Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol — unknown pages of the history of Sino-Soviet conflict

The origins of the Sino-Soviet border conflict on leave in the past. The process of territorial delimitation between Russia and China has been long and difficult.

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

November 20, 1685 the Russian government decided to bring in the Amur region of the "great and Plenipotentiary of the Embassy" to enter into a contract with the Qing empire of the world, the opening of trade and the establishment of state border.

January 20, 1686 issued a royal decree that ordered the "courtier and governor of Bryansk Fedor Alekseevich Golovin to go to majestic and Plenipotentiary in the Siberian city in Selenge jail for contracts and calming quarrels Chinese bugdyhana with submitted to the ambassadors and envoys from oblivion original regimental governor, who in order to be sent. " Embassy accompanied the entourage of 20 people, and the 1400 capital archers and serving people.

August 29, 1689 at 50 yards from the building Nerchinsk, after long and difficult negotiations, a congress of the embassies, which were completed negotiations and signed a contract for the territorial delimitation and establishment of peaceful relations between Russia and the Qing Empire. But not identical titles rivers and mountains in the Russian and Manchurian copies of the contract, a number of unlocated site and the lack of maps allow different interpretations of the provisions of the contract.

In the framework of subsequent differentiation, Kyakhta contract in 1727 went to the principle of "actual ownership", ie, the available of the Guard, where they were not — the towns, mountain ranges and rivers.
Aigun contract in 1858 set the border on the banks of the border river Amur and Ussuri rivers, from the same place Ussuri to the Sea of Japan remains unlocated.

Beijing (optional) contract in 1860 graduated from the distinction between China and Russia in the Far East, confirming the provisions of the contract and determining Aigun latest Russian-Chinese border on the Ussuri River to the Sea of Japan. But Beijing contract, securing the eastern border, only mapped out its western part.

In 1864, he was imprisoned Chuguchagsky protocol according to which was demarcated the western boundary, but, due to the Russian occupation of Ili region and joining the Kokand khanate border problems once again come to the front edge.

St. Petersburg contract in 1881 returned to China Ili region, confirming the description of the boundaries on Chuguchagskomu protocol.

Qiqihar contract in 1911 was refined boundary between the two countries in the onshore and the Argun River. However, the joint demarcation have not been conducted.

In the late 20s early 30s. basis for differentiation was adopted so-called. "Red line", applied to a bargaining card application to the Beijing Treaty and paved, in the main, on the Chinese coast. As a result of the Amur River from the 1040 Islands 794 declared Russian. [2]

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

First 60s strained Sino-Soviet conflict in the political and ideological nature.

In 1964, at a meeting with the Japanese delegation, Mao Zedong said: "Places, captured Russian Union very much. Russian Alliance covers an area of 22 km2 and a population of 200 million people "[3]. Almost immediately the Chinese administration to claim the 1.5 million km2 (22 disputed area, 16 of them — in the western and 6 — in the eastern part of the Soviet-Chinese border). The Chinese Government has stated that a number of areas in the districts of Primorye, Tuva, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the Central Asian republics were ceded to the Russian Federation as a result of unequal treaties imposed on China.

February 25, 1964 in Beijing have begun consultations to clarify the Soviet-Chinese border. The Soviet delegation was headed by the authorized representative of the rank of deputy minister of PI Zyryanov (Chief Directorate of Border Troops of the Head of the KGB), Chinese — Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC Tseng Yung-chuan.

During the six-month work boundary was specified. Your questions to the proper number of islands in the river Argun was decided to bring "the brackets" to see this issue separately. But the idea was opposed by NS Khrushchev, saying: "Either all or nothing" [4].

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

Meanwhile, the situation on the Soviet-Chinese border became more acute. Violations were worn demonstrative character. If from October 1964 to April 1965, it was noted 36 cases out to the Soviet area 150 Chinese people and the military, it was only for 15 days in April 1965 border violated 12 times with the role of more than 500 people, including military personnel. In the middle of April 1965 about 200 Chinese undercover soldiers defected to the Soviet countryside and plowed 80 hectares of land, citing the fact that they take their views. In 1967, there were 40 anti-Soviet provocations cooperated. In the same year, China has tried to change the order of one-sided course of the boundary in a number of areas [5].

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

Particularly difficult situation in the areas of border the Pacific and Far East regions. According to the memoirs of Hero of the Russian Union of Major-General Vladimir Bubenin, the former in 1967, the chief of the 1st frontier Iman (Dalnerechensk) border detachment from 1967 to illumine all the border districts of Primorye and Khabarovsk has a Chinese radio station. The private transfers she angrily criticized the Communist Party and the Russian government for a break with the CCP for the revisionist policy of conspiracy against world imperialism led by the United States against China. [6]

Go with it, there were fierce fights between border guards and provocateurs in islands Kirkinskii and more. Ah well remembered this time V. Bubenin:

"Provocations followed one after another, three or four times a week. People are harassed and weary. For 8-10 hours were on duty at the border, but 4-5 hours participated in the liquidation of provocations. But everyone knew that must be so, because it was a real military operation. The greatest punishment was thoug
ht if anyone been suspended from participation in the elimination of provocations …

To protect personnel and minimize the risk of injury when the contacts, we began to use spears and clubs. Fighters with great pleasure and zeal made my team to prepare a new and right of the oldest instruments of primitive man. Each soldier had his own dark oak or birch, with love planed and sanded. A lanyard is attached to the handle, that has not taken off of your hands. They were stored in a pyramid, together with the instrument. So the alarm fighter took machine and grab a club. As a group instrument used spears …

They have great first rescued. When the Chinese Purley on our wall, we just exposed the spears forward … avoiding contact, knocking them back. Fighters enjoyed it immensely. Well, what if daredevil still broke, then, sorry, volunteer run up to the club.

Such simple way … we exclude specific contact with agents provocateurs. Especially since repeatedly noted that some of them wore knives on top of the clothes under his belt and he had to run into a very simple ". [7]

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

In August 1968, the Chinese managed to oust Russian border along with the islands and the Great Kirkinskii and urgently to restore the crossing. In response, opened warning fire, and then, with the help of mortar fire, ferries were destroyed.

Head of Pacific Edge neighborhood, Lieutenant-General Vladimir Lobanov for the year reported: "On the border running along the Ussuri River in 1968 prevented more than 100 acts of provocation, which participated in the 2000 Chinese. Essentially, all of this took place at sites 2-frontier on the right flank detachment "[8].
Disturbing details came and stripes intelligence. Major-General Yuri Drozdov, a resident of the First KGB9 central office in China in 1964-1968., Recalls:

"Shortly before the assault Embassy Red Guards

and our staff was able to visit Heilongjiang Province and Harbin and meet with our elderly compatriots. Some of them said that the Chinese authorities had expelled him from his apiary owned, turned it into a large box filled with sand, what are the strategies in the classroom of the military academies. The information presented herein shows the plot of ground adjoining the Russian countryside. Vosmidesyatichetyrehletny Amur Cossack officer that was very puzzled.

Representative of "Krupp" in Beijing, told me cursed Russian fool who does not behold the what is being done in their under his nose. He expressed concern, as had been there, where Russian has long been not allowed …

My Western colleagues who watched the Soviet-Chinese border relations, gently given to understand that the Chinese strengthen its military grouping on the border with the Soviet Union.

We have summarized these and other data, and sent a message to the Centre, stating the request to verify the information gallakticheskoy means, electronic, military and border intelligence "[10].

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

Russian government has tried to bring the situation under control at the border. April 30, 1965 was accepted by the Council of Ministers "On strengthening the protection of state border of the USSR in the areas of East, Far East and Pacific border districts," according to which the border area has been restored to a depth of rural areas (settlement) of the Soviets and the cities adjacent to the border , the width of the border strip was increased to 1,000 m

The surrounding area was formed 14 mobile groups, 3 Division of river ships and boats. The number of border guards has been increased by 8,200 people, including 950 officers. The Ministry of Defence has provided 100 officers to posts outposts chiefs and their deputies. Border troops were 8000 machines, 8 armored boats, 389 vehicles and 25 tractors.

According to the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on February 4, 1967 "On strengthening the protection of state borders of the USSR and the People's Republic" in 1967 — 1969. were formed Trans-Baikal Territory border, border detachments 7, 3 separate divisions, patrol ships and boats, 126 outposts, 8 mobile groups. The Ministry of Defense has transferred eight armored border troops, 680 staff officers, 3,000 sergeants and a fighter, an additional 10,500 people were called. The density of the Chinese border was increased 5-fold, from 0.8 persons. / Km (1965) to 4 pers. / Km (1969) [11].

In the winter of 1968-1969. First fight with provocateurs began on the peninsula Damanskiy, located 12 km from the 1st outpost "Kulebyakiny hills" and 6 km from the 2nd Gate "Lower Mikhajlovka" Iman (Dalnerechensk) border patrol.

On the contrary 2nd outpost was Chinese border post "Guns" numbering 30-40 people. Observation post 2nd outpost was tracking the movement of Chinese and how they came to the island, outpost was rising on the team, "To arms!" Head 2nd Lt. J. outpost Strel'nikov informed 1st outpost, which was rising as the alarm and its reserve was nominated to the island.

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

Russian border guards there and then for the first time faced with the PLA soldiers. Initially, the Chinese soldiers did not remove the gun from his shoulder and pretty quickly squeezed off the island. But in December, the Chinese for the first time used the gun in this time as a bludgeon. B. Bubenin recalled: "They took rifles, machine guns and shoulder, waving them, rushed at us. Several of our fighter immediately received strong blow … We, Strel'nikov gave orders to his soldiers to resort to butts … started a new Battle of the Ice "[12].

After this collision the two outposts were reinforced company officer reserve, but, in fact, during the month, the Chinese did not turn up at the border. Reserve departed ago squad and, almost in a couple of days, January 23, 1969, the Chinese again came to the peninsula. And it all started knit.

In late January, the peninsula started a real dogfight. Chinese stormed with fixed bayonets. After an hour of fighting the Chinese were driven by their own saved. Border guards seized five rifles, submachine gun, a TT pistol. After seeing okkupirovannnoe weapon, the guards have seen that virtually everywhere cartridge was runaway in the chamber [13].

Following the report of this battle on the outpost came reserve team and the committee that checks the weapon and ammunition. Before leaving commissions with APCs outposts of obedience arttehvooruzheniya was shot ammunitio

February was quiet. It seemed all over. But in the 20 days from China began to hear the roar of the incomprehensible, pogrannaryadami were recorded bulldozers, clearing the way for Sino-Soviet.

All the February border protection was carried by the strong version. Have been cleared of snow strongholds outposts were held constant training to break into data centers. In the field of service were also cleared an open trenches in the summer.

Border protection was carried out on the main beach. On the peninsula outfits do not come out.

In late February, deputy chiefs outposts were called to the squad for fees. Reserves squad, agile team and the school NCOs loss on military exercises, more than 200 km from the outposts, where practiced, along with the army, tasks of the armed forces to repel a possible opponent.

March 1st night with no luck weather. Rose snowstorm in the evening snowfall increased. On the night of March 2, on its own beach, opposite the island Damanskii, Using bad weather, the Chinese have concentrated to an infantry battalion, two mortars and one artillery battery.

Force 3 infantry companies, up to three hundred people, they came to the peninsula, the remaining two companies took up defensive positions on the shore. Battalion command post located on a peninsula to the coast to install a wired connection. All personnel dressed in camouflage. On the peninsula of the cell and the Chinese dug camouflaged. Positions mortar and artillery batteries mnogokalibernyh machine guns were placed so that by armored personnel carriers and Russian border guards could carry fire point-blank range.

At 10.40 (local time) on March 2 about 30 soldiers Chinese border post "Guns" began to reach toward Damanskii.

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

Observation post 2nd outpost on the hill Kafyla reported on the nomination of the Chinese. Head outpost Lt. J. Strel'nikov raised outpost "To arms!" Said a provocation to the 1st outpost and operational duty squad, and he, together with the special department officer squad N. Buinevich and personnel of 30 people moved to the island .

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflictStrelnikova group (15 people) was put forward for an armored vehicle, with 5-6 Buinevich border by car GAZ-69, the third group, led by junior sergeant Yu Babanskaya by car team breakdown of GAZ-66.

Go with it, the command "To arms!" Was raised 1st outpost. Head of the outpost, Lieutenant B. Bubenin, with 22 guards came to the fore to help Strelnikov.

By 11 o'clock the group Strelnikova and Buinevich arrived at the southern tip of the island. Detachment of 13 men under the command of Sergeant W. Rabovicha the persecution of Chinese people on their way along the east coast of the island, with Strel'nikov Buinevich went to meet the stopped on a channel group, the Chinese. At that time, came to the island group Babanskaya.

In response to the demands of the Soviet Strelnikova leave the area, the Chinese opened fire, shooting the group Strelnikova. Group Rabovicha, following along the shore, left for the land and the shaft was ambushed. Of the 13 guards survived only by G. silver. He later recalled: "Our chain stretched along the shore of the island. Pasha Akulov ran ahead, followed by Kohl Kolodkin, others later. Yegupov ran in front of me, and later Shusharin. We were chasing the Chinese, who went along the shaft in the direction of the bush. There was an ambush. Nearly jumped out onto the shaft, how to lower beheld 3 Chinese fighter in camouflage. They were in the 3 meters from the shaft. At this time the shots were fired on a group of Strelnikova. We opened fire in response. A few Chinese who were in ambush were killed. Shot longish queue "[14].

Litsezrev it Babanskii gave the order to return fire. The Chinese have moved artillery fire on a group of Babanskaya, armored personnel carriers and machine. Both cars were destroyed, and the APC was damaged.

In the area of 11.15 — 11.20 to the battlefield arrived reserve 1st outpost. Hearing the shooting, Bubenin ordered to dismount and took it in the direction of the shooting. After about 50 meters, they were attacked by the Chinese.

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

The border guards took cover and fired back fire. Unable to stand the fire, the Chinese began to recede, but as the last survivor ran to the shelter for a group of Bubenin opened heavy automatic rifle and machine-gun fire. After 30-40 minutes at the border went up to the end of the ammunition, and the Chinese opened mortar fire. Bubenin was wounded and lost consciousness. When he regained consciousness, he gave the order to retreat under the protection of the coast. He himself received a second wound, was able to make it to the APC and take the place of the arrow. APC has bypassed the peninsula on the channel from the north and collided with a Chinese company. For the Chinese, the emergence in the rear of the APC was sudden. Bubenin opened fire with machine guns. In response, the Chinese took for direct fire weapon. One shell hit the engine room, knocking out the right engine, the second in the tower, smashing machine guns and shell shock diamonds. By this time, the APC has shot all its own ammunition, he had punched rays, but he was able to retreat to your own bank.

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflictRecovering, Bubenin reported on operational duty combat unit. "On the peninsula, the battle is more than an hour. There are dead and wounded. Chinese several hundred. Use of artillery and mortars.
Received a command to bring all of the fight and expect to approach the reserve.
-Derive can not all be killed. From my outpost is a reserve. At the moment, again go into battle "[15].

On the 1st outposts on the car GAZ-69 arrived under the command of a reserve sergeant outpost sergeant P. Sikushenko. They took all the worn and a huge part of Ammunition outpost, all machine guns, grenade launcher and PG-7 shots for him.

Bubenin with troops sat in the APC 2nd outposts and again stormed the Chinese. Now he was on the positions of the Chinese in the peninsula, within 20 minutes of beating the defending and destroying the battalion command post. But, coming out of the fight, the APC was hit and braked. The Chinese are also focused on his mortar fire
, but the group was able to move to the island and later to his own bank. At that time, came to the battlefield reserve 2nd zastavy16, and, having made more than 30 kilometer march, a reserve third outpost. The Chinese were driven from the island and the fight actually ended. [17]

According to official data, in this battle was destroyed up to 248 Chinese soldiers and officers, from border guards killed 32 soldiers and officers, one border guard was captured. [18]

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

The battle was the most severe. The Chinese finished off the wounded. The chief medical service unit, Major medical services B. Kvitko said: "The medical commission, which, apart from me, consisted of military doctors Lieutenants medical services Fotavenko B. and N. Kostjuchenko painstakingly researched all the dead guards on the peninsula Damanskii and found that 19 wounded were left to live, because in the course of the battle were not fatal injuries. But it later in Hitler's finished off with a knife, bayonets and rifle butts. This is indisputable evidence sliced, chopped bayonet and bullet wounds. Shot at close range from 1-2 meters. At this distance, and were finished off Strel'nikov Buinevich "[19].

By order of the Chairman of the KGB border outposts Iman (Dalnerechensk) frontier have been reinforced with personnel and equipment. The detachment was allocated link Mi-4 helicopters, mangruppy Grodekovskogo and Stone Rybolovskogo squad of 13 armored personnel carriers. The command of the Far Eastern Military Area Command has provided the disposal unit 2 mechanized infantry companies, two tank platoons and one battery 120-mm mortar 135th Motorized Rifle Division. Conducted rekongostsinirovka routes and lines of troop deployment to support troops.

Damanskii, Dulaty, Zhalanashkol - unknown aspects of the Sino-Soviet conflict

Do not lag behind the Chinese. By March 7, the grouping of Chinese troops also been significantly enhanced. On Damanskiy Kirkinskii and focused direction to Infantry Regiment, reinforced by artillery, mortars, antitank weapons. In the 10-15 km from the border unfolded to 10 long-range artillery batteries of large caliber. By 15 March at the guberovskom direction was focused to a battalion at Iman — to an infantry regiment of tanks, Panteleymonovskaya — Up to 2 battalions in the Pavlo-Fedorovskoye — a battalion with reinforcements. So the Chinese have focused makarom infantry division with reinforcements [20].

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