after using approved materials, his work has been classified and, in fact, destroyed. Scientists in the 20th century miracle managed to get only a fraction of the lost material and the bits to restore the manuscript.
But Soviet scientists were engaged by. They performed a social order, set by the party and the government, and could not break away completely from system settings. A typical example is the story "The Bronze Horseman." It would seem that everyone knows about the famous piterets monument and its history. And now no one will remember that back in 1916 on Saint-Petersburg there was not a monument with the same name.
What is it called? And as always — "Stone Rider". It is a well-known legend of St. Petersburg's Peter trying to jump on a horse Neva. Two times he was the attempt failed, and the third time he challenged God Himself, for which God punished him and he froze.
It is this legend and tour guides tell of the early twentieth century. Pushkin's The Bronze Horseman was a little-known works, and only the 100th anniversary of the death of the poet, the symbolic 1937 was a barrage of studies and publications related to Pushkin's Bronze Horseman.
Another surprise is associated with the same, and the famous Bronze Horseman floods that claimed the life … 17 homeless vagrants who just could not wake up, when I was a big water. Legend of the crushing flood was unwound and swollen after the publication of Pushkin Bronze Horseman, who, as befits a work of fiction, resorted to metaphors and hyperboles.
Two other very big topic — Peter, in fact, did not base Petersburg. And in the laying down of the fortress (and this is also the popular name, in fact, the fortress is a completely different name), May 16, 1703, out of town and was on Olonets shipyard. Many buildings, construction of which today is attributed to Peter and Peter's age, it turns out, was built much later.
Two other aspects — Petersburg, in fact, the city is not Orthodox and ancient pagan culture and the culture of the Protestant.
Petersburg in 1694 — no Peter at the mouth of the Neva River yet, but is a kind of settlement with the words from Peter B — near Riga, in Livonia, and the Gulf is a modest title — St. Petersburg Sea (in the words of Theophanes Prokopovich).
And the explanation is simple — fishing. Rybar Peter — the symbol of fishermen, he catches fish even in the Gospels.
Therefore, when the castle founded at the mouth of the Neva River, and in the absence of Peter, God ordered her to call St. Peter Burh — Castle of St. Peter.
And as Peter the Great dragged later.
The fact that Peter did not build any city, and initially did not even planned, written in many sources.
The solution of the construction was made only after the unfortunate Prut campaign, when an earthen fort St. Pitre Burh had torn up (Peter was afraid to port, but Moscow hated even more — and so he lied and Porto, and hated Moscow not returned).
Quote from Aheeva:
Since the mid 1710's and the construction of the settlement of the town was linked to the creation of a regular on Vasilievsky Island. As such, Peter has built a new, second Petersburg. Foreigners, even wrote that it was the king of the Vasilievsky Island is going to build a "city proper."
Next Ageeva cites foreigners that until 1710 no city-it was not, and only since the mid 1710 started to build.
And those who refused to move to Vasilevsky, resettled by force.
So the summary.
Houses built on the side of Moscow and St. Petersburg island were mostly destroyed. New construction on Vasilievsky conducted very slowly and with difficulty.
The city is mostly populated by newcomers SLAVES, each new party came and stayed, those who could not escape on the way to "paradise."
Today is a huge problem for historians to figure out what is the time of Peter the home — they have not saved any. We have to reconstruct the descriptions in diaries and surviving drawings.
When the court after the death of Peter amicably left for Moscow, in understandably no one left.
Here is a monument to himself left the "Peter the Great".
Three hundred years of the history of St. Petersburg has … a lot or a little? On the one hand, St. Petersburg — the youngest capital city of the Old World, which arose only at the beginning of XVIII century, when the enlightened Europe is over Renaissance. On the other hand, three hundred years of history are filled with so many dramatic events, which is more than enough, and the thousand-year history of some of his older brothers. It would seem that the history of St. Petersburg whole of it: it is embodied in a unique architectural appearance of St. Petersburg, in the masterpieces of Russian literature and art, names geniuses of Russian science and culture, who worked there, and the heroes who defended him from all attacks invaders.
This story is embodied in the memory of generations, which since its foundation was replaced only two dozen. Still Petersburg still has many mysteries related not only to the history of Russia, but also with the European history, and with the history of modern civilization. To reveal these secrets, go to the city's past from his present: from St. Petersburg, Petrograd, Leningrad and passing again in St. Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire, and Petropolis, as it was called, along with St. Petersburg until 1712 under Peter I.
The current historical image of St. Petersburg, which absorbed the best achievements of world and Russian architecture emerged in the second half of the XVIII and XIX century. In this period, according to European contemporaries, St. Petersburg was not equal to the architectural beauty and urban harmony. In a sense, XIX century — the century of St. Petersburg as the leader of the European city planning, as were Paris and Vienna in the XVII century, Rome and Moscow XVI, XV in Venice or Prague at the turn of the XIV-XV centuries. This is the heyday of what was then the capital of Russia — both the heyday of power most of the Russian Empire, stretching from the west of Krakow to Fort Ross in the east. It was, in fact, the world empire, the eastern boundary was the American Wild West.
Peter was not satisfied tatty Nyenskans, continued to move along the right bank of the Neva River and stopped his attention on Hare Island — Enisaari, reminding him in shape ship. Island (Petrograd side) and became known as — St. Petersburg island, stressing that the city should be in the islands. Peter desperately imitate Venice and Amsterdam, and the mainland is never rushed.
Here's what they write about the islands directories first quarter of the twentieth century:
"For the" bucket "is its own island — poludachnye and recreational space for petrogradtsev, slyvuschie under that name."
Master Plan which was first developed by Anna Ivanovna, and implemented with Elizabeth.
Earthen fortress was built over the last month. On May 16, in the absence of Peter, which is absolutely not interested in the fort was laid, and in June, it has functioned, scaring Swedes one of its formidable appearance. In 1706, Domenico Trezzini start replacing earthen walls to brick.
Fortress built over the last month and then rebuilt forty (40) years. It can be argued that the pyramids were built longer … Bricks were there a few more, and height of the building — a little higher. But everything else — very similar.
Revetment walls designed by NA Lviv from the south — from the Neva River — was not decorative. Any piterets know this one of the mysteries of Catherine — from whom it was necessary to defend themselves from the South, and even so hastily. Not of Pugachev, in the end!
The first building on the clearing in the forest began to appear in 1730, a whole set of Lutheran, then arose Master Plan (with Anna Ivanovna), under which the clearing of decided to make the main street, and slowly began to realize this plan. 1738 — the year of the official appearance of the Nevsky Prospekt. It is quite a long time there were few buildings, but soon it was all built up, Elizabeth and Catherine gave it far enough.
Turkish hypothesis. Strange coincidence — the port required to destroy the city — and the reality — the city of Petra was destroyed. There is a causal relationship or not, the question of political scientists. But the fact remains — the port required to destroy the city — the city was destroyed. This is not a hypothesis. These are two indisputable facts.
And, finally, on the cemetery. Smolensk Cemetery on Vasilievsky Island — the oldest cemetery in St. Petersburg, the first documents mentioning him are again to 1738. The reason — the fact that the year 1738 again — very clear. The town first appeared municipal documents, and start a normal city government, were defeated by the street name of their first appearance, and the cemetery, finally, work to the city authorities.
And Laura were buried later. The reliquary of Alexander Nevsky was made at the behest of Elizabeth.
And what did Peter? Peter built avsteriyu, where he drank vodka and treated others. And not just entertained, but forced. As he did the same thing on the battlefield in front of the enemy, well written in Moreau de Brasil.
As an application of a number of materials.
"St. Petersburg — an abomination in the eyes of Russians" — translator of the Prussian Embassy in St. Petersburg I.G.Fokerodt:
"St. Petersburg and navy in their eyes an abomination, and certainly there is no shortage of them in the evidence to confirm this position."
"Hatred of Peter to Moscow reached that Moscow would readily leveled to the ground."
Ageeva writes: "The opinion Fokerodta confirmed despatches Mardefelda Prussian ambassador to the king of the July 12, 1712 Mardefelda retells it Golitsyn, in which St. Petersburg is called gangrene."
The same Fokerodt:
"Earth Ingria infertile and did not give such a Russia, which she would not have had before, not multiply the treasury."
However, the worthlessness of the land, and Peter himself wrote:
"Go not to ruin, but to master, although onaya (Finland), we do not need at all"
"Neighborhood of the city is very infertile, and provisions to bring a hundred miles, so that it is very expensive," wrote Chronicle Gassman.
Ageeva again cites:
"As for the soil of the city and its surroundings, it is generally very cold, as on many waters, waste areas, and from the very nature of the north."
Foreigners agreed with the Russian, when it came to the "bad" areas of the city.
Evaluating the plan regular construction of Vasilievsky Island, Fokerodt wrote that "the country selected is the bad."
Well, about Peter — "the city-on-bone" — not just lazy writing.
It was built in shifts and shift workers were killed, as a rule, all manned (remember the beginning of the Smolensk cemetery?). True, it is believed that it is a myth, and perished people any more than in other parts of Russia. Just people who worked, went headlong with black spot.
Of love to his beloved St. Petersburg Petrograd popular pastime — frequent flooding — written plenty.
Actually, the reason why the city immediately after the death of Peter was swiftly abandoned, and came to a terrible desolation, understood.
And the window to Europe Peter not hacked (another myth — to build the Sea Canal in the 19th century, Peter the big ships could not go, and overload in Kronstadt to small craft was extremely inefficient; however, as she walked the Northern War, and no one was swimming , a more expensive — went through Riga and Novgorod on the land, or the Archangel), and, as it turned out, the city is not left behind.
Let's go to memorable places.
Trinity Cathedral of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra — 1774
Cancer Alexander Nevsky — in Elizabeth, 1740
Peter and Paul Cathedral — June 28, 1733, with Anna Ivanovna, in 1848, a radical restructuring of Montferrand.
Peter and Paul Fortress — 1740, Elizabeth (Elizabeth is a controversial dating, not a fortress, after the death of Anna Ivanovna there was turmoil, and some claim that Elizabeth has replaced Anna Ioannovna, excluding infant Ivan VI Antonovich of major historical figure).
Isaac — wood — burned under Peter.
New Isaac — again wooden — burned down in 1735
Life-Giving Trinity Cathedral (Trinity-Petrovsky) — burned down in 1913, but until this point everything was burning (being wooden), a few more times. After Peter was not, of course, nothing but the fact that Elizabeth built in 1746, was also destroyed by cruel time.
The oldest temple, Peter — ST. Prince. Vladimir on the Petrograd side, under Peter Church, which stood on the site, called "Nicholas wet" because of frequent flooding. To say that it is not available, there is no need — the cathedral dates back to 1789.
Nicholas Cathedral in Kolomna — Catherine, 1762
12 boards were built in 1742 (Domenico Trezzini).
Cabinet of Curiosities — 1728, Georg Matarnovi
On Vasilevsky (leggings) Isle save one (!) Civic buildings, belonging to the first half of the 18th century.
All the Left Bank — Catherine's time.
Winter was a lot, the last — fifth — we litsezreem today, and this is 1839. Peter and does not smell.
Summer Palace — an absolute replica style Luzhkov — Elizabeth regained his drawings.
House of Peter in a case, built by Catherine — a relic, it is possible that this house — a fake, created for Catherine patriotic descendants.
Guides warn — interiors house recreated in the drawings and prints.
Thinking that the exterior and has a similar origin.
Admiralty — all wooden demolished in 1711, and the stone was built in 1827.
Incidentally, the first shipyard for small vessels — is generally 1718
Menshikov Palace — only buildings inherited from the era of Peter the Great.
More Kikiny Chamber. Generally speaking, they are too far from the then Peter.
They were originally built in 1714, but today those houses too, nothing is left. In their place, too many times what to build, and call today Kikiny the House of the 18th century can only madman who believes that the Colosseum, the Parthenon stand firmly, untouched by time.
I love you, Peter's creation. Even just for the moment when these words were spoken, from the creation of Peter in the city was not the H-I-H-E-L-O.