While in Moscow, Napoleon was interrogated prisoner, wounded Cossack and asked him, like she could end in war it started against Russia, if only in the ranks of the French army were the Cossack units. Donets grinned, "Then the French government has long been used would have been Emperor of China."
"We need to give justice Cossacks — is they took of in the success of this campaign. Cossacks — it's very best light troops among all those available. If I had them in his own army, I would have gone with them the whole world. "
1. Can be read and the last, but the need to shoot the first zavsegda
2. Not the Cossack, that resisted, and the one that wriggled
3. Saber, horse and wife do not trust anyone
4. As the war — so my friends, as the world — so bitches kids
5. Pima, sheepskin and malakhai — the most reliable and neotkaznoe gun Siberian Cossack
6. Cossacks crayfish — do not walk backwards backwards
Cossacks — a unique phenomenon in the land that emerged in the process of natural selection of historical, formed on the basis of military brotherhood and the Orthodox faith. Unique combat glory of the Cossacks served as a prerequisite for the fact that many countries have tried to make their own "Cossack" troops: Hungary emerged Hussars, Dragoons in France, Great Britain and Prussia their "Cossack squadrons." Practice their combat introduction led to the inevitable conclusion that the person does not upscale fancy riding Cossack, no masterly cool and firearms, not even the ability to wage war and rare courage, and that "special state of mind," the inherent best representatives of the Eastern Slavs. They were amazing self fearless trick riding, they admired the skill and beauty of their own system, they hit the bizarre play of luring Cavalry lava. They are, according to all the foreigners who had seen them in time of peace, were the world's only unique and incomparable cavalry. They were natural cavalry. Hesse Teuton, the hero of the guerrilla-Russian War, Adjutant General Wintzingerode wrote in 1812: "Accustomed to always assume the Hungarian cavalry were the first in the world, I have to give the advantage to the Cossacks and the Hungarian hussars."
The beauty of their regimental life, with their centuries-reaching depths of songs, dancing with a dashing, with cramped and troop amicable friendship, captivated. Serve as the Cossacks, to serve with the Cossacks was the dream of a truly military people. Cossacks also became such. They did and tempered in battles on the border of the story itself. Yes, in the XIX century, the Cossacks all who beheld them, seemed "natural horsemen." But we remember the terrible Zaporozhye infantry and have adopted its tradition of fearless Kuban scouts. And when the Cossacks in their own light Strugi or "gulls" out to sea, coast trembled the Sultan of Turkey and the Shah of Iran. And occasionally the galley and the "hard labor" could not stand against the Cossack flotillas that put their case to the ruthless and brutal boarding combat. Well, when surrounded by superior enemy repeatedly, the Cossacks were getting into the siege, then showed himself the real masters of mine warfare. Their Cossack tricks being divided masters of martial arts foreign affairs. Preserved beautiful descriptions of defense of the town of Azov, which is nine thousand Cossacks managed to virtually lossless capture and detain a couple of years later, fighting off 250000th Turkish army. They were not just "natural horsemen" they were natural warriors, and they succeeded in military practice all what they were taken.
The latest in all RF Cossacks preserved the ancient knightly principle of "service for the land" and going to the service at their own expense "and oruzhno horse." This is the last Russian Knights. Silent, in the greatest minds of their own duty to the country, the Cossacks were carrying all their hardships for the filling of the staff and proud of their Cossack naming. They have an inborn sense of duty.
Many Russian historians explain, albeit unproven, the origin of the Cossacks from walking, bloodless people and fugitives from various areas of the Capital and the Polish-Lithuanian state, "Search Unleashed will and in the deserted mining encampments hordes of Batu." For all this, the very name "Cossack"Origin is comparable nedavneshnego that seemed in Russia not earlier XV century. Name was given to those runaways other nations, as the name of the name which, by identifying with the concept of" free, no timeless, free. "Indeed, for a long time, was taken to think that the Cossacks — is Russian farmers who escaped the horrors of the Don oprichniny. Cossacks But you can not only output of serfs. Fled various orders not satisfied and do not mirivshiesya with power. fled the war in Cossack democracy, fled artisans, farmers, nobles, the terrorists, robbers, thieves, all of whom in Russia expected scaffold, all who are tired of living quietly, all who have been in the blood of rebellion. Specifically, they filled up the Cossacks.'s right, a significant part of the Cossacks formed specifically by this method. fugitives But, coming to the Don, do not fall in the desert. Therefore is born prince saying: "With Don issue no." Whence came the Cossacks?
Kaysaki, Saklab, roamer, Cherkasov, black hoods
In the I millennium of our era Black Sea steppes became like the through the gates of Asia to Europe. Neither men, led by the majestic waves of migration, did not stay there forever. In this era of the "Great Migration" in the wilderness, like a kaleidoscope, altered dominant wandering tribes who created the tribal wandering the country — kaganates. These itinerant states ruled by the powerful reign — Hagan (haany). With all of this, in most cases, the natural boundaries of habitats wandering tribes, respectively, and Haganates were huge Kuban River Dnieper, Don, Volga, Urals and others. The boundaries of nations and tribes have always sought special attention. To live in the borderlands was always difficult and unsafe, even more so in the era of medieval mayhem steppe. For the border, land, orderly and postal service, maintenance, security, defense, fords, ferries, trails and collection of duties and control over shipping steppe Hagan from time immemorial inhabited shores of border rivers semi-settled belligerent North Caucasian tribes of Circassians (cherkas) and Kasogs (more precisely kaysakov) . Saks Iranian-speaking peoples called the Scythian and Sarmatian. Kaysakami called royal, the main Saks, constituted of different groups, and the guard of the khans and their nobles. The lower reaches of the inhabitants of the military, many rivers are also called the then record roamer. About Cossacks (kaysakah) living in the Sea of Azov, on the banks of the Don and Kuban, referred to in the Arab and Byzantine chronicles fourth century BC. e. as a warl
ike people, professing Christianity. So Makar, the Cossacks became Christians almost 500 years before the baptism of Rus Prince Volodymyr. Of the various annals show that the Cossacks in Russia originated no later than the V century BC and, before the era of the emergence and flourishing of Kievan Rus (Russian Khanate) davneshnih Protz Cossacks were called in most cases, roamer, and later also the black hoods or Cherkasov.
Roamer — davneshnih Cossack Protz tribe that lived in the Don and the Dnieper River in the first half of the Middle Ages. The Arabs also called them Sakaliba, snow-white people, mostly Slavic blood (more precisely is a Persian word sounds Saklab — coastal Saks). Thus in 737, the Arab commander Marwan was with all the fundamental forces between the Khazars and the Don and Volga Perevoloki met for the semi-nomadic breeders Sakaliba. The Arabs took their herds of horses and took away 20 thousand families who have moved to the eastern border of Kakheti. The presence of such mass breeders in this place far not the case. Perevoloka — a special place in history as the Cossacks, and the steppe as a whole. At this point, the Volga closely suited to the Don and at all times there existed dragged. Obviously no one is dragged dragged merchant vessels 10s km. Transshipment of goods from the Volga basin in the basin of the Don and carried back by animal and horse transport, what was to be a huge number of stallions, horse breeders and protection. All these functions and do roamer, Persian Saklab — coastal Saks. Perevoloka in navigation gave a measured and a good income. Steppe Hagan very dear to this place and tried to give him an inheritance to the closest members of his own family. In most cases, it was their mother (widowed queen) and beloved wife, mother heirs to the throne. From early spring to late autumn, for personal control Perevoloki, queens kept their tents on the banks of colorful and then abounding river, right tributary of the Volga. And it is absolutely not the case, the river was called the Queen syzveka and is based in the modern history of the fortress commander Zasyekins near its mouth has been called Tsaritsyn. A popular legend about the mother and the wife of Baty, who owned Perevoloki — is only the most visible and audible part of the long-term effects of the steppe civilization. Many rulers want to do Perevoloki shipping, attempted several unsuccessful attempts to build a canal. But only in the era of Joseph Stalin, the glory of the All-Russia which also began with fights with white on tsaritsinskoy Perevoloki, this project could bring.
And in those days Brodnikov replenished newcomers, runaway and expelled people from the surrounding tribes and nations. Brodnikov taught newcomers to serve, store fords, and voolochi border raid, learned its relationship with wandering the world, taught to make war. Themselves Brodnikov uniformly dissolved in the newly arrived and made the latest Slavic nation of the Cossacks! Curiously, roamer on your own pants worn stripes in the form of a leather band. This custom has been preserved among the Cossacks and then at various Cossack Troops color stripes was different (from the Don — reddish in Urals — blue, with Transbaikalians — yellow).
Later, around the year 860 the Byzantine governor Mike III commissioned to make the Slavic alphabet and translated into Slavic liturgical books. According to biographical data, Cyril (Constantine the Philosopher, 827-869 gg.) Went to the Khazars, and preaching Christianity there, studying the local Slavic dialects. Of course, as a result of the preaching of this messenger of Byzantium, in the middle of Azov hazarovtsev completely triumphed newcomer Vera. In his petition Khazar Haq (Hagan) was allowed to return to Earth in Taman Kaysak episcopal chair.
Figures 1 and 2 Famous roamer and a black hood
In 965, the statuesque Russian soldier, Prince (Russ Hagan) Svyatoslav together with the Pechenegs and other steppe peoples defeated the Khazars and struck the Black Sea steppes. Acting in the best traditions of the steppe Hagan, part of the Alans and Cherkas, Kasogs or kaysakov it to protect against attacks Kiev steppe to the south, relocated from the North Caucasus to the Dnieper and in piglets. This solution helped to sudden and treacherous attack on his former allies Kiev Pechenegs in 969. On the Dnieper, who lived together with earlier arrivals and later by other Turko-Scythian tribes, mingling with the roamer and the local Slavic population, having learned their language, migrants have formed an extraordinary nation, giving it the name of their ethnic Cherkasov. Until this day or this is referred to as the Cherkassy region of Ukraine, and the regional center of Cherkassy. Around the middle of the XII century., The chronicles of about 1146, on the basis of these cherkas of various steppe peoples evenly and formed an alliance, dubbed the dark hoods. Later these Cherkasov (black hoods) has formed a special Slavic people and then creates the Dnieper Cossacks from Kiev to Zaporozhye.
On the Don was a little different. After the defeat of the Khazars, Prince Svyatoslav shared ownership with its allies, the Pechenegs. On the basis of the Black Sea port town of Khazar Tamatarkha (in Russian Tmutarakan, and now Taman), he formed Tmutarakan principality on the Taman Peninsula and the Sea of Azov. The connection between this enclave of the metropolis was carried out on Don, which was controlled by the Don roamer. Fri reference this medieval transit Don was last Khazar fortress city Sarkel (in Russian Snow White Tower). Tmutarakan Brodnikov principality and became the ancestors of the Don Cossacks, which, in turn, later became the ancestor of the other Cossack Troops (Siberian, Ural Yaitsky either, Grebenskaya, Volga, Terek, Nekrasovskaya). Exception — Kuban Black Sea Fleet — the descendants of the Cossacks.
Figs 3 and 4 Russian prince (Russ Hagan) Svyatoslav before the fight and in the negotiations with the Byzantine Tsar Ivan Tzimiskes on the Danube
The very stately warrior prince Svyatoslav, for his award before the Cossacks, can rightly be considered one of the founding fathers of this phenomenon. He caught the fancy appearance and prowess North cherkas and kaysakov. From early youth brought up the Vikings, still under the influence of cherkas kaysakov and he willingly changed his own views and most of the later Byzantine chronicles depict him with longish mustache, shaved head and forelock-osedeltsem.
In the middle of the 11th century the Black Sea steppes captured Kuman. It was the Turkic-speaking Caucasians, blond and blue-eyed. Their religion was worship Tengri — Blue Sky. Their arrival was bitter and mercilessly. They defeated Tmutarakan
principality, fragmented and torn by strife Rus princes could not assist their own enclave. Part of the inhabitants of the steppe part of the country was subjected to the Russian Polovechens. Another part of the stepped-steppe, and continued to fight against them together with Russia, adding to its federates, wearing hoods, who received the title in the Rus in appearance — a black felt hat. In the Metropolitan chronicles XV century given situation, dated 1152: "All the dark hoods are called hedgehog Cherkasy." Continuity cherkas and Cossacks yavna: both the capital of the Don Cossacks have a name, Cherkassy and Novocherkassk, and by the Cossack region of Ukraine to this day or referred to Cherkassy.
Fig. 5.6 Polovtsi and black hoods XII — XIII century
In Russian chronicles are the names of the least of peoples and tribes, reputed to be under the moniker of dark hoods or Cherkasov, have joined the Cossack nation. This bond, torquey and Berendei towns with Thor, Torchesk, Berendichev, Berendeevo, izheslavtsy Izheslavtsem the city, take your time and Saks with the towns of warriors and Sakon, Kovu in Severschine, bologovtsy on the Southern Bug, roamer by Don and Azov Sea, Chigi (jigs) with the city and Chyhyryn sary and Azman on the Donets.
Later another statuesque Russian soldier and Prince Vladimir Monomakh was able to consolidate the Russian principalities, ruthlessly suppressed the princes and boyars and feuds with dark hoods struck a series of violent and decisive defeats Polovechens. After that Kuman forever been forced to peace and union with Russia.
In the 13th century appeared in the Black Sea steppes of Mongolia. In 1222, about 30 thousand Mongolians came from the Caucasus to the Black Sea steppes. It was sent by Genghis Khan reconnaissance unit of the Tatar hordes under the command of the famous military leaders Subedeya and Chepe. They smashed the North Caucasus Alans, and then attacked the Polovtsian and began to force them beyond the Dnieper, capturing all the Don steppe. Polovtsian khans Kotyan and Yuri Konchakovich enlisted the help of his relatives and allies, Russian princes. Three Prince — Galician, Kiev and Chernigov — came with his troops to the aid of allies Polovechens. But in 1223, the Kalka River (a tributary of the River Kalmius) joint Russian-Kipchak army was annihilated by the Mongols, Cherkasov and roamer.
Fig. 7 cataclysmic end of the Battle of the Kalka River
On this episode deserves mention. Roamer, tired of endless strife and oppression of Russian and Polovtsian princes took the Mongols as allies in the fight against tyranny and oppression Polovtsian. The Mongols were able to persuade and to recruit militant, but the offended tribes. Caucasian Cherkasy and Don Brodnikov formed the basis of a new, third tumens Tatar troops, Subedeyu provided tactical and strategic intelligence to fight perceived an active role in the embassies and negotiations. After the fight chieftain Brodnikov Ploskinya, kissing the cross, persuaded the remnants of the Russian troops surrender. Surrender to the next purchase — a rather ordinary thing for the time. But the Mongols with contempt for the prisoner commanders surrendered and captured the Russian princes were put under "dostarkhan" of the boards on which the feast was arranged favorites.
After the bloody battles Mongols went back to zavolzhskiye steppe and some of their time nothing was heard. Mongol leader Genghis Khan died soon, dividing the empire between them made their descendants. Genghis Khan's grandson Batu led the western limits of the Tatar lands (Jochi Ulus), and fulfill the covenant of his grandfather, had to extend them as far as possible to the west. By order of the Qurultay 1235, held in the capital of the Tatar Empire Karokorume at 1237 West was appointed vsemongolsky hike up the Atlantic coast (going to the "last sea"). In a campaign mobilized 10s tumens with all of the Tatar empire, at their head stood 14 princess-Genghis Khan, Genghis Khan's grandsons and great-grandsons. The commander was appointed Khan Batu, preparation of control veteran Western Subedey hikes. On gathering and preparation went all in 1236. In the spring of 1237, the Mongols and their subordinate wandering tribes focused on the area not so long ago conquered Subedeem bashkirdov and invading Polovtsian now because of the Volga. In the area between the Volga and the Don Cumans were defeated, their leader Bachman killed. Kotyan Polovtsian Khan led troops for Don and this river has temporarily suspended the upcoming promotion of the Mongols. Second large group of Mongols, led by Batu, defeating the Volga Bulgars, the winter 1237/38 г. invaded the area of northern Russian principalities destroyed many cities, and in the summer of 1238 came from the Russian steppe terrain, the rear Polovechens. In a panic, part of the Polovtsian troops retreated to the foothills of the Caucasus, part went to Hungary, many soldiers were killed. Polovtsian bones littered the entire Black Sea steppes. In 1239 — 1240 years, defeating the southern Russian principalities, Batu sent his tumens in Western Europe. Fighters from South Russia, including Cherkasov roamer, readily took part in the march of troops of the Mongols in their own ancient enemies — "Ugric peoples" and "Poles". Numerous European chronicles and annals of the time draws the completely Tatar form and language of the Mongol armies who came to Europe.
Fig. 8,9,10 The warlord Subedey and participants terrific battle for the Polish city of Legnica, European knight and "Mongol" riders
Prior to 1242 headed the pan-Mongol Batu West campaign, which was eventually won over the western part of the Polovtsian steppe, Volga Bulgaria, Russia, defeated and subjugated all the countries of the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic Sea and Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Bulgaria and other European armies defeat was complete. During this
period, the Mongols did not lose the 1st battle. Tatar army headed for Central Europe. Frederick II, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire of the German civilization, tried to organize resistance, but when Batu claimed humility, replied that he could become a falconer Khan. Salvation came from Europe did not expect. In the summer of 1241 the majestic Tatar Ugedey Khan fell ill and withdrew from the front of their own kids and grandchildren, and in December 1241 was lost. Brewing the first pan-Mongol unrest. Numerous princes-Chingizids, anticipating a hassle for power, one by one, leaving the front along with his troops and vorachivalis in their district. Batu had no power to tread alone forces only own ulus and graduated from the hike to the West in 1242. The troops retreated to the lower Volga, the city was founded Sarai-Batu, who became the new center of the Jochi Ulus. After these battles Kuban, Don and the Black Sea steppe Mongols were included in the own country, the surviving Kuman and Slavs began their subjects. Evenly came together with the Mongols nomads, known as "Tartars", joined with the local Slavic-Polovtsian population and the resulting government was called the Golden Horde.
Fig. 11.12 Jochi Ulus (Golden Horde) And Batu Khan
His new revival of the Cossacks should be available at the time of the Golden Horde, the custom of 'mark' — a living tribute, in other words people tribute, which the Russian principalities delivered to the horde to replenish the Tartar troops. Tatar khans who ruled in Kipchak steppes, adored by raiding the coastal Byzantine and Persian land, ie used to go beyond the sea "for the peasant coat." For these purposes, in particular the approach of the Russian warriors, ever since the government in Rus Vikings successfully mastered the strategy of the Marines (in Russian, "rook battle"). And the Cossacks turned into a universal mobile army that can fight on land as on foot and on horseback, to make the river and sea raids, also lead to a boarding sea battle barges and Strugi. Being foreigners, not related clans, and ethnically akin to the local population of the steppe, they also appreciated the Tartar princes of personal loyalty, fidelity and zeal in the service, including on the part of the police and punitive functions, knocking taxes and debts. By the way, there was also a reciprocal process. Since the "rook battle" constantly lacked Khans requested replenishment. Russian princes and nobles were going at it, but requested to return to itself at the service of foreign troops dashing steppe horsemen, more faithful and zealous in the service of a foreign country. These Russified princes and knights of the military servants gave root to many nobles and knights leave. LN Gumilev and other Russian historians constantly directing attention to the Turkic origin of the majority of Russian noble families.
Fig. 13,14 In a campaign for "peasant coat"
In the first century of existence of the Golden Horde Mongols loyal to the preservation of their own religious subjects, including people who formed part of their military units. There was even the Sarai-Podonskoe bishopric, formed in 1261. So makarom driven from Russia to preserve their identity and self-identity. Many ancient Cossack tales begin with the words: "From the blood of the Sarmatian, kind-tribe Cherkassy, allow me fellow Cossacks did not say a word about the death marches Vidar is stately and his son Cudi specifically, the glorious thousand's and pet Batu. And the works of the fathers and grandfathers of ours, shed blood for Mother Russia and laid down their lives for the king-priest … ". Tatars conquered, so to speak otatarivsheesya, the Cossacks, caressed and showered favors on the Khans, has come to represent an invincible dashing cavalry in the vanguard of aggressive hordes of Tatars — the so-called horsemen (from the name of the Cherkassy chigov tribes and the Goths), and bodyguard of the khans and their nobles. Russian historians of the XVIII century. Tatischev and Boltin write that Mongolian baskaks sent to Russia to collect tribute Khans have always had for myself in these groups of Cossacks. At this time, the Cossacks formed as a purely military class in Horde khans and their nobles. "They fed us lads God like birds we do not sow nor gather into barns, grain, but always full. And rather than who will plow the land, in order mercilessly flogged with rods. " This method Cossacks with jealousy watched, so nothing distracts them from the brain training — military service. First Mongol domination, when inside the Golden Horde under the horror death were banned civil wars, wandering repeatedly increased the population of the Black Sea. In gratitude for the service of the Horde Cossacks possessed all the land of the Black Sea strip with Kiev land inclusive. This fact is reflected in the numerous medieval maps of Eastern Europe. The era from 1240 to 1360, was the best for the life of the Cossack people, under the auspices of the Tatar nation. Notable Horde Cossacks of that time had a kind of very austere and impressive, and the polls were a symbol of belonging to a social tops Cossack society. It's forelock — Oseledets based on custom long adopted in Cherkasov in the Caucasus. Foreigners have written about them, "have long mustaches and guns in the darkness for themselves. On the belt in a leather handbag made and hand embroidered wife, constantly have a flint and a razor with a whetstone. She shaved her head at each other, leaving domes very long tuft of hair in a pigtail. "
Fig. 15,16,17 Horde Cossacks
First, the 14th century Tatar empire, made
a stately Genghis Khan began to fall apart in its western ulus, the Golden Horde, and at times appeared dynastic turmoil (zamyatni), in which participated Cossack detachments subordinate individual Tatar khans. The Uzbeks under Khan Islam became the state religion in the Horde and the following dynastic the Troubles escalated and became intensely religious and yet be a factor. The adoption of a state religion in the state mnogokonfessinalnom certainly hastened his self-destruction and decay. Cossacks took part in the turmoil Horde Temnik Mamaia, including on the side of the Russian princes. It is clear that in 1380 the Cossacks presented to Dmitry Donskoy icon of Our Lady of the Don and participated in Mamaia against the Kulikov battle. The troops were dying in the Troubles Khans often become orphaned, "free." Here then, in the years 1340-60, the Russian frontier, a new type of Cossack, not in the service and lived the main way the raids on the surrounding and adjacent roving hordes of nations or plundering merchant caravans. Specifically, they called them "thieves" Cossacks. In particular, many of these "thieves" gang was the Don and the Volga, which is an important aquatic arteries and major trade ways, connects the Russian land from the wilderness. At that time, between the Cossacks, servicemen and free no sharp division, often employed on a free service, and in the case of servicemen robbed caravans. After the final collapse of one of the country Tatar, left, and settled on its territory Cossacks kept Voyskovoy company, but for all that were in complete independence and debris from the former empire, and from that shown in the Capital of Russia kingdom. Fugitive as farmers only replenished, but were not the root of the appearance of the troops. The Cossacks have always considered themselves a separate nation, and did not recognize himself escaped men. They stated: "We are not Russian, we Cossacks." These views are clearly reflected in the literature (for example Sholokhov). Historians of the Cossacks, lead detailed excerpts from chronicles XVI-XVIII centuries. describing the conflict between the Cossacks and peasants newcomers, which refuses to recognize the Cossacks equal to themselves.
In the XV century, the role of the Cossacks in the border areas is increasing dramatically due to the incessant attacks of wandering tribes. In 1482, after the final collapse of the Golden Horde, the Crimean appeared, the Nogai, Kazan, Kazakh, and the Siberian Khanate of Astrakhan. They were in constant feud among themselves, and with Lithuania and with the Metropolitan State and lusted to recognize the power and authority of the Metropolitan prince. With still a new, three-century period of Eastern European history — the period of the struggle for Ordynskoe heritage. At that time, who could not quite imagine that unimportant, though briskly paced, Moscow principality in the end will be the winner in this fight Huge. But later least a century after the collapse of the Horde, under Tsar Ivan IV severity, link Moscow voedinyzhdy around all the Russian principalities and slay part of the Horde. At the end of the XVIII century. by Catherine II, under the authority of the Metropolitan will be the whole territory of the Golden Horde. After defeating the Crimea and Lithuania, the victorious princes queen-fat and Germans put an end to years of dispute over the Golden Horde heritage. Moreover, in the middle of the XX century, when Josef Stalin at the time kutsee Russian people will actually protectorate over the entire territory of the Tatar Empire majestically made in the XIII century. Lofty labor and genius of Genghis Khan, including China. But it will be later.
Fig. 18 The collapse of the Golden Horde
And in all this posleordynskoy stories Cossacks took the most lively and active role. Moreover, the majestic Russian writer Leo Tolstoy believed that "the whole history of the Russian Federation made the Cossacks." Although this expression is, of course, is an exaggeration, but casting a watchful eye Russian history of the country, we can say that all the important military and political activities in Russia are not without the active role of the Cossacks.
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