Shadow premium class in Russia — is 1000-2000 people
Not so long ago argued that our homeland is similar to the European Union, no one would have never occurred. But the crisis — economic, political, administrative — which appeared here and in Europe almost immediately, forced to remember that our homeland, and the EU appeared as projects. In this case — as I say — neobmyslennye projects through and unstable. At the moment they have to think out urgently on the go — unless, of course, we do not want, that the crisis has grown and we had to go through it in the forms of decay, similar to the collapse of the Soviet Union.
What is the hidden mechanisms of the crisis, looks like "Russian project" behind the scenes of the Kremlin, told the analyst Gleb Pavlovsky in the lecture "The Russian Federation and the European Union — two unstable Project and there is no alternative candidate as the cause of real politics." The lecture was held in the Metropolitan High School Social and Economic Sciences. "Free Press" publishes its more notable pieces.
Gleb Pavlovsky, a political scientist, political analyst, editor in chief of "Russian Journal", President of effective policies:
— At the moment — as recognized in Europe and is officially recognized in Russia — we have a crisis. The crisis usually has some things, things that are missed in the previous time, which was in sight, but they did not direct attention. The current crisis allows you to see anew these two items, both the EU and Russia, which, as there were not so long ago, fully justified the axiom of existence.
The easiest way to start with the fact that the EU and our homeland as it is today — almost peers. Our homeland has received municipal independence in the weeks before the Maastricht Treaty was signed.
But this fact — a sign of formal similarity can be quite unimportant. Especially since Europe was to unite his own very long, very little, since the late 1940s, and this process was motivated by the very harsh ideological, ethical and political conclusions from the first and second world wars.
Practically speaking, two wars put on the brink of a European place the question of existence. It was decided — in different forms, different philosophies, different political thesis — that on the model of interaction of state can not exist in its present form.
Another exciting moment — the collapse of the European elites. Most of them were, or just for the time being disavowed as the German elite, or collaborationism compromised or weakened by the war. During this period, Europe was in some degree with fuzzy boundaries — with the masses, but not elite, which had yet to come back to prove its right to exist — and it is unclear in what part: the classic to the elite in the uniforms, the aristocratic elite, the old business elite or An old political elite — they have all been called into question.
Surprisingly, there is already a certain similarity of the situation with the Russian Federation. But immediately tell the difference — it's enormous.
To no revolutions, counter-revolutions
In the two years before the Russian Federation has become a subject of international law, we have, in principle, there was no discussion about such things as our home in its present borders. It just does not open a discussion and no one becomes interested. As you know, the first case of public discussion of the ability of independent replica of the Russian Federation became a scandalous writer Rasputin at the first Congress of People's Deputies (held in June 1989 — "SP"), where he shouted, "What will happen if our home will come from the Soviet Union? "This was seen as predatory gesture, not as a political statement. But six months later there were elections in the Russian parliament.
In short, in the case of — a very short period, momentary appearance, no separation, as in Europe, where it is very early realized that political union is unrealistic, and you should start with some economic agreements.
Here, too, there is a certain similarity — in the moral situation of the late. Russian Federation appears as a method to end the previous Russian history. Putin's expression, which will be later that "there will be no more revolutions, counter-revolutions," expressed the pathos of this period, when the desired finish "all this." In the "all" came naturally, and Russian experience, and to some extent Russian experience as a whole — as bad — but had no idea of how to move on.
At the start of Europe there are approximately the same landscape that exists first 1990 in Russia. It is the masses who are not drawn politically, yet remain very unsafe ideologically inclined toward totalitarianism of a species. The question is how to build a new framework for this system is the way to return to Europe, to return the country's national Makar so that they should not have done it again, that European countries have always done — joined in the fight for the balance of forces abroad, in the ideological struggle, destroying themselves.
For a time — from my point of view, Europe is the 1950-1960's — there are several solutions that, in the end, add up to the German decision, where the masses are removed from the policy, and with all this, cut one in the process of construction of the modern economy. By the way, fascinating point of principle and of — in Europe is not built the state's economy, and the economy has subevropeyskaya.
The Germans are working to return the wealth for themselves, to return independence, which they denied for several decades after the war, and returned for themselves a place in Europe that has been lost.
In Russia, too, there are some horror elite to the masses. The masses were communist, the masses are unsafe because they do not have forgotten their demands — social and economic — in the late Russian Union. Practically speaking, it was not even a requirement, and the promises that were going on — promises immediate prosperity while returning to the right path.
Fascinating question — where the economy elites, where the economy is the process of establishing a new balance of the population and the elite?
In Europe it is in the end is in the construction of public country. At the European social government can look like the elegant building and political model. It provides a redistribution of the product, and with all this ensures separation, removal of the elites from unsafe contact with the masses. It is uniformly expressed in increasing the EU courts. There is a level of elites, in principle, separated from the democratic process (but not independent of it). In the end, the elite is summarized in the form of a European public that all is not so little criticized, I will not.
Our unified homeland, as the project
And what is happening in Russia? If in Europe, the carrier of the project are pro-European elite in Russia support the project turns out to be the same person. It still would not like, but it seek out his wish, his claim. In fact, starting from early adjustment, the search for a favorite with unlimited mandate — in advance unlimited. He declared — this favorite that has not yet been found — not only the essence of democracy, and the guarantor of the new social welfare of the masses.
This role is stable and from the outset has no alternative. Seek out a favorite, which will not have an equal in the middle of favorit
es. Do not seek out a favorite, which will be competitive to someone else.
It looks for a Democratic Society, which once belonged to me — it's "Moscow Tribune," Interregional Group of Deputies. This society from the very beginning irremovable and when one of the participants in that crosses or any other party, it does not change the political identity and still is, at first, a Democrat. He is still a part of society that expects a leader.
The word "leader" in this period is unpopular, popular word "president." The authorship of the introduction of this concept in the context of our own Yakovlev and Gorbachev. But this concept is becoming very popular. The President immediately separates it power over the government, he was never seen as an authority in the middle of the authorities as one of the branches of government. And he — the carrier of the new project.
The project is the latest of, just arisen, immediately proves to be unique and extraordinary design. It is so important, so significant that it can not be denied or, say, called into question on the basis of either a fundamentally ethical judgments. At the heart of this project — a favorite, but a favorite for a long time can not find the economic form for the project, as it can not provide a group of elite independence, security of the people.
The search process took all of this form of the 1990s. Search for economic and monetary scheme that would fortify themselves elites skim, segregate, to rise above the population, was a very long time. The scheme was not — before the rise of Putin's team.
Reducing the question, Putin's team did not immediately find, but in the end, offers in its own complete economic scheme. It is the least related to the European idea to make for themselves the dignity, independence and peace — the world as an exception, even the risk of war on the ground in Europe.
In Russia, another idea — it's the thought of trade, but very curious what. This point is fundamental to realize true. We're talking about raw materials, the sale of raw materials. But the raw material and it was under Boris Yeltsin. Here you are talking about the appearance of the subject of this trade. Must seem someone who is the undisputed trader of raw materials, and anything else related to Russia. I have to show the brand.
This brand is unified Our homeland — I say at this point is not about the party. The idea is that the Russian Federation (by definition, not a single concept) should be the United Russia, and as such to enter the outdoor market, selling everything that is in. Including — one of the articles — that create private company. Private companies have never been considered in Russia as an autonomous participant in action on the world stage. It is an affiliated entity — affiliated with partly virtual, partly real concept Unified Our homeland.
Brand new Russian reality
And that reality in the Unified Russian Federation? Is it only three TV channels that broadcast in the whole area? No. The vertical of power? No, it is not now, she has not appeared in this period of time. How real is another thing — the system of trade and lending trade in raw materials, all of which goes completely through the ruling group — or the team, as she now calls itself.
With all of this — which is basically — Putin from the very beginning made a bid for the creation of the modern elite. Then he did not rely on a spontaneous process. The elite should be created — he is aware of — among those who successfully on behalf of the country will be selling it, the country, resources and abilities.
Having started creating this group, Putin has found that it does not wish to produce income from their own hands, and forced her to do it. Tools — contrary to what the original core was willing beneficiaries of our class (I call it a premium class, then it was a small class, it included an old oligarchs — we all know them by name) — they were required to leave the West. They were willing to leave them on their own account name, but did not. And the return of these funds in Russia, too, went through the western monetary organization, the Western monetary universities: Putin has never believed in the ability of our business elite, including Putin's elite, it is appropriate to invest purchased funds.
Next, start the lending mechanism under commodity implementation. The funds come on the strip, which is usually called power vertical. In fact, this society beneficiaries of municipal credit, which are the mediators. Where are the main means? All the same, the main funds are not stolen. They go into the sector, which can be called Russian Socialist state.
We have a separate sector, which is highlighted in the legal and administrative relations. It is artificially created, and immediately began to form with the creation of the ruling class — with about 200-2001 years. It creates a common rule of thumb: if a citizen is at a certain point, has administrative titles, residence, work or pension book, he gets right to the guaranteed (by whom — we will say later) to benefit from the country's trade with raw materials.
In this volume, there is no shred important for a small business or economic activity. The benefits of trade of the country are considered as supportive as the government from the very beginning — and rightly so — believes that those revenues that it can provide, are not sufficient to cover the costs of families.
But — which is fundamentally — wage always grow a little faster than profitability. It may be, of course, only because of raw Prize. But they are grown under the condition that the person stays within the consensus. This is the consensus and political — social government in Russia will always choose the same team — and territorial. The latter means that people do not change their own places, and inside inhabited Fri do not come out, if possible, on the street and sit at a TV or on the Web.
Putin and the Web
Putin has always been a supporter of hot web, contrary to insinuations. As long as I can remember — in 1999 — he was very popular website, although he did not want to go there. Web bad that this second reality, which extends some capacity, closes the need for diversity, in the symbolic consumption in the conflict and competition. You will be able to enter into a web of competitive roles in any case — and this is very good (from the standpoint of power — "JV").
Shadow premium class
That, in the end, the result? Appeared and began to expand our shadow premium class. It is virtually impossible to count, but over the years of Medvedev he grew up, in my estimation, almost 10 times — and maybe more. The main role here, of course, played a pumping liquidity crisis and companies in which the number of beneficiaries and the budget (in this case, unlike in the U.S.) the beneficiaries of government personnel grown very much. At the moment there are thousands of up to 2-thousand people.
This class is illegal. At times, he tries to tell about myself, but here is hidden. From time to time act on his behalf. Once acted as Circassians — faster, with lashings of the address in this class, the address of its enrichment. Occasionally speaks Yakunin. But the general class acts through some other people, he can not say that — as at one point, Patrushev said — "we are the new nobility." It's quite hard to say — for a variety of cultural and other circumstances.
But — this class exists. He is the recipient of awards from virtually every product sold within the Russian Federation. This is a significant award, for example, for milk — about 25%. Obviously, not all of those 25% off the price of milk sold in the Russian Federation, are just that-two thousand people. Part of this interest is naturally distributed along the chain. But this award is corrupt — in our criteria — an allegory of macroeconomic corruption. In other words
, not bribery, which usually mean by corruption (it is unimportant), and participation in the direct withdrawal of funds from intergovernmental relations certain group of people.
Do they also have names, and the problem is not that they hide them from prosecutors — prosecutors, too, and among them. The problem is that they can not declare them. Since a significant portion of these people — not all! — Can not even at the theoretical level to legalize their property.
But that's part of the problem. Motionless social government lowered his voice for power, ultimately for Putin, who uses it as a method to contain premium grade, and immediately separate them from access by the public. A population, in turn, explain — also correctly — that it could unleash those same elites, and did not seem to be enough. It is also correct: they could be. Soon it becomes immutable nature intimidate the population liberals that have accumulated in the government, and is about to receive a free hand.
Media in Russia
In all of this, of course, a very important role played by the media. This is a very exciting story, and this statement, in which you are involved — partly as an audience, partly as participants. Since our masmedia are not, necessarily, a provider of disk imaging, but they are not directly and golf views of the country's problems, objects, positioning in relation to these problems. They are the field of monopoly, in which subjects sharply narrowed the discussion — artificially narrowed. A field in which banned a series of personal methodologies.
For example, the severity prohibited. In our mass media gravity is excluded, you can not seriously open a discussion of any question, you can — at best — it hysterically open a discussion on the talk show. But this — the seriousness of the simulation, of course, no discussion here is not happening. And most importantly — it does not affect the decision-making.
The subjects of the Russian Federation as a family
Neither the European Union nor the Russian Federation is not a single organism, although usually described as a certain body. And this and that — a family of actors, organized differently, with a different legal basis. In the European Union prepyadstviya began as currently seen in connection with the operation itself, the need for the public service of the country, which is not an isolated sector, and in fact complete, and from which the elites are divided, taken outside the boundaries of the state of the country, and there are unattainable — not for elections, nor to challenge real solutions.
Our elites have in several forms. Premium class simply invisible and hidden in the glare of the Kremlin. There are administrative elite, who are also the beneficiaries of the budget, but to a lesser extent, and that serve the social government, the lower part of his own being immersed in it.
But now the question arises: Did the landing, put on some kind of economic, political and democratic (in the broadest sense of the word) base the Russian Federation? And whether it was possible to do the same with the EU?
In regard to the EU I will refer you to a broader, now, the debate on this issue. Discussion of lack of democracy in the European Union — a very old topic, but at the moment it searches for the euro demos were added. But in Russia, in fact, that is the United Russia now?
This is, first, social government, which is the only part of the population of the Russian Federation. His task — to maintain the legitimacy of the elites, while legitimate those elites, a huge part of that social government does not know who to him are out of reach and in some places higher Putin and the government, or to the side or behind them.
Socialist government is drawn, I would have said, on the walls of world commodity price bubble. This bubble will collapse earlier or later, we have a buffer reserves — at the moment I do not want to read about it. I wish to say that in place of the Russian Federation appeared and at the moment there are several independent entities, each of which has, in a sense, the global shape.
This Rosneft, which has just topped Igor Sechin, Rosneft and which, in its current form, and built. This, of course, not a state subject — he kind of state, and in part of the world. This is a subject that is a definite policy in Europe, inside the country — and not just economic. He is self-sufficient, it is, strictly speaking, autonomous from other entities. In addition, he is the center of the crossing arrangements of various business groups.
The subject on behalf of the Kremlin
Yet there is a team of the Kremlin. This is a different subject, it does not need to merge with a set of top positions in the executive branch and in the municipal corporations. It is an independent, very compact entity, but all this is very typical. I know him better than others, perhaps because he lived for a time in his belly, and was part of it. This — the project team. It takes itself as the project team, as the only carrier of the project Russian Federation, and the only one who can bring to the project configuration.
With all of this team all these years, the Kremlin quickly became narrower than expanding. Some of its members crossed into the premium class, someone went into opposition in some way — as I am. But, in principle, it is now as before is the remains of the team in 2000, which as previously retains some control concept a reality — as the management of a system of images, which are grouped around Vladimir Putin.
Team of the Kremlin — it is a very fundamentally — a subject with global legitimacy. It has the world's legitimacy, as here, in Russia, 50 million members recognized the country's public, and acts on behalf of the whole of. In addition, he is a member of a number of the world's elite club of principle, a breakaway from the previous demos, and available separately.
There are other components of the Russian Federation, which also need to be called. This, of course, the city of Moscow. City of Moscow is not just an independent subject of the Russian Federation, and I'd said, an independent Russian with his demos. He was the first — before Russian Federation as a whole — has crafted social government, thanks to Yuri Mikhailovich Luzhkov, and the first crisis of the public that the country and those who have to maintain it — the local elites, who are the beneficiaries of the metropolitan economy, but require a different place in the it.
Several more actors. Some of them Far East, the other Caucasus. Not all of them are territorial, all have a different legal nature, and the question is how to manage them. This question turns out to be fatal — and the crisis at this stage — and to project the Euro Union and the Russian Federation for the project. As the crisis develops into a crisis management organization. So how exactly is now found out that what seemed an organization with the highest level of system, it was just a certain method of control is closely related to a set of specific situations and conditions.
When will the European Union
This is the moment where we are. In a sense, what I read, are my impressions of the formation of the presidential administration and the government. They have demonstrated the highest degree of autism management team, the loss of docking with a set of those subjects that they wish to control.
Because the stability of the Russian Federation — as, in general, and the European Union — an open question. There still is a fascinating point, a fundamental difference that I'm done. I do not think that in Europe there is a severe intrigued or planning for the disintegration of the Russian Federation. But our elites there is gambling account the fact that the crisis of the European Union will be as wide as the Russian crisis of the Union, and it will create new capabilities for our economic — internal and external — policies. What specific skil
ls — for all that is not thought out. Our team — a team-improviser. She came to power in the criteria, when it seemed that it expects defeat, went through a couple of times languid moments of defeat, and, in principle, does not expect the global crises nothing wrong. And expect the doctor Pleischner walking around Geneva — only good …
(To be continued)