In August 1812 at Borodino met in a fierce battle two opposing armies: the Russian army under the command of General of Infantry Misha Golenischev-Kutuzov and Lofty army French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte.
In this superb battle involved on both sides by about 300 thousand people at 1,200 artillery pieces.
August 24, fierce fighting broke out in the village Shevardino. 11000th unit under the command of AI Gorchakov with 36 guns, supported by units of the 2nd Grenadiers and 2nd consolidated and Grenadier divisions were not once attacked by superior enemy forces. On the part of Napoleon in the battle attended by about 40 thousand people at 186 guns. Before the coming of darkness Russia held a position at the Shevardino redoubt that was built recently as a forward base for the protection of the left flank of the Russian army. Already in the night by order of the commander in chief, Lieutenant-General Gorchakov took the remains of their fundamentals troops to the main position near the village of Semenov. The losses in this battle with each side to 6 thousand were killed and wounded.
August 25 in the area of the Borodino field of active hostilities was not conducted. Both armies were preparing for the final, general combat, reconnaissance, and erecting field fortifications.
According to the disposition signed by MI Kutuzov on August 24, 114 thousand troops of the Army soldiers standing at 624 guns, along with almost 9,500 Cossacks and the 22000th Metropolitan of Smolensk and militias are located on the front of 8 km from the northeast to the south of the confluence of the rivers Kolocha in the Moscow River to the village of Utitsa . position right wing, consisting of the troops of the 1 st Western Army (about 86 thousand people), under the command of General of Infantry MB Barclay de Tolly, was held on the Moscow River along the high right bank of the river through Kolocha The latest Smolensk road and ended at Battery Raevskogo in the center of the field of Borodino. Left flank, consisting of the compounds of the 2nd Western army (about 34 thousand people), under the command of General of Infantry PI Bagration, began Raevskogo battery (included) and ended in Utitskom forest, which hosted the ancient Smolensk road. The main apartment MI Kutuzov located in the estate Tatarinovo east of the village of Borodino.
Napoleon decided to strike a major blow to the left flank of the Russian position. The role of ancillary impacts assigned to attacks on the village of Borodino and housing General Tuchkova-1, defending a position on the old Smolensk road.
August 26 is at 5 o'clock in the morning the French army, having in its composition of about 135 thousand people and 587 guns, then settled properly. On the right flank, in Utitskom woods on an old Smolensk road — Polish Corps General Poniatowski, between the forest and the river Utitskim bashing — Corps Marshal Davoust and Ney, General Junot, Old and Young Guard, and three spare Marshal Murat's cavalry corps. On the left, across the river bashing — Italian corps viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleon's stepson ruler, giving it a day bout two infantry divisions and a cavalry corps of General Grouchy. Napoleon's headquarters is located near the village of Valuevo in the north-western edge of the Borodino field and command post — the Shevardino redoubt.
Around 6:00 am on August 26 start of the famous battle of Borodino. Division of General Beauharnais Delzona of the body at one point stormed the village of Borodino, and by 7 am supplanted the defenders of the village — Life Guard Jaeger Regiment, who stepped back and took a position on the right bank of the river Kolocha. To the aid of the Life rangers arrived, three Jaeger Regiment, and all attempts to break through the enemy defenses then Russian failed.
Almost immediately, the main blow was delivered to the Russian the left flank, by Semenov (Bagration) flushes that are advanced artillery fortifications of the common system of defense of the left flank. Fierce fighting in this area have continued almost until the afternoon.
Marshal Murat at the Battle of Borodino. Lithograph on rice. HW Faber du Handicap. 1830s.
10's of thousands of people in an endless roar of 800 guns came together in a bloody duel. Concerted effort to defeat the enemy Russian infantry, artillery and cavalry repulsed several attacks, with all this flushes not once passed from hand to hand. After being wounded Prince Bagration about 10:00 am accepts command of the troops, Lieutenant-General PP Konovnitsyn, who assessed the situation, has ordered the abandonment of flushes and the withdrawal of their defenders for Semyonov ravine on the gentle elevation.
After the afternoon Napoleon, obsessed zeal by all means to break the defense of the left flank of the Russian troops attacked the cavalry corps Latour Maubourg and Nansouty. At this time, on the order of Kutuzov command of the troops left flank took Gen.-Lieutenant DS Dokhturov — as it was called in the Russian army, the "Iron General" that could fit and well organized defense Semeynovsk heights.
At a certain village Semenov was in the hands of the enemy, but his trial to break the defense of the left flank and have not crowned success. Life Guards Izmailovo, Lithuanian and Finnish regiments with the support of the Life Guards Artillery Brigade valiantly repelled the attacks of the enemy angry, "covered themselves in view of the whole army with immortal glory."
Center of the Russian position — the battery Raevskogo ("Great Redoubt") — in the first half of the day or was twice attacked by infantry Beauharnais and Davoust, but both attacks were repulsed by the enemy.
In the battle for Utitsky mound on the left flank corps troops NA Tuchkova 1st bravely held back the pressure of the Polish Corps under General Poniatowski, who was trying to get around the tip of the left side and go to the rear of the Russian army.
By noon, when he created a tense situation in the center of Ru
ssia's position and on its left flank, Guards Cavalry Corps Lt. Gen. FP Uvarov of the Don Cossack Ataman MI Platov on orders Kutuzov made a raid on the left flank of the enemy. This diversion is diverted part of the forces of Napoleon's army from basic strokes, providing a temporary respite from the sweltering with the enemy troops to attack the left flank.
In the second half of the day or once again become the epicenter of events Raevskogo battery. Cavalry General O. Caulaincourt collapsed on the central pitch and took it. Trying to develop a success, the enemy stormed the Russian shelf east of the captured battery, across the creek Ognik. But Russian dragoons and cuirassiers, including the Life Guards and Horse Cavalry regiments, upset the French.
Martial act lasted until 9:00 pm. In the final bout of the distinguished Russian artillery, which "forced the French artillery silenced." By the end of the day or on August 26, both armies remained in the field of battle.
The Battle of 26 August 1812 was the bloodiest war in history ever since. The loss of each of the parties were at 40 thousand killed, wounded and missing. Solve this day the most important strategic task — in one pitched battle to break enemy lines — Napoleon Bonaparte failed. The Russian army as before was a formidable force. By order of the MI Kutuzov of early afternoon on August 27, Russian troops began to leave the field of battle, so, gathering new strength, to drive out the enemy from outside the homeland.
The ruler Napoleon, later recalled: "Of all my fights worst thing is that I gave at Moscow. The French showed themselves worthy in it to win, and Russian — called invincible "
"This day abide endless monument to the courage and bravery of a good Russian soldiers, where all the infantry, cavalry and artillery fought desperately. The desire of all to die on the spot, and not to yield to the enemy "- the highest rating a Russian army in the day on August 26 gave MI Kutuzov.