The theory of relativity the fourth dimension

December 11, 2011 15:41

Our world is made up of three dimensions, but let's imagine for a moment that we exist in a world of two dimensions of space. Then all will be in the form of drawings on paper. All things can be described by the length and width, but no depth. Objects can move in any direction on the surface of the paper, but will not be able to go up or down over the surface.

Suppose that in this imaginary world of two dimensions around the object inscribed square. In this case, the object will not be able to get outside of the square, unless of course, in the latter there is no opening. Movement above and below the square will be impossible.

Now back to our world of three dimensions. If around a three-dimensional object to draw a square, the object does not cost anything to step over or crawl under the square. Imagine further that the object is placed inside the cube, well, let's say, in a room with a ceiling, floor, and four solid walls. The object is not able to get out of the room, unless, of course, in the ceiling, on the floor or in one of the walls will not be opening.

Anyone know that all this is a long truths. It is well known that almost all the phenomena be explained in terms of the three-dimensional world. For example, this method could explain why water can be placed in a glass or why the prisoner may be confined in a cell.
Now let's look at the paranormal. For example, the materialization and dematerialization. Of a famous psychic, Charles Bailey, said that he could materialize hundreds of items in an iron cage in the presence of many skeptical observers. Perhaps these items were the bars of iron cage, which can not be explained in terms of the three-dimensional world. The strange disappearance of David Lang, as explained in the beginning of the book, too, does not seem to obey the laws of the three-dimensional concept of the universe.

As a possible explanation of phenomena such as those described above, have hypothesized that there is a fourth dimension of space, which under normal circumstances is not available. From time to time, objects can move in and out of the fourth dimension.
One of the earliest studies on the concept of the fourth dimension — "Transcendental Physics" — was written by Johann Karl-Friedrich Zellner. Original made in German and English version was published in Boston in 1881. A good example Zellner took phenomenon created by Henry Slade — psychic. Slade managed to make the object completely disappeared and then appeared elsewhere. He could also materialize two solid ring around the table legs.
Later, in England, Slade was jailed for fraud, which caused irreparable damage to the reputation Zellner. Today, however, is immaterial whether or not Slade fraud. Zellner offered to the world, has not lost interest in the unknown, carefully articulated theory. The more fraud Slade is still in question.

The following quote is taken from the "Transcendental Physics":

"Among the evidence is nothing more substantial and convincing than the transfer of material bodies from the enclosed space. Although our three-dimensional intuition can not be allowed to in a confined space opened intangible output, four-dimensional space allows this. Thus, the transfer of the body in this direction could be made without affecting the three-dimensional material of the wall. Since we have, three-dimensional beings, not the so-called four-dimensional intuition, we can only form his concept by analogy from the lower region of space. Imagine for a two-dimensional surface of the piece: each side drawn line, and a moving object. Movement only on the surface of the object will not be able to get outside of this two-dimensional enclosure, unless the line will not break. "
Public on Zellner explains that the object can pass through solid matter only through the four movements. Such a move, he said, is the most convincing proof of the existence of the fourth dimension.

Imagine for a moment that you are watching a movie about a game of pool. The game has just begun. Cue hits the ball, the ball breaks the other balls. Some are raining in angle or side pockets, pockets, others just roll on the table and stay in different places.
Now imagine that the film rewind. Several balls quickly jump out of the pockets and roll in the middle. A ball rolls back and stops at the tip of the cue. All other balls are collected in the form of a triangle.

Our experience tells us that setbacks can not be in reality. Although it looks funny, we instinctively feel that it is not feasible.
Suppose you were asked to explain why not a setback. What it violates the laws of physics, if you really broken? At first it may seem that the law of gravity is broken, if the balls jump out of the corner and side pockets. Now suppose that the molecules take a hit on the bottom and heat pockets, shrink and return pulse balls, pushing them back to the table surface.
Similar questions bothered physicists for many years. In fact, the whole course of events a coup during the session pool will not violate any fundamental laws of physics, but the laws of probability, of course, will be ignored. The chance that this could happen, is almost zero.
Until recently, the laws of probability were considered as the main reasons for which can not happen turn back time.

One of the most eloquent defenders of the theory of probability was Arthur Eddington (1882-1944), the eminent British astronomer and physicist. In his book, "The nature of the physical world," he comments on the inevitable march of time ahead, which calls the "arrow of time":
"The great thing about time is that it goes forward. But it is this aspect of the time most neglected of physics. "

Describing the method of determining the direction of the arrow of time, he remarks:

"If you are tracking an arrow we find more and more elements of randomness in the state of things, the arrow is directed to the future, if the presence of an element of chance is less, the arrow is directed to the past."
On a smaller scale, this rule is applicable to the example of billiards. As soon as the first ball strikes the other balls, neat triangle scatters in all directions. The element of chance is increased, the arrow is directed to the future. Conversely, if the balls are scattered all over again take their places in the triangle, the element of chance is reduced, and the arrow points to the past. In one case, the time moves forward, the other — back.
Judging by recent discoveries, it seems likely that in addition, there are other reasons for the direction of the arrow of time.

At the atomic and subatomic levels, some weak interactions between the particles of matter, obviously, are irreversible in time. In other words, these interactions are always in one direction and can not be reversed.
According to the concept proposed by Richard Fimenom, some subatomic particles of matter, the so-called anti-particles, apparently, are the particles that move for a moment back in time. In other words, the antiproton — proton is moving back in time, and therefore the positron — only an electron moving backwards in time.
However now it seems clear that at the level beyond the reach of the microscope time arrow should point forward at some point. If Richard Fimen rights, the very essence of time travel is a common phenomenon in the submicroscopic level.

In any case, it seems that scientists have only begun to unravel the fundamental principles that influence the direction of time.
In his treatise "The State" Greek philosopher Plato mentions a strange phenomenon when the world turns back and moves back in time.
Plato suggested that the description of the time back to the interpretation of the myth, which it strongly interested. In this myth, the god Zeus angered unjust king, who took the throne from his predecessor. Zeus took and simply ceased to rule the world, which is why the time has gone backwards, thus restoring the deposed king to the throne. Plato believed that the gods that rule the world, the world is moving itself. Each cycle lasts for centuries. When the gods rule the world, the time goes forward. When they no longer rule the world, it is going back.

Here is how Plato describes the actions of Zeus:

"Then listen. Is the era when God himself helps the movement and handling of the world. Also there is the era when he stops to help. It does this when the world cycles reach their limit, they determined. As a result, he begins to turn back on its own momentum, for he is a living being, and he was given a reason for those who concocted it in the beginning. "

Next, Plato describes the strange effects of time reversal:

"First, every living thing will freeze at that stage of life, which it has reached. All mortal beings will cease to grow old and start to grow back, that is younger, and gradually turn into babies. Gray hair will turn black elders, husbands poredeyut beard and cheeks become smooth, restoring each long-ago heyday of youth. The bodies of young lose the basis of sex, decreasing with each passing day and night until they return to infancy, babies become the body and mind. Then they fade completely and utterly abolish. "

The idea of the world, moving backwards, raises interesting questions.

Thus, in this example, the mythical world first moved forward in time, and then completely turned his course and moved back. Perhaps the men of the world are not aware of the fact that time flows backwards, but Zeus is well understood.
Consequently, on Mount Olympus, the legendary abode of the Greek gods, the time continues to move forward, or Zeus and the other gods too would move back in time.
Although the example is taken from the myth, it raises an important question. Just whether the time moves back and forth, and its direction can be seen from the outside? Can the time to move forward from one point to another observation ago?

In centuries after Plato question raised by Albert Einstein.

The theory of relativity is a milestone in human understanding of the universe. She saw a light through the work of the genius of Albert Einstein (1879-1955). Theory fully justifies the conclusion that time travel is perfectly feasible for bodies moving at high speed.
According to the theory of relativity, the body is not moving with absolute speed, the speed of the body relative to the observer. For example, suppose that the moon launched spacecraft. From Earth spaceship removed, say, at a rate of 1,600 kilometers per hour, and is close to the moon at a speed of 1,600 kilometers per hour. From the point of view of the spacecraft will also be true if we say that the earth is removed at a rate of 1,600 kilometers per hour, while the Moon is approaching at a speed of 1,600 kilometers per hour. Which statement is true? The theory is that both statements are valid from their respective control points.
Another important provision of Einstein's theory affects the speed of light. Light, according to Einstein, is moving with absolute speed, which is not relative to the observer. Suppose that a strong beam of light is directed into space. The light will be away from the Earth at a speed of 300,000 miles per second. At the same time, launched a spacecraft, the parallel beam of light, but moving a bit slower speed of light, say, 280,000 miles per second. Will ship to move relative to the light at 16 000 kilometers per second? The answer is no. A ray of light always moves at a speed of 300,000 miles per second, regardless of the speed or the position of the observer.

So far, we have two main provisions:

a) the speed of a body relative to the observer, and b) the speed of light is not relative to the observer, it is always constant.
That both provisions were true spaceship, moving at a speed of 280,000 miles per second, has to go through a strange transformation. When you approach the speed of light the mass of the spacecraft and all that is in it, will increase. Due to increase in weight all the moving parts are moving slowly. Clocks on board the ship will be slower, as the beam of light always moves at a speed of 300,000 miles per second. If somehow you can use dimensional pole to determine the distance traveled by a beam of light for a certain period of time, the pole would be shorter. Consequently, the beam of light would move on.
For an observer on Earth clock on board the spacecraft will go slower. For astronauts aboard the clock will go on as usual, and the clock in the world — faster. From the Earth to the measuring pole on board the spacecraft will seem too short. The ship measuring pole on earth will seem too long.

This leads us to the effect of relativity in the flow of time. From the point of view of humans, people on board the spacecraft will age very slowly and the time will be very slow. From the point of view of the ship's crew, the time in the world will go very quickly. People on the ship can travel to, say, ten years. When they come back, it will find that the world was 100 years old.
According to relativity theory, the body can not reach the speed of light because its mass would be infinite, while its length is reduced to infinity. This can not be, according to our current knowledge.

From a practical point of view, no space ship is not even close to the speed of light. Thus, it is impossible to test these theoretical conclusions. Clearly, the time travel in some way will be possible if such rates are achieved.
The problem of motion in a straight line at any speed is that the body does not stay in the same place. For example, if a spacecraft launch from Earth at a speed of light, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to measure the difference in the time in the world and on board ship.
Theoretically, however, the body does not need to move in a straight line at high speed, to notice the difference in time. For example, if you get the ball to rotate or vibrate at high speed, will operate the same principles of relativity. Inside the ball can take a few hours, whereas the outside — a few years.
Construct a device that could withstand the vibration and rotation at a speed close the speed of light, it would be an extremely difficult task. The ball would have to be constructed in such a way that it was perfectly round and perfectly balanced. Little rough, well, most tiny, lead to the fact that the ball was blown apart long before the desired speed is reached. To illustrate this example, imagine that the tires on your car balanced for speed of, say, 110 miles per hour. At high speed, the car starts to shake. Ball, rotating at the speed of light, will make 200600000 miles per hour. Modern technology can not balance anything with such precision.
Even if it were possible to hold balance, the ball would have to be protected from friction, the bombing of tiny particles of dust and inner tension. Friction can be reduced by wrapping the ball freely from the friction material, such as, for example, Teflon, and placing it in a vacuum. In order to avoid the danger of bombing the smallest particles, around the world to create a field that can repel matter, that out of the reach of today's technology. To avoid internal pressure, the ball must be made of a highly elastic material. It is unclear as to whether the sustain such substances known to man. Strong alloys have never had such an impact.
Finally, the main problem would be to create an ingenious device that would ensure a safe stay in the ball alive passenger.
No matter how difficult the task, it can not be considered to be impossible. 100 years ago, the existence of the laser and electron microscope seemed beyond the possible. Today it is a reality.
Have you ever looked at the pure cloudless sky dark at night, when you can see millions of stars? If yes, you looked through time into the past.
Apart from the Sun, is the nearest star — Proxima Centauri, which is located at a distance of about 30 trillion kilometers from Earth. Its light, moving at a speed of 300,000 kilometers per second at the Earth in four years. So, as they say, Proxima Centauri is 4 light years away. We see it for what it was 4 years ago. Suppose that Proxima Centauri was now destroyed in a catastrophic explosion. In this case, the explosion will not be visible on Earth for four years.

Only a small number of stars are at a distance less than 15 light years from our solar system. Some visible stars are billions of light years away. Depending on what type of star you see at the moment, you see it for what it was 4 years ago or billions of years ago.
Today, most astronomers believe that the light from all the stars are so widely scattered and dispersed after the passage of such enormous distances in space, that even the most advanced telescope is not able to catch sight of this star.
It is interesting to note that this achievement was predicted in "The residents of the two planets", as previously mentioned in this book. The following quote appeared in the later (1899), "The residents of the two planets' in the preface the author:

"He [Philos] said electrical currents that are protected from vibration, such as sound, heat, or light, is not obstructed by an obstacle, will be added to the light vibrations, revealing the image seen through the telescope … Thus, he argues that the stars and the celestial bodies that are so far away, hundreds of them seem only (in 1899) barely visible spot even the most powerful telescopes, for strong elektrostellarskopa will be required in the application of light-wave amplification perceived earthly vision so clear that objects that are invisible to the naked human eye will be easily visible to the most distant celestial body, as it were. far from the terrestrial observer it is found. "

Obviously, we are talking about yet unknown method of improving telescope images obtained using an electric current. Currently, the only way to improve the visibility of a telescope — is the use of larger and more sophisticated lenses.
Likely future developments in the field of astronomy will allow mankind deeper into the vast wormhole over our heads.
Consider the following picture. Many thousands of years ago, prehistoric man, with fear and trembling, looked at it, like a flash of lightning strikes the tree and the tree lights. Not having a clue about electricity, he could not understand the nature of lightning. And without knowing it, he was unable to understand the nature of fire. In the same way people today are affected stories about people who suddenly and mysteriously disappeared in the presence of many witnesses, and never back and did not return. However, those who did come back, and in this book it is mentioned Mrs. V. from Tunbridge Wells, Miriam Golding, Joseph J. Sainsbury, and J. Peterson, PJ Chapman, give us reason to think that there are other dimensions, not unexplored by man. Such cases are not common, but least of all people would be willing to take risks, and therefore unlikely to have been happy to suddenly encounter with the unknown dimension.
Much more common dreams, premonitions and the like, in which the meeting with other measurements or time periods are limited and brief. Sometimes these dreams and premonitions are so strong and distinct, that they would be properly called visions. George Washington had a vision in the Valley Forge, which seemed to predict the future is in its infancy at the time of the nation. In the two centuries before Nostradamus introduced the world's future in his "Centuries". And long before Nostradamus Saint John a vision of the future, is very clear about what is said in the "Book of Revelation".
Some writers and researchers have also represented the future in detail and with stunning accuracy, perhaps, says more than just imagination.

But marked cases with other measurements and time periods are largely spontaneous. They just happen, though they may seem minor, or frightening, absurd or very important. A natural question arises: is time travel, like the weather, always slipping out of conscious human control? Will there ever built a time machine like the one described by HG Wells, or the person is doomed to travel through the time barrier only by pure chance?
If a person is ever truly construct a working time machine, then why there is no solid evidence that such machines have landed in the past? Several unexplained traces of ancient shoes and historical mysteries — that's all that we can rely as evidence that man set foot on the future of the Earth. Maybe the people of the future rather cautious and wise, and therefore use the time machine only in special circumstances? In this case, probably the ancient prints were proof that people of the future, in spite of all precautions, still left traces.

The truth is that modern scholars who are seriously considering the possibility of constructing such a machine, face two major obstacles: if they have enough opportunities, they are likely to laugh at and criticize, but if they really do votvot this discovery, it will become the property State security. Highly unlikely that the government allowed the possession by individuals serving time machine — this is equivalent to as if it were possible for people to buy and sell nuclear bombs. They can be bought or sold only by the Government. There is no doubt that the government will respond immediately and impose its control over the possession of a time machine.

Of printing is known about a man whose name is not necessary to call it, claims that he built a time machine. He also claimed that he had tried to sell it a while back. He said that his unit can get the person to the past or the future, but warned that the only drawback of the device is that it is impossible to determine exactly at what time he gets. No one was surprised that the man for a long time were not allowed even to the brink of government and central editorial publications. For we are still not ready to patents for such inventions, but are interested in regularly and are interested in is the so-called authorities.
Another example. George Van Tessl even did not put a time machine for sale, but he nevertheless argues that his still unfinished Integratron will, among others, serve as a time machine. He also came under the supervision of special services. Van Tessl once mentioned that he had paid a visit to the Ministry of Defence.

Perhaps George de la Warr, and fell victim to humiliation by the government, but ran into disapproval of doctors and physicists, who detained the work of one of the most determined pioneers. Some doctors even received an impressive performance by the methods of De La Warr, but did not want to relate his experiences with his name simply because they were afraid of a reprimand from the medical authorities.

Leonardo da Vinci is too far ahead of his time to his contemporaries appreciated. He was truly one of the most forward thinking people in history. Although he has lived and worked in the XV-XVI centuries, it existed in the mind of the XX century, if not in the XXI. His greatness is truly appreciated by people from a position of only the present time. Or maybe not at all … yet rated
Nikola Tesla is also far ahead of his time, and it is also not appreciated by contemporaries. Story mistakenly attributed most of his achievements of Thomas Edison. While Thomas Edison was at least a great man, but he just popularized some discoveries, actually made by Tesla. Comparison of Edison and Tesla may clarify the situation, why Edison was "a great success." Thomas Edison was an American at all. He is still in adolescence showed the beginnings of a genius and grew up in a respected scientist and inventor. Nikola Tesla was born in a country that is even difficult to correctly name without offending any of its citizens, and came to live in New York. Tesla, even though he was a kind and sympathetic person, was not without some eccentric traits. They said he did not want to have anything to do with women, even shunned the advances of the famous French actress Sarah Bernhardt. He loved pigeons and bring home sick birds, then to bring up them in a drawer of his desk. Naturally, he was alone and could not work with others.

Tesla was definitely a special person. By some standards, his way of life would have seemed strange. But even those who can understand and accept Tesla achievement, not able to imagine a force field that can protect the state from attacks, or working antigravity machine.
Listing individual cases of encountering people with other periods of time and measurements, discussed the vision of writers, scientists and inventors who foresaw or future, or in some way devoted themselves to the study of time travel, let's take us ask ourselves — if time travel is theoretically possible ? Are there laws of the universe, by which it can be argued that this could be? After careful consideration of the work of Einstein and others, we have an affirmative answer. Travel time does not violate any known laws of the universe. On the contrary, the philosophy and the theory of relativity suggest possible clues of time travel.

This is not a myth and no nonsense, but rather a new area that can bring people to unimagined horizons of knowledge. In this new area of all the scientists need to combine their knowledge and effort, and then, perhaps, will be achieved one more — and that is not possible, the most important stage in the development of mankind.

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