September 11 marked another day of military glory of — day victory of the Russian squadron under the supervision of Rear Admiral Fyodor Ushakov over the Ottoman fleet at Cape Tendra. This is the day of military glory was established by the Federal Law № 32-FZ, dated 13 March 1995 "On the days of military glory of Russia and anniversaries."
During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774. was attached to the Russian Federation peninsula. Our homeland begins to create the Black Sea Fleet and the corresponding coastal infrastructure. Port longed for revenge, apart from this, the British and the French, fearing consolidation of in the Black Sea and to the Mediterranean sea, pushed the Turkish government to the latest war with the Russian. In August, the Russian Federation presented an ultimatum to Istanbul with the requirement to return the Crimea and review all previous agreements. These sassy demands were rejected. First, in September 1787 the Turkish authorities without a formal declaration of war was arrested Russian Ambassador YI Bulgakov, and the Turkish fleet under the command of "Crocodile sea battles," Hassan-pashy out of the Bosphorus towards the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Started brand new Russian-Turkish war.
By the beginning of the war the Russian fleet was significantly weaker than Turkish. The naval base and shipbuilding branch were in the process of creation. Vast areas have been the Black Sea at the time one of the distant outskirts of the empire, which only began to explore. Fill the Black Sea fleet at the expense of the Baltic Fleet ships failed, the Turkish government has refused to pass through the straits of the squadron from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. The Russian navy is very inferior to the number of ships: the beginning of combat acts of the Black Sea fleet had four ships of the line, and the Turkish military command about 20, the number of corvettes, brigs, the transports, the Turks had an advantage of about 3-4. Inferior to the Russian battleships and in high regard: in the rate of stroke, artillery weapons. In addition, the Russian fleet was divided into two parts. The core of the fleet, the main large sailing ships, based in Sevastopol, rowing boats and a small part of the sailing fleet was in the Dnieper-Bug estuary (Liman flotilla). The main task of the Navy task was protecting the Black Sea coast to prevent the invasion of the enemy troops.
The Russian fleet, despite their weakness, which is opposed to Turkish Naval Forces. In the 1787-1788 years. Liman flotilla successfully repulsed all enemy attacks, the Turkish command had lost a lot of ships. July 14, 1788 Sevastopol squadron under the command ship of the line, "Paul," Ushakov, Managing formal squadron of Rear Admiral M. Voinovich was indecisive and withdrew of the fight, broke significantly superior forces of the enemy (the Turks had 15 battleships and 8 frigates against two Russian battleships, 10 frigates). This was the first baptism of the Sevastopol squadron — the main battle nucleus Black Sea Fleet.
In March 1790 Ushakov was appointed commander of the Black Sea Fleet. He had to spend a tremendous job to increase the combat capability of the Navy. Great attention was paid to the training of personnel. Admiral in all weathers whole ship at sea and spent sailing, artillery, boarding and other teachings. Ushakov made a bid to maneuver battlefield strategy and prowess of their own commanders and sailors. Huge role it assigns "useful occasion" when the enemy indecision, his hesitations and errors, allowed more activity and strong-willed commander win. This made it possible to compensate for a higher number of the enemy's fleet, and the best quality of enemy ships.
The Turkish fleet after the battle at Fidonisi about 2-years did not solve Activism in the Black Sea. In the Ottoman empire building new ships were active diplomatically fight against Russia. During this period there was the difficult situation in the Baltic. The Swedish government decided that the decor is very profitable for the outbreak of war with Russia, in order to return to coastal areas lost during the Russian-Swedish war. The UK is an inflammatory position, pushing the Swedes to attack. The Government of Gustav III filed Petersburg ultimatum demanding the transfer of the Swedish Karelia Kexholm, disarmament of the Baltic Fleet, the transfer of Crimea to Turks and adoption of the "mediation" in the Russian-Turkish conflict.
At this time, the Baltic Fleet intensively preparing for the trip to the Mediterranean, for operations against the Turks. The Mediterranean squadron was already in Copenhagen, when it had to urgently return to Kronstadt. Russian Empire had to fight on two fronts — in the south and in the north-west. During the 2-year was Russian-Swedish war (1788-1790 gg.) Russian armed forces with honor out of this war, the Swedes were required to sign a peace treaty Verelsky. The end of this war has improved the strategic position of, but this conflict very exhausted military and economic resources of the empire, which was reflected in the course of hostilities with Turkey.
Turkish commanders planned to land the 1790 landings on the Caucasian coast of the Black Sea, Crimea peninsula and capture. Commander of the Turkish fleet was appointed Admiral Hussein Pasha. The threat to the Crimean peninsula was very meaningful, Russian troops there was not enough. Turkish troops, landed on the court in Sinop, Samsun and other ports could throw and land in the Crimea less than two days.
Ushakov conducted reconnaissance hike along the Turkish coast: Russian ships have crossed the sea, came to Sinop and went away along the Turkish coast to Samsun, on to Anapa and returned to Sevastopol. Russian sailors seized more than 10 ka enemy ships and learned about the preparation of Constantinople to the Turkish Navy amphibious forces. Ushakov again led his forces into the sea and 8 July (July 19) in 1790 broke the Turkish squadron in the Kerch Strait. Admiral Hussein Pasha had an advantage of a small can, but failed to use it, the Turkish sailors trembled under Russian attack and fled (the best driving characteristics of Turkish ships have allowed them to escape.) It is a fight has broken the enemy's troops landed in the Crimea, showed good proficiency crews Russian ships and the highest skill flotovodcheskoe Fyodor Ushakov.
After that fight the Turkish fleet disappeared on their own bases, which started its work on the restoration of damaged ships. Turkish Admiral snatched from the fact of the defeat of the Sultan, declared victory (the sinking of a Russian ships), and began to prepare for the latest operation. To support Maulana Sultan sent an experienced junior leader — Sayyid Bey.
Fight off Cape Tendra August 28-29 (8-9 September) 1790
On the morning of August 21, the bulk of the Turkish fleet was concentrated between Hadji Bey (Odessa) and Cape Tendra. Under the supervision of Hussein Pasha was significant power 45 ships 14 ships of the line, 8 frigates and 23 auxiliary vessels, at 1,400 guns. At that time, Russian troops began coming to the area of the Danube, and was to support the rowing flotilla. But because of the presence of the enemy fleet Liman flotilla could not support the ground forces.
August 25 Ushakov led his squadron to sea, it consisted of 10 battleships, 6 frigates, 1 bombing ship and 16 support vessels, with
836 guns. On the morning of August 28 the Russian fleet appeared at Tendra spit. Russia found the enemy, and the admiral gave the order to move closer. For the Turkish Pasha kapudan emergence of Russian warships was a complete surprise, he believed that the Russian Navy has not yet recovered from the battle of Kerch and Sevastopol stands. Seeing a Russian fleet, the Turks rushed hurriedly chop anchor and set sail in a mess moved to the mouth of the Danube.
Russian ships began to pursue the enemy off. Turkish vanguard, led by the flagship Hussein Pasha, taking advantage of in the process, forged ahead. Fearing that the ship will be overtaken by the stragglers Ushakov and pressed to the bank, the Turkish admiral was obliged to make a turn. At the time when the Turks rebuilt their orders, Russian Ushakov's squadron formed up on the signal of the three pillars in the battle line. Three frigates — "John Voinstvennik", "Jerome" and "Protection of the Virgin", was held in reserve and is located at the vanguard of what would at least need to stop attacking the acts leading enemy ships. At three o'clock in the two squadrons went parallel to each other. Ushakov gave the order to reduce the distance and open fire on the enemy.
Ushakov, using their favorite strategy — to focus fire on the enemy flagship (the plague caused demoralization Turkish sailors), ordered the hit on the Turkish avant-garde, where the Turkish flagships Hussein Pasha and Said Bey (Seit-Bey). Russian warships fire forced the best part of the enemy fleet to turn over jibe (turn the ships nose to the wind) and turned to the Danube. The Russian squadron drove the Turks and kept unchanged fire. By 17 o'clock the whole line of the Turkish fleet was completely defeated. The persecution lasted for several hours, but the coming of darkness repelled the Turks from total destruction. Turkish vessels were no lights and the constantly changing course, to confuse the Russian squadron. But now the Turks failed to escape (as it was during the battle of Kerch).
At dawn the following day at the Russian ships found the Turkish fleet, which was "all broken up in different places." Turkish commanders litsezrev that the Russian squadron located near, gave the signal for the connection and waste. The Turks took the course to the south-east, which is very damaged ships have reduced speed squadron and lagged. One of the flagships of the Turkish 80-gun ship "captains" closed the Turkish regime.
At 10 am, the Russian ship "Andrew" first overtook the enemy and opened fire on it. Behind him came the battleships "George" and "The Transfiguration of the Lord." They surrounded the enemy flagship and replacing each other made by him volley after volley. The Turks provided stubborn resistance. At this time came the flagship of Russia's "Christmas". He stood up against the Turks at a distance of 60 meters and shoot the enemy ships on the coming race. The Turks broke and "pleaded for mercy and their own salvation." In the prisoner got Seid Pasha, captain Mehmet Darcy and 17 staff officers. Ship could not be saved, because of a fire on board, he soon took off into the air.
At this time, the other Russian ships caught up with the enemy's 66-gun ship of the line, "Melek-Baqarah", blocked him and forced to surrender. Then he was captured a few ships. In total, more than 700 were captured Turks. According to the reports of the Turkish fleet lost in killed and wounded and 5.5 million people. The remaining Turkish ships in shambles retreated to the Bosphorus. On the way to the Bosphorus sank another battleship and several small boats. On the military skill of the Russian squadron, they say it lost 46 men killed and wounded.
In Sevastopol squadron Fyodor Ushakov was a festive meeting. The Russian Black Sea Fleet won a decisive victory over the Turks and made a significant contribution to the overall victory. The northwestern part of the Black Sea has been cleared of the enemy navy, and that allowed access to the sea ships Liman flotilla. With the assistance of the flotilla ships Liman Russian troops took the fortress of Kealia, Tulcea, Isaccea and then, Ishmael. Ushakov wrote in the marine record of the Russian Federation one of her glittering pages. Manoeuvrable naval combat strategy Ushakov absolutely justified itself, the Turkish fleet finished dominate the Black Sea.