September 21 marked a day of military glory of — day winning Russian regiments led by the majestic Prince Dmitry Donskoi over the Mongol-Tatar troops in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380.
Terrible disaster has brought the Tatar-Mongol yoke on Russian land. But in the second half of the 14th century began to unravel the Golden Horde, where the de facto ruler becomes a senior emirs — Mom. At the same time, Russia was the formation of a strong centralized state by combining Russian lands under the authority of the Moscow principality.
And it is really impossible to overestimate the impact of this victory to the flight of the spirit, moral emancipation, the rise of optimism in the hearts of thousands and thousands of Russian people in connection with disgust to the danger posed to many fatal to world order, already unbalanced in that hectic time fraught with change.
Like most of the other significant events of our past, the fight on the Kulikovo field surrounded by an abundance of textbook legends, absolutely immediately displacing the real historical knowledge. Nedavneshny 600-year anniversary, of course, has worsened the situation, bringing to life a whole stream of favorite pseudo-historical publications, circulation of which, obviously, has repeatedly exceeded the circulation of some severe research.
The objects of negligent investigation also conscious falsification or gullible steel and pure specific questions related to the details of weapons and equipment of the Russian soldiers and their enemies. In fact, the consideration of these problems and is dedicated to our review.
Unfortunately, some severe research on this topic with us to this time was not. However, at the time the study of Russian and Tatar weapons 2nd floor. XIV century. engaged in our recognizable oruzhieved A.N.Kirpichnikov, but realized his undeniable problem: the last, he thought, the scarcity of archaeological sources on Russian arms led him to ask, first, to the written sources of Kulikovo cycle, ignoring the fact that the text of the "Tales of the Mamaev slaughter "- its main source — formed the beginning of the XVI century, and in the absence of" archaeological "thinking people of the Middle Ages most of the armaments introduced a copyist of contemporary realities, including, for example, a gun-squeak. At the same time, the Mongolian instrument Kirpichnikov outlined by the information I.Plano Carpini, beautiful, detailed and clear power … 130-year-old from the Battle of Kulikovo.
The Russian tool the last third of the XIV century. is not a huge number of copies, and of images. The main sources are from the northern regions — the Novgorod and Pskov. And the center — Moscow, Vladimir, and east — Perejaslav Ryazan (modern Ryazan), and west — Minsk, Vitebsk they say about a unified military culture, regional differences were manifested only in the details (most likely related to the sources of imports).
The basis of the Russian troops were princes squad, consisting of the most heavily armed cavalry. The urban militia were walking connections. In addition, in dismounted combat is not worse than a horse, and fought the terrorists. So that the ratio in the battle of horse and foot was not constant. Just as poorly differentiated tool for horsemen and foot (excluding prints).
Offensive weapon Russia included swords, swords, battle axes, spears and javelins, bows and arrows, clubs and bludgeons. Blades dominated the European type — with a blade in the form of an elongated triangle, sharp piercing end, with narrow dales or cut. Crosshair — longish, straight or bent a bit — ends down Navershin in the form of a flattened ball. The handle could be a single or a queen-size lengths. Part of the blades, of course, were imported. Russian saber XIV century. "Alive" are unknown. We must assume they are not much different from the Horde. Imported (or imported were manufactured by Swatch) European infantry bladed weapon — kutsee and average length: daggers, including a longish cut — "Koncar" longish combat knives — "cords". Battle-axes more or less uniform in shape, their surface is often decorated with patterns. There were also axes, maces — with a bulky globular proushno-obushnoy part. Wore ax in special leather cases, from time to time with a rich appliqué.
Spear better reflect the specific hiking and equestrian combat. All the same, dominated by spear of the generic type, with narrow, flattened-faceted tip, often with faceted collar. A special equestrian peak had very little narrow, square in cross-section and a conical tip of the plug. Rohatyn for hiking battle featuring a large, up to 50 cm long, leaf-shaped tip and a thick shaft of small. Darts ("from the street"), imported, namely, from the Germanic countries, also from the Golden Horde, how's report "Zadonschina."
Russian bows were made up of parts — arm, shoulders and horns glued layers of wood, horn and sinew cooked. Onions wrapped with a tape-cooked in birch bark drying oil. Onions stored in a leather case for a bow. Arrows with faceted or flat caps worn in birch bark or leather quiver steppe type — in the form of a narrow longish box. Quiver at once richly decorated with leather appliqué.
In the XIV century. of military goods Rus disappear once the most are popular clubs with large faceted thorns: they are replaced favorite Horde mace. Flails — fighting weights connected to the handle strap or chain does not seem to have lost their own former popularity.
Russian armor then consisted of a helmet, armor and shield. About bracers and greaves no written and archaeological data, although Greaves, of course, been used since the XII century., As they say pictorial sources XII-XIV centuries.
Russian helmets XIV century. known only by the images: This is a classic for Russia spheroconical utterly, from time to time low and rounded, with a shortie tapered when exposed. From time to time, more elongated shape. Topped with helmets almost always balls from time to time converges on the point of the cone. There are no "Yalovtsev" — leather triangular flag is attached to a very longish spikes (like the spiers themselves) — the Russian helmets are still not there. Their references to manuscripts and incunabula "Tales of Mamay" — a sure sign of the date text before the end of the XV century., When it came to decorating their helmets in imitation of the Russian East. Neck and throat warriors defended Barmitsa occasionally quilted, made of felt or leather, but usually Chain. To it could be fixed at the temples Nausha rectang
ular, sometimes two or three — one above the other.
Significant place in the Russian armed soldiers occupied, probably imported from other countries helmets. "Zadonschina" mentions "German helmets": likely, it was utterly low round or acuminate dome and wide enough, a little slouch, so popular in Europe at the foot soldiers, but used immediately and cavalry. Princes protected their heads, according to the data of the same "Transdoniad", "Cherkasky Solomon," in other words, produced in the lower reaches of the Dnieper and in the Kuban, and in any case they were the products of masters Mamaeva ulus of the Golden Horde. Apparently, the highest prestige Horde armourers (and jewelers — makers of the "Cap of Monomakh") niskolechko not lose sight of the nobility in Russia because of aggressive relations with the Horde as a country.
Substantially more information about the Russian shells XIV century. According to archeological, visual and written sources, the main types of armor in Russia were then Mail, and lamellar armor plate-and-sewn. Chainmail was a more or less a longish shirt with a cut at the neck and hem, weighing 5 to 10 kg. Rings made of circular cross section wire, but in XIV. begins to spread mail, taken from the East — from flat rings. Her name — Baydaev, Boda — rises to the Arab-Persian word "butt" — body, body. Usually chainmail worn without the help of others, but noble and rich warriors, because of its vulnerability to arrows, poddevaem chain mail armor by other species.
Incomparably more reliable (though harder about 1.5 times) was a lamellar armor — from iron plates connected among themselves straps, or a braid or cord. Plates were narrow or substantially square shape with a rounded upper edge. The protective properties of lamellar armor, tested experimentally, only high, it did not hinder movement. In Russia it has been known for a long time. More Slavs borrowed it from the accident in the VIII-IX centuries. Chainmail spread around the IX century. from Europe and from the East at once. The last — after the X century. — Appeared in Russia sewn-plate-armor — steel plates, sometimes scaly sewn to Myagenko — leather or fabric — base. He came to us this view carapace of Byzantium. In the XIV century. under the influence of the Tatar plates have acquired almost square shape, they were sewn or riveted to the base means of paired holes, located in one of the upper corners of the plate. Variations in the location and number of platelets — the extent to which they, like scales, find each other — and determined the properties of this armor. More reliable — with a huge overlap — and was heavier and less flexible.
Tatar had an impact and that the records are not just sewn on the outside, and from the inside the base, so the top could just see rows of rivets, front surface of the base has a catchy be covered with rich fabrics — velvet or cloth, or a good tanned skin. Often, one Russian armor in the XIV. combined a number of types of armor, for example lamellar armor with trimmed armholes and hem (or a separate skirt) of sewn-plates, and even under all this mail. At that time, has become a fashion and the next, again as Tatar, borrowing — Mirror, in other words a metal disk, or very slightly convex, attached without the help of others on the belts, or stitching or to rivet in the middle of the chest armor.
As a safeguard feet, generally not very popular in the Rus', used in the main Mail stockings. Judging by the images can be used and Greaves of a forged blade, fixed in front of the tibia. From the Balkans could come in the last third of the XIV century. original cover the upper part of the chest and back, shoulders and neck — lamellar barmy with stand-up, lamellar same collar. Helmets, armor plates and nobility in part or completely gilded.
Were more diverse in the era of the Battle of Kulikov and Russian protection, the creation of which, judging by the "Zadonscina" famous Moscow. Shields were round, triangular, drop-shaped (with a triangular at this time apparently pressed the more archaic teardrop). From time to time, apply a novelty — a shield in the form of an elongated rectangle or trapezoid with a convex vertical trough axis — "Pavese."
Shields in the vast majority of their own were made of planks, covered with leather and canvas, painted patterns. Iron parts they usually do not have, except rivets, belt mount the system handles.
Yound Lithuanian princes — vassals of the Metropolitan Demetrios — Central European liking weapons were not very different from the actual Russian soldiers. Types of armor and offensive weapons were the same, only different in detail the form of helmets, swords and daggers, cut shells.
For troops Mamaia can not believe the smallest unity of weapons. Justified by the fact that, contrary to the firmly ingrained in our historiography of views (rightly zabugornyh not shared by most researchers) in the territories of the Golden Horde, and the western part of Chzhagatayskogo ulus (Central Asia), and even in the northern regions of Iran Hulaguidskogo — lands ruled by Genghis Khan. Become Muslims — has developed a unified organic subculture, part of which was armed, military costume and equipment. The presence of identity in no way refutes the open disposition Golden Horde, namely culture, with its classical ties with Italy and the Balkans, Carpatho-Rus and the Danube region on the one hand, and Asia Minor, Iran, Mesopotamia and Egypt — on the other, with China and East Turkestan — with the third. Prestigious things — gun, decorations, men's suit strictly followed obschechingizidskoy fashion (ladies' suit in a classic even more conservative society and local stores, local traditions). Armature Golden Horde times Kulikov battle considered by us in a separate article. So here is to bring only the conclusions. What's all the same for offensive weapons, something about it a bit more. Overwhelming quantity was part of the Tartar cavalry troops. Its core, usually played a decisive role, was heavily armed cavalry, consisting of the serving military and tribal aristocracy, its numerous sons, wealthy militias and vigilantes. The basis was a personal "guard" the lord of the Horde. Numerically, heavily armed cavalry, of course, inferior to medium and lightly armed, but her connections could inflict a decisive blow (as it was, in fact, in almost all countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa). The main instrument of attack Horde is rightly considered a bow and arrows. According to the sources, the bows were 2-types: "Chinese" — a large, up to 1.4 m, with a truly dedicated and bent apart arm, shoulders and longish, nearly straight horns, "Near and Middle Eastern" — less than 90 cm , segment, with a bit isolated malehankih handle and curved horns. Both types were as Russian bows, a complex, distinguished by exceptional strength — tensi
le force to 60, and more than even 80 kg. Longish Tatar arrows tipped with very large and reddish shafts shot from these bows were flying nearly a mile, a distance of 100 m in the same or a little more — the ultimate firing range — pierced man through and through, causing a large laceration, equipped with a faceted narrow or chisel tip, punched plate-and-sewn armor is not very thick. Chainmail is served by their very feeble defense.
The set for the shooting (saadak) also included a quiver — very long narrow birch bark box where the arrows lay spikes up (this type quivers covered with richly decorated with carved patterns complicated bony plates), or a longish flat leather bag, in which arrows were inserted feathers up (they are often on the Central Asian tradition decorated the tail of a leopard, embroidery, plaques). And the case for a bow, and topped with embroidery, leather applications, metal-metal plates and bone plates. Quiver on the right and the left case for a bow fastened to a special belt, which is usually on an old — even with the VI. — Steppe tradition buttoned hooked.
High efficiency horde horse archers was associated not only with guns firing, and with neatness shooters, and with the construction of a special combat. Ever since the time of the Scythian horse archers of the steppes, building on the enemy whirling ring, a cloud of arrows showered him with a very intimate and comfortable for each hand position. Sigmund Gerberstein, salting Kaiser of the Holy Roman Empire, described this system in great detail — first the XVI century. — And saw that the Muscovites call such order of battle "dance" (meaning "dance"). He also claimed, according to Russian interlocutors that this system, if it does not disturb the occasional mess, fearfulness, or a successful hit the enemy, quite adamant. Feature of the Tatar-Mongol live firing was unprecedented accuracy and greater destructive force firing projectiles, resulting, as noted by all his contemporaries, from the horde of arrows were very many dead and the wounded. Arrows in the quiver of the steppe are not enough — at least 10, meaning thrashed aiming to choose from.
After the first shooting, hitting — "sui-ma" — followed by the second, "FACS" — attack heavily-armed cavalry and medium in which the main instrument was a spear before hanging over the right shoulder with a 2-loop — the shoulder and feet. Spearheads were in the main very narrow, cut-glass, but were used and more than broad, flattened. From time to time they were supplied to the same hook under the blade for grasping and pushing the enemy from the stallion. Shafts under the tip decorated with short Bunchuk ("bang") and narrow vertical flag, which runs 1-3 triangular tongue.
Darts were used less often (though later they are becoming more popular) seems kopeynym between combat and melee. For the latter possessed Horde 2 types of guns — bladed and impact.
To include bladed swords and sabers. Blades, as it may seem weird, the Tatars were applied to the XV century. quite often, and the nobility. Handle them different from saber straightness and shape of the tops — in the form of a flattened sphere (European-style Muslim) or horizontal disc (Central Asian type). Quantitatively dominated by the same sword. In Tatar time they become more longish, blades — wider and curved, although it was quite enough and narrow, slightly curved. A common feature of the Horde was tipped sabers floor crosshair ring with tongue blade engagement portion. Blades from time to time have a long, sometimes contrary — rhombic section. Expansion occurs in the lower third of the blade — "Elmanov." North Caucasian blades often have a "bayonet" faceted end. Intrinsic Horde saber cross — with drooping down and flattened ends. Handle and sheath crowned tops in the form of a flattened thimble. Sheath had clips of rings. Sabers were decorated with carved, engraved and embossed metal, occasionally precious, leather sheath embroidered with gold thread. Belts for blades decorated richer, fastened with a buckle.
Wounded sword of the enemy, fell from a stallion, Horde, leaping to the ground, finished off with a knife fighting — longish, up to 30-40 cm, with a bone handle, from time to time and the cross-hairs.
Very popular with the Tatar-Mongol Horde warriors and general culture shock was an instrument — maces and flails. Clubs from the second half of the XIV century. prevailed in the form of mace, but often in the form of a steel ball or a polyhedron. Flails have applied less often. Regional feature of the Bulgar ulus were battle-axes, from time to time, only topped by richly embossed or interspersed patterns.
The vast majority of offensive weapons performed, of course, numerous workshops in the cities of the Horde or Horde orders and specimens of the Italian colonies and an old towns of the Crimea, the Caucasus centers. But a lot and bought, came out as a tribute.
Defensive armament included Horde helmets, armor, bracers, greaves, necklaces, shields. Horde helmets time Kulikov field — usually spheroconical, rarely spherical, with chain mail barmitsa from time to time covered the entire face except the eyes. Helm could be brow cuts ahead, cost forged "eyebrows", the mobile nanosnik — arrow, discoid Nausha. Crowned hat with feathers or a small ring attached to a pair of cloth or leather blades — purely Tatar ornament. Helmets can have not only Mail, and even in the form of forged antics visor.
Great was the abundance of shells of the Horde. A popular destination was previously alien to the Mongols mail — in the form of a shirt or a caftan. The general distribution was quilted armor — "Hatanga Degel" ("strong as steel, coat", from his Russian. "Tegilyay") kroivshiysya as a dressing gown with sleeves to the elbow blades. He often had iron parts — Shoulders and, most importantly, knocked out of the steel plates are attached to the underside and riveted; such armor was already expensive and covered with fabric secured on which gleamed rows of rivets nests, often copper, brass, gilt. From time to time This armor was cut with slits on the sides, stocked Zertsalov on the chest and back, longish quilted sleeves or Mantle of the narrow iron curved lateral plates, cold-worked on the vertical straps, and such a structure Gaiters and the cover of the sacrum. Armour of the horizontal strips of metal or rigid thick skin, connected by vertical straps or cords called laminar. Such armor of the Tatar-Mongols used extensively in the XIII century. Richly decorated with strips of material: Metal — engraving, gilding, marquetry, leather — Painted, varnished.
Just as we love the Horde was lamellar armor — armor eternal Central Asia (in Mongolian "huyag"). In the last third of the XIV century. it was used in combination with others: his worn over armor and "Hatanga Degel."
The territory of the Golden Horde gives us the standards of early booking, which will be dominant in the XV-XVI centuries. in the field from India to Poland — ring-plate. It retains all the highest safety and comfortable features of lamellar armor, but the strength of even greater due to the fact that the plate does not bind straps or cords and steel rings.
Mirror — huge round or rectangular iron plates — were part of another type of armor or worn without the help of others — on the belts. The upper part of the chest and back were covered a wide necklace (usually Tatar, to the central armor). In the seco
nd half of the XIV century. it did not just leather or chain mail, and of large iron plates connected by straps and rings.
Quite often find in the mounds and other burial sites in the area are the hordes of Mamaia Boots — leaf from 2-unequal-length rail halves connected by loops and straps. Muslim miniature chiigizidskih and postchingizidskih countries confirms the popularity of the armor in all encampments in the second half of the XIV century. Although they have been known to the Mongols in the XIII century. Leggings of the findings do not occur in the middle, but the miniatures show that they are hinged greaves, joined with chain mail weaving knee and laminar cover the feet.
Horde shields were round, up to 90 cm in diameter, flat boards, covered with leather, or much less — 70-60 cm, bulging of the flexible rods, laid out in a spiral and connected by a solid-colored braid strands forming the pattern. Small — 50 cm — convex shields were made of thick tough skin or painted steel. Shields of all varieties almost always had a "shield boss" — iron hemisphere in the center, and in addition a few malehankih. Especially popular were valued by Pruteanu shields. Due to its exceptional elasticity reflect at least some mace or sword blow, and blow spears or arrows accepted on a metal shield boss. Adored them and for the availability and colorful elegance.
Stallions Horde men at arms and armor often defended. It was the custom of the steppe warriors still for a long time before our era and is especially true for Central Asia. Horde horse armor of the last third of the XIV century. consisted of a metal mask, collar and cover-up body to the knees, which consists of several parts connected by buckles and straps. Horse armor was quilted, chain-mail occasionally, but more often laminar or lamellar, with plates of steel or a stronger thick tough skin, painted and varnished. The presence of ring-plate horse armor is so popular in the Muslim East in the XV-XVII centuries., In the era of Kulikovo field yet still hard to believe.
As we see, the armed parties were about similar, although the Horde's cuirassiers had several more reliable and progressive defensive armament, particularly ring-plate, with the protection of horses. Russian military horse armor was not up to the XVII century. The myth of the horse it came through the mask of nomadic mound (?) XII-XIII centuries. from the collection of the Municipal Historical Museum in Kiev and finds longish Spurs XIV century. in Novgorod. But the 10's similar masks — especially a lot of them in the Istanbul Military Museum, especially the lettering and designs on them, do not leave any hesitation that mask and Kiev — the topic of Damascus or Cairo XV — beginning of XVI century. Longish also spurs euro type are connected in any way with the horse armor, and landing on longish stirrups and, accordingly, extended legs, so that your heels are too far away from the belly of the horse.
As for any military-technical means battle field, one can imagine crossbows both sides and mounted panels — "Chapare" — that make up the field fortifications in Horde. But judging by the texts of some special role they have played. Ordinary guns Russian troops would be enough to defeat the Horde, and that — to put on a great battlefield of the army Russian principalities.
In conclusion, it should be said about the composition of the opposing sides. In Prince Dimitri the troops, not counting the Russian soldiers who were combatants Lithuanian Princes Andrew and Demetrius Olgerdovich whose numbers not be established — in the range of 1-3 thousand.
More colorful, but not as far as love is present, the composition was Mamaeva troops. We should not forget that the rules he is not far away across the Golden Horde, and only its western part (the capital it was not the Shed, and the city is now a forgotten title from which the remains tremendous, and perishing Zaporozhskoye unexcavated mound). Most of the troops of cavalry was wandering descendants of Kipchaks and Mongols. Would be great and Horse Connection Circassians Kabardinians and other Circassian peoples (Cherkasov), cavalry Ossetians (jars) was small. More or less severe forces and the cavalry and the infantry could expose subordinate Mamaia Mordovia and burtasskie princes. Within the boundaries of several thousand troops were mounted and foot "Bessermen 'Muslim inhabitants of the Golden Cities: they wage war in general is not very fond of (although, in the opinion of strangers contemporaries, they had not the courage to take), and of the basic number of cities of the Golden Horde, and the more crowded, there were not Mamayeva power. Even less in the army was experienced and persistent warriors — "Armenia", in other words the Crimean Armenians, and as for "fryazey" — the Italians, then so beloved creators of "black (?) Genoese infantry" going deep phalanx, is a fruit, very little , misunderstandings. With the Genoese Crimea at Mamaia at war with the Metropolitan Coalition was hostility — leaving only the Venetians Azaka-Tana (Azov). But there they were — with their spouses and babies — only a few hundred, so that the negotiators could only give money to hire soldiers. And given that the mercenaries in Europe cost a very expensive and it does not matter which of the Crimean colonies could contain only a few 10 s of Italian or European men in general (usually for a fee guard carried the local nomads), the number of "fryazey" on the Kulikovo field, if there and got far lacked until thousand.
The total number of forces on either side very hard to judge. You can only with great care to imagine that they were about equal and varied in the range of 50-70 thousand (what was then Europe for a huge number).