Unknown alchemist Newton

December 9, 2011 17:32

Photo: istorya.ru

The name of the genius of English physicist, mathematician and astronomer Sir Isaac Newton is well known since high school. But few know that Newton about thirty years of his life gave … alchemy search Philosopher's Stone, capable of turning any metal into gold, as well as the search for theological truths.

In the XIX century was accidentally found a chest with records of Newton, previously unknown to researchers. In 1936, these manuscripts were sold at Sotheby's in London. U.S. scholar Dobbs was able to read some of these materials, and found out that Newton was looking for ways to extract the "mercury metal."
The second half of XVII — beginning of XVIII century — is the heyday of the alchemical science. In Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied Newton, and then for many years was a professor of mathematics, there was a good chemical laboratory. His older colleague Professor Ray Newton and Barrow have attached to the chemical rather alchemical pursuits. Newton had studied alchemy for all that we could get. In his library, and these works are now stored. Some of them are transcribed by hand Newton. Page, all of the reagents in spots, their edges here and there burnt. Newton was busy day and night with the crucible, was at the forge, and again mix different powders and solutions …

In the Middle Ages knew of seven metals: gold, silver, iron, copper, tin, lead and mercury. The first six are known, can be melted and thus obtain, as did then, their primary essence — an abstract "philosophical mercury", different from the usual. The metal ore always contains impurities, they are "lured" the then chemists and metallurgists.
Newton is suffering from chemical poisoning, particularly mercury, but in spite of everything continued his alchemical experiments. In itself it is not enough gold interested. He was looking for the "philosopher's stone" and at times as if find it. Anyway, once in a lab notebook Newton was last added: "I saw the Sorcerer's Stone!"

Alchemy was the intellectual epidemic XVII century. British envied Dutch, believing that those already managed to get a "philosopher's stone", the Dutch — Italians. Italians thought that the true secret known only to the British. All of them were jealous of the Germans. By the way, the secretary of a secret society for the production of gold in Nuremberg was the famous Leibniz.
Sometimes, Newton began to doubt the wisdom of their classes. In August 1692, he wrote the philosopher John Locke, that none of the "lucky" alchemists, as if receiving gold, did not become a rich man.
Alchemists have long recognized only the properties of the material, which can be directly felt by the senses. This is — heavy, light, humidity, dryness, and taste — salty, sweet, bitter, etc. Measurements they almost never did. Newton proved himself an innovator: during chemical reactions, he began to apply the methods of quantitative analysis.
It is amazing that we do not know Newton's discoveries in chemistry. And there were many. Now American researcher
Richard Popkin is preparing a 12-volume edition of "manuscripts from the chest in 1696." Maybe when they come out into the light volume clarify these riddles …
In Newton was another passion, take away from him, as alchemical experiments, a lot of precious time. For many years he was involved in the analysis of texts of the Bible. Continuing the theme, and the development of the section "Science" in the library offline http://forum-orion.com/viewforum.php?f=453 add that when Newton's biographers mention this, they shyly notes that these studies were for him only rest after problems in physics and mathematics, so to say, a game for the brilliant mind. But this is not the case. The library Newton many theological books, and the volume of his manuscripts relating to the Bible and Biblical history, is very significant.
The conviction of Newton, was the only true ancient religion of Noah, when people worshiped one God, the Creator of all things, and praying in the temple in the center of which blazed a fire — a symbol of a heliocentric universe. The basic principles of the religion of the original, according to Newton, was simple: "The belief that the world was created by the supreme God and they also managed, love him and worship him, honor, bestowed parents; covenant to love his neighbor as himself, even to the compassion wild beasts. " When was the resettlement of people, true religion, according to Newton, was distorted. Many people became identified with the gods of their kings and heroes, there was polytheism. Special hazards caused the appearance of the geocentric Ptolemaic system of the world.
Newton argued that the true religion open to people through the study of nature. Instrument of knowledge of all things, and therefore divine providence — the science. Exploring nature, man learns the infinite wisdom of the Creator, and comprehending the meaning of biblical prophecy, learn about God's intentions for the future of humanity.

In his paper "The interpretation of the prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse," Newton developed a method that today would be called a system. He formulated the rules of a unique interpretation of prophecy, compiled a dictionary of biblical characters and catalog 70 prophecies. His goal was to get to the original text of the Bible, the church and even undistorted generations of copyists, hear the prophecies of the metaphorical language of God himself.
Based on the texts of the Bible, Newton attempts mathematical methods to determine the date of the Second Coming and the Last Judgment. At first he thought that the Last Judgment will be in 1867, then it will happen in 2060. In old age, however, he abandoned the intention to use the Bible to predict future events.
Newton worked and ancient history. He sought to reconcile the secular and biblical history, taking as a basis the Bible. To do this he had to be shortened, for example, the history of ancient Egypt. He did this very peculiar. Many kings who had the same name, it counts as a king who supposedly rules no more than 18-20 years. Thus, the Egyptian state was, according to Newton, but in XI century BC. e., whereas according to modern views of Upper and Lower Egypt were united into one state at the beginning of III millennium BC. e. The difference is in the twenty centuries.
But even when you make mistakes, Newton was able to prove himself a pioneer here in the field of historical chronology. In setting the dates of historical events, he first used the data of astronomy, cut clearly inflated terms of some mythical reign of Pharaoh, revealed common myths, and drew attention to the proximity of some of the cults and cultures.
Newton believed that God created the universe, after the Act of Creation small interfering in its affairs. The universe obeys certain laws. Newton always admired the greatness of God, the Creator, the Lord miraculously Affairs. The moon, for example, he wrote, revolves around the Earth at a rate that does not give her a chance to fall to the Earth, and on the other hand, the moon can not even get off the ground. Is not it wonderful?

However, Newton believed that over time, say, in the rotation of the planet around the Sun, they do mistake — and God has to periodically "to amend" to correct this motion, the planet to be stuck with her predestined orbit. By the way, this statement has caused a sharp rebuff Newton Gottfried Leibniz, who said that the idea of Newton, as if the Creator has to constantly tinker with the universe, blasphemous. Is Almighty God could not immediately create absolutely perfect universe?
Working at Trinity College, Newton, ironically denied canonical doctrine of the trinity of God, Jesus Christ did not consider equality with God the Father. Probably for this reason, he did not publish his theological writings. They saw the light only after his death. Publicly encroach on dogmas of the Church was too dangerous even for Newton.
We now know that Newton was one of the most prominent representatives of the English Reformation. Formed around the theological circle, from which emerged some leaders of this religious movement. Newton himself had been sufficiently careful not to directly link his name with various "heretical" teachings. I must say that the official Church of England with a big wary of the theological work of Newton. But, fortunately, he did not persecuted. The reason is probably because of his "heretical" views became known quite late when he was very old and very famous.
"We, Russians, particularly interesting is that Newton had ties with Russia — wrote in one of his works Hist. V. Mitsuru. — In January and April 1698 a young Peter several visits to the London Mint, keeper of which was at the time of Newton. Perhaps Peter and Newton met. " In 1713, Newton published the second edition of his main work, "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy." Preserved list author copies of the book, in which the first destination was King Peter.
In October 1714 in London, received a letter from his Highness Prince AD Men-Shikova to take him as a member of the Royal Society (British Academy of Sciences). Newton, as president of the society, is responsible Menshikov: "As the Royal Society became aware that your Emperor, His Imperial Majesty, with great zeal in the realm of developing their art and science, and that you are serving your help him not only in the management of military and civilian but above all in the dissemination of good books and science, to the extent we are all filled with joy, when English merchants gave us the desire to know Your Excellency to the highest enlightenment, a special desire for knowledge, and because of our love for the people to join our Company. According to custom, we stopped to gather before the end of summer and fall. But when he heard about what was said, we all gathered to elect Sir, while everyone was unanimous. And now, using the very first meeting, we reiterate that election diploma with the seal of the Society. "

Even after the death of Peter I in St. Petersburg, his plan began to work the Academy of Sciences. March 2, 1727 shortly before his death, 85-year-old Newton held a meeting of the Royal Society, where they discussed a letter
Petersburg Academy. The letter expressed the hope for regular communication between the scientific centers of the two countries. The members of the St. Petersburg Academy wrote that they would like to report the Royal Society and received from the evaluation. In response, the Royal Society has expressed its consent to working closely with the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
By the end of life … Isaac Newton covered the whole of physics and mechanics, has contributed to the theory of heat, light and sound, spawned a series of brilliant ideas in the field of electrical and magnetic phenomena. System of the world created by him was that the starting point, from which, in essence, started forward motion of modern science. The famous English poet Alexander Pope, his contemporary, said of him: "The world was plunged into darkness, and God said," Let Newton be! "And all lit up …"

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