In 2011, it will be exactly 60 years since then, as in Novgorod was found first birch-bark scroll. Prior to this, scientists believed that medieval people were illiterate polls! .. For more than half a century Novgorod region gives more and more messages from the past.
The last, in 2010 was not just yield, landmark: scientists have found 1000-E and 1001-e account birchbark letter.
July 26, 1951 Nina Akulova, furniture factory worker, came to Nerevsky excavation earn during her maternity leave. And how on earth she once carried. "When we dug up the old pavement and began to smooth out her, I found the bark. I unfolded it, I look — it is something nachirkano. I cleaned it and took the scientists "- recalls a woman.
Later on Dmitrovskaya Street (in the old days it was called Serfs) established a memorial, which states that it is here that was found first in the history of Russian birch-bark scroll.
Rich Man, Poor
With a light hand Akulovoy finds poured from the horn of plenty. Only in the same 1951 found nine letters. Before among historians view was that the population of ancient kingdoms illiterate knew. Anyone and had no idea that in the Middle Ages, someone other than the princes and the monastic estates, was able to clearly express your thoughts on "paper". According to popular belief, the islands of light in a sea of darkness and ignorance were only monasteries where monks copied the scriptures and lead record. And then a surprise! Messages to the bark were all — rich and poor. Wrote, though sometimes it was heard, but you wrote it! The letter was about everything — about the feudal obligations, disputes between peasants and serfs of complaints to the owners. Sometimes the message abundantly flavored with selected Russian obscenities. By the way, used to be that it brought to Russia the Tatar-Mongols, but no: mat was originally a Russian invention, as Bath or samovar.
Cheap and cheerful
Why in the Novgorod birchbark was in such high esteem? The reason — the same infamous economic factor. Parchment or paper, which appeared in Russia only as Ivan the Terrible, cost a lot of money, and elm — a penny, good forest around Novgorod was Nemer. Besides birch bark perfectly preserved texts, because it was afraid of water. So it is located in a very humid place Novgorod, with its high ground water is not something that should not destroy, but rather canned messages are not bark. Of course, important documents, such as land ownership, military reports, Novgorod wrote on parchment, stitched their official seals. But that's often drafts outlining exactly on birch bark, as well as domestic notes and love letters. After reading the letter torn in half along the text, cut with a knife or simply thrown away. Written not with ink on birch bark, and sharpened rod (pisalom), deep protsarapyvaya letters. Thanks to today we have a unique opportunity to get acquainted with the contents of ancient letters.
EACH HIS PROBLEMS
So, what the Slavs wrote to each other? Here birchbark manuscripts, dating from about 1240-1260 years: "Bow of Daniel brother Ignatius. Brother, take care of me, because I go naked — no coat, no other things! A lady … I do not complain. Mercy, brother, give me a place in the back: nothing to feed. I bow to you. "
Needless to say, everyone had their own problems. One table was groaning with food, and the other in the pockets of the wind howled.
In birch notes people often asked for help. Here's charter, written in the most rampant of the Mongol-Tatar yoke in Russia. What is so urgent reports simple Novgorodian his wife? "Greetings from Peter Mary. I mowed grass and ozerichi (the residents of the village of Lake) I have taken away the hay … "
It would seem that his wife Mary was to run through the village and the villagers to call for help. Especially in those days reigned club law. So in fact there. Peter, obviously well acquainted with the legal niceties, asks his wife: "… You sleep with a copy of the deed of ratification came here so that it is clear, as is the border of my mowing."
This one sentence speaks volumes. First, the literate peasants is as competent wife. Second, his unjust — also educated people, otherwise how could they read the document? Third, business disputes in Russia resolved not massacre, and quite civilized. So much for the "dark ages" …
I enchant YOU, I LOVE YOU zatselo
It is believed that in the past, a woman, and especially in Russia, was downtrodden, backward and dependent. Certainly not! Woman in Novgorod was free an equal partner. Wife to her husband often sent "orders" and led financial affairs. Not only that — the ladies choose their own husbands, and did not hesitate to solicit object of his passion. Do not believe me? Read: "I send you three times. What the evil you have against me, in this week, you did not come to me? And I treat you like a brother! Did I hurt you that sent to you? And you, I see you do not like. If you were a pleasure, you'd escaped from human eyes and rushed … you want to see, so I leave you? Even if I love you on your nerazumeniyu hurt, if you start to scoff at me, then let God judge you and me. "
Alas, all-in-all I was indifferent to the author of the message. After reading it, the man in the hearts cut it with a knife, scraps tied in a knot and threw it into a pile of manure. But the women were in no hurry to give up — resorted to conspiracies. "So let them break out your heart and your body, and your soul a passion for me, and my body, and my face …" — said in another message. Sorry, do not know that it did witchcraft woman who has lost her head for love …