First term telepathy formed Frederick Myers, one of the founders of the British Society for Psychical Research. It was a non-profit organization established in 1882 to investigate unusual phenomena and human abilities, which are called "paranormal." It should be noted that the creators of the SPR in no way were not charlatans and ignorant. It was the brightest of his time — linguists, poets, philosophers, physicists, chemists. Sir William Crookes, for example, discovered thallium, and the first to obtain the helium in the laboratory.
Members of the public used the scientific approach to the study of any paranormal phenomena, trying to link them with the natural capacity of the human body. Telepathy was the first in the list, and after a series of experiments, the British researchers found that "thought-transference is an indisputable fact." Unfortunately, the essence of the experiment remained hidden in the records and minutes of the SPR, so it is unknown what methods were found true.
Society for Psychical Research still exists today, although more than a hundred years, it has survived many scandals and leadership changes. Some scientists have accused the other of "excessive enthusiasm for spiritualism," the first and the second reproach, that they "learn only the bones and muscles, without delving into the hearts and souls." The British did not come to a consensus, standing on the line between science and the occult. Perhaps, if they are in fact perfectly mastered the telepathy, the situation would have been different …
In a century-long controversy
Even with the definition of telepathy is not so simple as it seems. In parapsychology decided to separate the conscious from the unconscious telepathy, treating as two different phenomena. That is, if a person passes away thoughts at will — is one thing, but if it takes someone else's thoughts, as well as messages from the other world — is quite another. At the same time clean "telepathic" for some reason it is considered to be people-"receivers", and the first — so, just slightly trained brain. Such a division is supported by a modern parapsychologists and researchers of the old school. There is a logical question — what in this case, the true "telepathic" differ from mediums? This was debated for decades spiritualists and supporters of the theory of telepathy. The first defended the existence of the afterlife, and its connection with the world of the living and the latter believed that mediums simply "catch" of the message from the information field created by the audience. One of the leaders of the SPR, Frank Podmore, even tried to finally consolidate all of the visions of psychics, shamans and preachers of the status of "telepathic hallucinations," wrote the book "The Vision and the transmission of thought." However, much success he has achieved. Proponents of both theories still stand each on its own.
Animal Cruelty captive
One of the first manifestations of "spontaneous telepathy" was recorded even before the emergence of the term — in 1759, during the famous Stockholm fire. Scientist Emanuel Swedenborg background was at a distance of fifty miles from the capital of Sweden glowing in the company of friends. Now, friends say that Swedenborg suddenly turned pale and said quietly: "In Stockholm, a raging fire." It is believed that Emanuel caught the thoughts of his neighbor, who was at that time in a burning house.
Another example described in the minutes of the SPR has happened to a certain Major General R., who died on the battlefield, but before his death asked to give his wife a wedding ring. The woman claimed that while at one hundred and fifty miles from the place of combat, it seems to be half asleep, she heard her husband's voice: "Remove the ring from my finger and send it to his wife." The head of the PGI said that the accuracy of what is happening has been convincingly demonstrated.
Even the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud cited the case of spontaneous telepathy from his practice. His "receiver" was a Czech woman, who emigrated to the United States. In 1939, she suddenly felt a strong sense of fear and despair, as "learned" that her mother died at home. Two days later a telegram arrived from Czechoslovakia, confirmed the death. Freud himself could not give an unambiguous assessment of the occasion, but vouched that his patient was not a fraud.
The current study
Interestingly, since then, has been formulated as the term "telepathy", despite the endless series of experiments and arguments, so really was not found — myth or reality. On the one hand, there is a scientific opinion from the IRS — certainly respectable people, the famous "cross-correspondence" Spiritualists beginning of the XX century and the huge number of cases where the witness was recorded thought-transference. On the other hand, — pure science, biology and physics of the middle and the end of the XX century, which did not find clear evidence so widespread phenomenon.
In the United States, Europe and the USSR in the experiments were an incredible number on them were public and private funds, some studies have lasted for decades. We are held with the participation of well-known scientists — in particular, Vladimir spondylitis, and psychics — like Nina Kulagina and Wolf Messing. The results of these experiments were very different — from the huge success to complete failure. There was only one — the certainty, consistency. And in fact it is between theory and proven fact.
For example, Wolf Messing himself admitted that most of his abilities in reading thoughts is rather "reading muscles." Holding the hand of a friend, he could catch the pulse of the body and understand what the person is thinking. Nina Kulagina read information from the consciousness of other people at a distance, the famous animal trainer Vladimir Durov inspired the team to dogs, but in repeated experiments, the results turned out to be zero. The phenomenon of telepathy remains a mystery to this day.
Mind-reading session without exposing
Unconfirmed experiments did not prevent the global culture to mention telepathy in a variety of works of art. Heroes comic books and movies are her without any difficulty, reinforcing in the minds of readers and viewers belief in special abilities of the mind. The scientists of our time adding fuel to the fire by developing special chips that will be implanted into the brain and will naturally share thoughts at bay. Of course, now this method is suitable only for the desperate daredevils.
Also note that with the development of communications technology such as telephones, especially mobile, e-mail and the Internet, the problem of telepathy is not worth it so acutely as a hundred years ago. Studies have collapsed, scientists do other things, and for the transmission of thought parapsychologists have long been considered outdated and uninteresting event.
If you are sure that you have telepathic abilities, and want to share it with the world, there is a fun way to be realized. James Randi, a magician from the United States, founded a special educational fund and promised a million dollars to anyone who can prove a strict laboratory conditions his paranormal abilities. The Foundation was established in 1996, and while a million remains untouched. But who knows, maybe you will be lucky to get it?