"Truly Russian bravery" Black Sea sailors in the Battle of Sinop
18 (30) November 1853 came Sinop battle, it Russia's Black Sea Fleet under the command of Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov in a few hours destroyed Turkish fleet. This was the first great battle of the Crimean War.
Need to see that the situation in the Black Sea basin became very complicated since May 1853, when there was a break diplomatically relations between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. In the Danubian principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) were introduced by Russian troops, the Anglo-French fleet came to the Dardanelles. In late September, claimed at the Port of St. Petersburg to withdraw troops from the territories of the Danubian principalities, but before the end of the term of the ultimatum acts announced Russian empire war. The Turks were convinced of their own abilities, because for them there was France and Britain.
11 (23) October detachment of Russian Danube Flotilla came under fire from the fort Isakcha. On the night of the 16th Turkish forces attacked the Russian garrison post of St.. Nicholas on the Black Sea coast, it was placed between Poti and Batumi. October 21, Turkish forces crossed the Danube and made a bridgehead for the attack on the Russian army. Thus began another Russian-Turkish war.
The plans of the Turkish command a large role Caucasus and the Turkish military action in support of the Turkish fleet in the sea. In Batumi, was concentrated 20 thousand Turkish corps, and most fleet of coastal vessels (up to 250) for the transportation of troops by sea. Troopers planned to put in Sukhumi, Poti, Gagra, Sochi and Tuapse.
To cover the troops formed a squadron of the best ships under the command of Vice Admiral Osman Pasha, the second was the flagship of Rear Admiral Hussein Pasha. When the squadron was an English Adviser — Captain A. Slade, the Turkish Navy, he was promoted to rear admiral. The squadron consisted of seven frigates and corvettes 5. For the growth of its intelligence capabilities give her squad of 3 steam-frigates, under the command of Vice Admiral Mustafa Pasha. Anglo-French fleet at that time has passed from the Dardanelles to the Bosphorus.
From 5 to 6 November 1853, 12 miles from the Cape Picunda Frigate "Flora" which went under the command of a young lieutenant commander Skorobogatov, was attacked by 3 Turkish steam-frigates under the command of Admiral Mustafa Pasha. The battle went from 2 am to 9 am, in the end the Turkish squad was defeated and retreated. Turkish command in conjunction with the Englishman failed to take advantage of speed, strength, armor. Although Turkish steam-frigates were mnogokalibernye bombicheskie guns, which could lead fire while out of the reach of the Russian ship. The Russian captain showed the same cold-blooded prudence and courage, and his team have the knowledge of their own business. This was the only case in maritime history, when a sailing ship managed to beat three steam.
Acts of the Black Sea Fleet
The squadron of Vice-Admiral Nakhimov (84-gun ships of the line "The Mary", "Scesma", "Rostislav") and a detachment of ships under the command of the Chief of Staff of the Navy Vice Admiral Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov had been sent by Prince Menshikov to cruise to the shores of the Bosphorus and Anatolia to exploration and research of Turkish naval forces.
After a week of searching in the western area of the Black Sea and the Bosporus vorachivatsya Kornilov decided to Sevastopol. 5 (17) November steam-frigate "Vladimir" on it holding the flag Kornilov, and the commander of the ship was a GI Butakov in the Turkish port of Penderakli spotted a Turkish steamer "Pervaz Bahri." There was a first in the history of the battle of steam ships. After a two-hour battle, the Turks lowered the flag. Kornilov eventually hike to the Bosphorus learned that the Turks were preparing the squadron for the campaign, which should cover the landing in Sukhumi and Poti. He said this Nakhimov.
At this time, the squadron Nakhimov cruising off the coast of Anatolia, there are the major maritime communication linking the Istanbul to Batumi. Russian ships were more than a month in the campaign, which was run in the criteria for severe weather in the autumn, which is unchanged pending a meeting with the Turkish fleet and the likely attack the British fleet. Nov. 3 announced an order for Nakhimov Navy, in which said that the Turkish fleet was at sea: "The enemy is otherwise can not fulfill his intention, as passed by us or by giving us a battle … I hope to take the battle with honor."
November 8, 1853 the squadron Nakhimov found on the roads Turkish port of Sinop enemy squadron of 16 combat and support ships. In service with the Turkish fleet had 476 guns, 44 guns plus 6 coastal batteries, they were equal to more than the ship's guns, because were stronger. We had three linear Nakhimov sailing ship with 252 guns, that is, it forces initially were weaker than Turkish, but the Russian admiral has decided to cut off the enemy in Sinop, before the time, until reinforcements arrive from Sevastopol. And, Nakhimov was ready to join the fight, if the Turks will go on break. He wrote in one of the orders that if the experiences a foe, superior Russian squadron is capable of, then stormed it, "being quite sure that any of us will do the trick …".
Turkish commanders, despite an advantage can not dared to fight or go on break the blockade. In Istanbul sent a report about the blockade, hoping to help the British and French forces, and that Russian forces were exaggerated three times.
November 16 (28), came to Sinop squadron of Admiral Fyodor Novosilskogo of three 120-gun battleship ("Paris", "The Grand Duke Constantine" and "Three Saints"), and 2 frigates (44-gun "Cahul" and 54 -cannon "Kulevchi"). In the end, his strength, taking into account the three steamships, increased to 720 guns. Nakhimov decided to storm itself.
Plan Nakhimov, this stately Russian naval commander, was imbued with determination and initiative. His plan was to build ships 2-wake columns (order ships by following one by one on the strip of the course) had to break into the enemy raid and storm the enemy's ships and batteries. This system had to reduce the passage of ships under attack by a hostile fleet and land batteries. Also facilitates the deployment of the Russian fleet in order of battle for anchoring. The frigates were in the rear, blocked the probable test flight of enemy ships.
Admiral painstakingly elaborated the squadron during the battle, he gave clear instructions about preparing for a fight, the location of each ship, its purpose. At the same time, the team was confident in the highest skill subordinates commanders, ordinary seamen, gunners, because of strict regulation was not. Nakhimov always encouraged personnel to the initiative, independence.
The ships passed the final call Admiral Nakhimov "Russia is waiting for the glorious deeds of the Black Sea Fleet, depend on us to meet the expectations." 18 (30) November 1853 9.30 am squadron went to the Turkish raid. The flagship line of 84-gun ship "Empress Maria" led the right column. At the head of the left was the "Paris" under the flag of Rear Admiral F, M. Novosilskogo (commander of the battleship was VI Istomin).
Turkish ships were starboard side closest to the shore. Seeing the movement of the Russian squadron, the Turks began feverishly to prepare for battle. At 12 day or 28 minutes of the 1st shot with a 44-gun frigate flagship "Aunni-Allah" was opened fire from all Turkish ships and batteries. Russian ships came under heavy fire. The Turks had hoped that fell under the fire of a powerful coastal and naval artillery, the Russian fleet will not be able to break through to the close distance and retreat.
But the Russian ships continued to move confidently to the Turkish squadron. Nakhimov, knowing the tricks of Turkish commanders foresaw that enemy fire will be concentrated on the mast (this totality of parts of the superstructure of the ship equipment), but not on the decks. So Makar, the Turks want to bring a huge amount of Russian sailors at a time when they will be taking in sail before directing ships to anchor and break the maneuverability of ships in motion. And so it was, the Turkish core sails full of holes, the breaking yards, topmast. The sailors were across the bottom, Nakhimov ordered to put the ships at anchor, without taking away the sails.
Most damage was the flagship of the fleet, he took the main enemy fire, the flagship lost a huge part of the mast. But despite the damage (calculated after the battle 60 holes in a board), the flagship of Russia's continued movement and began to approach the admiral frigate "Aunni-Allah." Going up to a distance of about 400 meters, "the Empress Maria" anchored on, stood up for her and other ships. The Russian squadron performed the first part of the plan — broke under enemy fire on the raid Sinop.
The battle has begun between with 2 squadrons. Russian ships brought down on the enemy and 200 rounds per minute. Played a huge role concerted, clear deeds Russian gunners. The Turks also now thrashed by gun deck and after a few volleys Accuracy Increasing.
"The Empress Maria" focused on the fire "Aunni-Allah", the Russian sailors skillfully acted under attack not only the enemy flagship, and other vehicles, batteries that supported its own flagship frigate. Nakhimov said "personal courage and diligence" lieutenants Prokofiev and Dmitry Butakova. After half an hour the enemy frigate, unable to withstand the Russian fire, thrown on saved. Turkish squadron lost the basic management and control center. After that, the Russian flagship concentrated fire on another Turkish frigate — "Fazli-Allah", he soon came on, and also jumped on the saved. After that, "Mary" was the lead fire on battery number 5.
The battleship "Empress Maria"
Line 120-gun ship "Grand Duke Constantine" (he was under the command of Captain 2nd Rank LA Ergomysheva) standing on an anchor, led the fire on the frigate "Forever Bahri" (60 guns) and the battery number 4. After 20 minutes of battle the enemy frigate exploded — one of Russian missiles hit the ship's powder magazine. After that, "Constantine" concentrated fire on the frigate "Nesimi-Zafar" (60 guns) and the corvette "Nedzhmi-Fesch" (24 guns), both of enemy ships were obliged to throw the saved.
Line 84-gun ship "Scesma" fought against 2-Turkish batteries, which supported the left flank of the Turkish fleet — № 4 and № 3. With each gulp of destruction on the Turkish ship was adding positions. Soon both batteries were suppressed.
The flagship of Russia's second column, and she resisted the right wing Turkish fleet — a 120-gun "Paris" fought a battle with the frigate "Damiad" (56 guns), the corvette "Guli-Sefid" (22 guns) and central coastal battery — № 5 . After the corvette came on, and later exploded when the fire headed for the powder magazine, the efforts of Russian gunners were focused on the frigate "Damiad," he broke down the heavy fire, the team and cut off the anchor line, and ship thrown on the saved. "Paris" opened fire on 62-gun frigate "lower classes", it kept the flag of Admiral Hussein Pasha (it was the most powerful frigate enemy fleet). Soon frigate lost two masts — fore and mizzen masts lit, it drifted to shore. The commander of the battleship Istomin showed "intrepidity and firmness of mind," made "sensible, quality and frisky disposition." After that, the ship put down a strong central battery enemy, which had a huge opposition squadron. As he wrote Nakhimov: "You could not stop looking at the beautiful and coldly calculated actions of the ship" Paris ".
Equally acted selflessly and command other ships. Line 120-gun ship "Three Hierarchs" engaged the frigates "Quaid-Zafar" (54 guns) and the "lower classes". When enemy fire smote the anchor line and the ship began to turn with the wind astern of the enemy, but the midshipman Varnickiy managed to remove the damage. "Three Hierarchs" subjected to heavy fire from the battery number 6, it suffered its mast. It saw the commander of the 84-gun "Rostislav" Captain 1st Rank AD Kuznetsov, he suffered a fire on the ship that battery. Fire 2-battleships it was suppressed. "Rostislav" also forced the corvette "Feyziyev-Meabud" (24-gun) to throw the saved.
It should be noted that the Turkish commanders did not differ heroism. In the midst of the battle Yahia Bey, a 22-gun steam-frigate "Taif" weighed anchor and fled to Istanbul, the Russian frigates were not able to pursue it because of the difference in speed. He ran away from the ship during the battle, the commander steamer "Irakli" — Ismail Bey, commander of the corvette "Feyziyev Meabud" — Itset Bey, etc.
Results of the fight
During a three-hour battle Turkish squadron ceased to exist — of a squadron of 16 pennants, 15 were destroyed, slightly later were suppressed remaining coastal fortifications and batteries. The Russian squadron did not lose any of the 1st ship. More than three thousand Turks were killed and wounded. In the 200 men taken prisoner together with the commander — Osman Pasha. Our losses — 37 killed, 233 the wounded.
Complete destruction of the Turkish fleet has had an enormous impact on the military-strategic situation in the Black Sea. The naval force of the Ottoman Empire were very relaxed. Turkish land forces, who were on the Danube and Russian-Turkish border in the Caucasus, were deprived of the support of the fleet. The Black Sea Fleet is now able to contribute without hindrance coastal flanks Russian army in the Caucasus and the Danube river fronts. If not for the interven
tion of war on Britain and France, the Turks are unlikely to stand for a long time.
Tremendous value of the Turkish fleet was defeated for the situation in the Caucasus. Nakhimov struck a powerful blow to the plans of ports and its allies in the assault landing on the Caucasian coast of the Black Sea.
Sinop battle again shown the world the heroism, bravery, courage Russian sailors. So Nakhimov wrote that the Black Sea sailors showed the "true Russian courage." In this naval battle clearly proved the results of advanced education and training of sailors and officers of the Russian Black Sea Fleet, is controlled by the best Russian naval commanders. The highest combat skills, which showed sailors in the Battle of Sinop, there was stubborn training, studies, sea trips. Sinope "test" proved the highest operational readiness of sailors and commanders of the Black Sea Fleet. Highest level of skill demonstrated Russian naval artillery during the battle to the enemy, they have released more than 18 thousand shells. Showed the highest rate of gunners "Rostislav" with each instrument in force on the bead was made 75-100 shots. On other ships with the current board of each instrument was made 30-70 shots.
Sinop battle demonstrated the importance of bombing guns for the future development of the Navy. Fight demonstrated enormous vulnerability of wood from the fire of the ships guns. It became obvious that to strengthen armor protection of ships.
This fight showed great skill of the Russian Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov, who correctly took into account the forces and the enemy forces, detailed plan of battle, showed perseverance in achieving the goal. Skillfully managed to build a squadron for a breakthrough on the road and to fight, organize cooperation between the ships. He was able to save the lives of the crew, it justifies the lack of lost ships and comparable low human losses of the Russian squadron.
Sinop battle was the result, a brilliant point of long-term development of sailing fleets. Moreover, Paul and Nakhimov, Vladimir Kornilov and perfectly understood it, believing that it is necessary to rapidly develop the Russian steamer fleet.
The battleship "Paris"