Eminent military and municipal representatives in the first quarter of the XIX century, major-general, a hero of the guerrilla-Russian war of 1812, the professional military writer and poet, founder of the hussar lyrics Denis V. Davydov was born 225 years ago — July 27, 1784. Passionate, boiling nature, hot patriot. He participated in all the wars fought by our homeland during his lifetime.
Denis V. was born in Moscow into a military family. In 1801 he began his service. He entered estandart-cadet (rank in the cavalry assigned to the nobles, who were waiting for promotion of officers) in the Horse regiment, through year made a cornet, and in November the 1803rd — to lieutenant. During this period he began to unfold his literary talent. Distinguished wit and freethinking poetry swiftly brought him popularity. Since 1806 Davydov serves Petersburg Guards Hussars. Within six months he was Staff Captain. Davydova service during this period of his life was not burdensome. "In the whole regiment was more friendship than life …" But it's time for the Russian Federation was pretty disturbing, and Davydov considered it his duty to get to the army. After the wraith he was enlisted aide to Prince Bagration.
The Russian army, pressed by Napoleon, located near the village of Volfsdorf. The rear guard of the Russian army under the command of Bagration was covering the upcoming retreat. Quest for Volfsdorfom in January 1807 — a baptism of fire Davydova, in which he showed remarkable courage. Bagration introduced him to the Order of Vladimir IV degree. Over the next bout at Landsberg and Eylau Davydov was awarded a gold cross on St. George ribbon. Intense battles followed one by one. June 14, 1807 in the bloody battle of Friedland, Napoleon won. Russia fought with great tenacity, but under heavy artillery fire had to retreat. For his role in the battle of Friedland Davidov was awarded a golden sword with the inscription "For Bravery".
July 7, 1807 Our homeland and France signed the Peace of Tilsit. And in February 1808 of the war the Russian Federation and Sweden. Under the terms of the Peace of Tilsit, Napoleon, Alexander I provided the right to rule in Eastern Europe, and promised not to provide military assistance to Turkey. The Russian government has decided to use a suitable environment and strengthen the military and political positions on the Baltic Sea in order to protect St. Petersburg. Denis Davydov received the mission to guard, commanded by Colonel J. u2028 P. Kulnev. Under the direction of Kulneva it was a good school avanpostnoy service — fast maneuvers, raids, skirmishes and cavalry skirmishes. The war ended with Sweden Hamina world, signed in September 1809. By its terms, Finland was ceded to Russia as a majestically Duchy of Finland.
Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812, has also become a good school for the young officer. He participated in the capture of the Turkish fortress of Silistra and in the bloody battle of Shumla in June 1810. For military exploits in these battles was awarded the Order of the diamond marks Anna II degree and a captain.
Combat experience, extensive military zaniya, acquired Davydov in the first decade of his military service, needed to Russian war of 1812, in which he played a prominent role.
Since May of 1812 Davydov — the commander of the First Battalion Akhtyrsky Hussars by assigning the rank of lieutenant colonel. By the time the march of Napoleon 2nd West army Bagration was located in the districts Vawkavysk and regiment Davydova — in Zabłudów, near Bialystok. Here and found his war of 1812.
Beat Napoleon in 1812 identified the emergence of the national liberation war of temper. Davydov was one of the few officers who rated this phenomenon and to raise the banner of guerrilla warfare. He appealed to Bagration to allocate a special connection to the partisan cavalry in the rear of Napoleon's army. The idea sparked the enthusiasm of the Bagration who applied directly to Kutuzov. Despite his approval, Davydov identified a total of 50 150 Cossacks and hussars! Command skeptical of the effectiveness of the guerrillas.
Supporting the initiative Davydov, Bagration ordered to provide him with the best of the Cossacks and hussars. 6 September guerrilla group Davydova of 50 hussars and 80 Cossacks (instead of the promised 150), plus 3 officers Akhtyrsky shelf and 2-Khorunzhaya Don Cossack Regiment secretly left the village of Borodino and moved to the rear of the deepest French.
The first was the guerrilla base area village Skugareva Smolensk province. Martial acts Davydov began on September 13, a day-u2028 entered tion of Napoleon in Moscow: Davydova squad made an attack on a large group of French marauders. In the prisoner were taken 90 people and repulsed spoil u2028 farmers property. September 14 next raid — on enemy vehicle in Tsarevo-Zaymishche. The result — more than 120 prisoners, 10 commissariat wagons and one van with bullets.
Davydova guerrilla group had been in Skugareva 10 days. During this time, captured more than 300 people have been released from captivity more than 200 Russian fighter captured 32 artpovozki and a huge number of trucks with military equipment and food. First experience has taught that the best strategy for the partisans — continuous movement, which does not allow the enemy to find out where they are.
By the end of September to the order Davydova joined by 180 Cossacks. Now under his command have 300 troopers, not including the infantry. Became possible to deploy large-scale action. The detachment was divided into small combat groups. Communication between them is maintained by volunteers from the farmers. Success of the unit has increased.
Guerrilla pickets, spaced Davydov, kept under the control of important places, forcing the enemy to accompany the transports heavy security — from time to time until 1500. Under attack the guerrillas was the city itself Vyaz'ma, transformed by the French in the principal stronghold with a strong garrison. Davydov personally drafted a plan to attack the city. September 25 after a quick attack the city was taken. The enemy lost more than 100 people were killed and about 300 prisoners. Trophies — 20 trucks full of food and 12 weapons.
Bold acts guerrillas Davydova alarmed the French governor of Smolensk General Baraguay Hilliers. According to the order of the teams who followed through Vyasma, cavalry unit was formed in 2000 with the task of sabers clear of Russian partisans all the space between Gzhatsk and Viaz'ma. The h
igh cost has been guaranteed by the head of the Davydov. But the sample enemy were in vain. Since October 1, between the villages and settlements Yureneva guerrillas gave battle three Polish infantry battalions, accompanied by large trucks. Lost only 35 men, but took a giant catch: 36 artillery Deck (gun platform), 40 commissariat wagons, 144 oxen, 200 horses, captured 15 officers and more than 900 soldiers. In the area of the village of Castle was arranged third guerrilla base. For its protection have been allocated about 500 militiamen.
"Guerrilla Army" Davydov has grown rapidly. Rescued from Russian prisoners of war were created small infantry units. Kutuzov praised the success Davydov, guerrilla produced a colonel. To enhance Davydov came to the Don Cossack regiment Popov in the 5 hundred. Successful acts squad Davydov assured Kutuzov comprehensively develop the guerrilla movement. At the direction of Field Marshal was created several guerrilla groups, led by officers of the standing army. And increased the number of troops Davydova: at his disposal two legkokonnogo Cossack regiment. Ceaseless pursuit of the enemy, and new successes. By the end of October Davydova squad captured more than 3,500 officers and 43 privates.
First, in November on the road between Yelnia and Smolensk became a French brigade of General Augereau. Troop Davydova 1,200 cavalry with 80 rangers and four guns in a quick attack broke the enemy. In the prisoner had been taken in 2000, and 60 rank and file officers, led by General Augereau. In pursuit of the enemy, Davydov came to the village near the town of reddish. In a personal meeting with the partisan Kutuzov said: "Successful experiments have proved to me your favor guerrilla war that has caused so much harm, and does cause the enemy." In November, troops Davydov had a number of successful operations. For courage Davydov was presented to the Order ZHoru IV degree.
The expulsion of Napoleon's troops from Russia came to an end. First, in January 1813, Colonel Davidov has joined the vanguard of the army chief General FF Vincengerode. With his volatile cavalry detachment Davydov did patrol duty of good brain vanguard army. In his possession were an old guerrilla unit: two regiments of Don Cossacks, the command teams of the Cossacks and hussars a total of 550 people.
First, in January 1813 began leading foreign campaign. Spearheading the advancing Russian army detachment Davydova first came to Saxony. February 13 participated in the defeat of the Saxon Corps Gen. Rainier in Kalisz, March 22 occupied the capital of Saxony — Dresden. In autumn 1813 Davydov was at the disposal of two of the Don Cossack Regiment. At the head of the Cossack regiments poet guerrilla campaign in the autumn 1813th participated in almost all the battles and the avant-garde in the excellent "Battle of the Nations" at Leipzig on 16-19 October. Then Davydov is involved in almost all the battles campaign in 1814. After the fight at Brienne January 29, 1814 th and February 1 at La Rothiere Davydov gets credit for the rank of Major General. Napoleon could not prevent the defeat of his own empire. In the Russian army, which went down in Paris March 30, 1814, and was Davydov — led the brigade of hussars.
Davydov sharply condemned the post-war order in the Russian Empire. Guard reincarnated as read Davydov, a "comic army." Considering impracticable to serve in the capital under such orders, he continued his service in the province on secondary staff positions. In November 1823, Alexander I signed a decree to dismiss him "for the disease."
Since the beginning of the reign of Nicholas I Davydov decided to return to duty. First, in April 1826 he was again appointed to serve consist "in the cavalry." In August gets a mission in Georgia — has begun Russian-Persian war. Upon arrival to the Caucasus Davydova Caucasian army chief Gen. AP Ermoloff proclaimed him three thousand detachment commander for offensive action against the Persians. Before Davydov was tasked to stop traffic on the north Erivan Sardar (the title of a Persian governor of Erivan) and his brother Hassan Khan and knock them out of the boundaries of the conquered Russian. Already first in October 1826 Davydov soundly defeated four thousand squad Hassan Khan, was leaked over the Persian frontier in the tract Sudagend and by December fortress built here.
Denis Davydov was a proactive member of the eight military campaigns, one of the most professional, educated and brave officers of the Russian army. Denis V. died May 4, 1839 and was buried in Moscow.