Dismantling of capitalism and the end of the Age of the Pyramids
Andrew FURSOV — Russian historian, sociologist, writer, organizer of science
FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS, which began in 2007 in the United States and is now engulfed in fact the whole world, often associated with the crisis of 1929-1933. The latter, in turn, was the final phase of the protracted crisis years 1873-1933. By the way, this long crisis era which Dutch historian J. Romaine described as "watershed" is often associated hronozonu crisis that began in the 1970s, and more precisely — in 1973 and continues to this day. The crisis of "watershed" years 1873-1933. was a time of "mulligan cards social game" (Braudel), "mulligan Maps Stories," and those who grabbed the major assets, were "a stallion" right up to the latest re-take, which began in the 1970s. Moreover, their good chances in the modern era to add to the old trumps new. So to say, "means to money." In general, would be possible and the "ashes to ashes" — this is how God will throw the dice.
The value of the crisis years 1873-1933. unconditionally. Here then that the key actors (players, agents) of the twentieth century: money capital, his brother is the enemy of the revolutionary socialist movement, intelligence, organized crime, it was then formed the major contradictions that had to hack the twentieth century: the British-German, American and British, German Russian-behold was then picked philosophical and scientific agenda of day or the twentieth century. fell last empire of old Order, which the bourgeoisie breaking open from the end of the XVIII century., designed the state-monopoly capitalism (MMC), communism — a system anti-capitalism, fascism, national socialism and the national-liberation movement. And, nevertheless, seems to be more correct to associate "watershed" crisis of the late XX — early XXI century. not to "romeynovskim" and the crisis 1490-1560's, the crisis is much more extensive than a 1870-1930's, and most importantly — the system.
"Romeynovsky" crisis was structural, that was the transition from one structure to another kapsistemy, whereas at the end of XV — beginning of XVI century. born kapsistema itself, it appeared basis universities: the market, the government, politics, etc. That is, appeared that slabnet melts and dies in the criteria crisis of the late XX — early XXI century., one of the episodes of which is the financial and economic crisis that started in 2007 turns out that "watershed" crisis of the late XX — early XXI century. — System and marks the crisis and the end of capitalism as a system? I will say at once — yes, it's the end kapsistemy, and this process is not only spontaneously. He is also the result of conscious action heights of the world capitalist class, a few hundred (thousand maximum — one and a half) families, "The Lord of the Rings' Mordor capitalist who dismantle capitalism in their own self-interest — the interest of saving power, privileges and wealth. But before analyzing this question, let's look at other systemic crises — it is necessary for the best possible understanding of the crisis in which we live and which, like a whirlpool, is able to carry us in the maelstrom of history.
Chronologically, the Middle to a systemic crisis — the crisis of feudalism and the emergence of capitalism, the crisis "longish XVI century" (1453-1648 gg.), the decisive phase of which came in the years 1490-1560. The main mystery of this crisis — the genesis of capitalism.
In the middle of the different concepts of the genesis of capitalism, there are two basic — Karl Marx and Max Weber. Weber's concept of the emergence of capitalism in the spirit of Protestantism first empirically untenable: it is based on the material of one of the German states, chronologically, reflecting a very short period of time.
In Marx's explanation of the problem lies in the future. According to the general theory of Marx, the transition from one system to another — social revolution — occurs when an old system of productive forces grow its manufacturing business, the last break, and there is brand-new system of relations that are adequate to the productive forces-age. If Marx was right, any brand new social system ("formation") kicked off with a level of productive forces, the more superior than the one that was characteristic of the former. In historical reality is the opposite. Feudalism was headed for the level of the productive forces of late Antiquity exclusively in XI-XII centuries., Ie of early feudalism in terms of development of the productive forces conceded late Antiquity; capitalism is headed for the level of development of the productive forces of late feudalism only at the beginning of the XVIII century., ie 300-400 years, he was catching up with the past. Apparently, the origins of the crisis as well as the roots of the genesis of capitalism to be found — by the way, entirely in the spirit of Marx — in the other, and specifically in the interests of the major class, the backbone of subjects / agents of the system. Studies in recent decades have shown that the specific class of feudal lords enthusiasm (seniors) in the preservation of power and privileges, fight for it became the basis of the genesis of capitalism. Heraclitus rights — "the struggle — the father of all things." As was the case?
In the middle of the XIV century. Europe came the plague — the Black death, mow 20 million of the 60 million population, ie the third part. Peasant hands was not enough, sdelochnaya socio-economic position of the peasant (farm laborer and as a tenant) to the lord was better. Seniors try to change the situation, the answer to the years 1378-1382. were just three uprisings ("Ciompi" in Florence, "white-caps" in France, under the control of Wat Tyler in the UK), but in fact — People-feudal revolution, broke down the Western European (in fact, no other in history, and was not) feudalism Ridge .
From now on, according to the researchers, a possible vector has been the development of Western society in the direction of "kulak paradise" and "burgher of paradise", ie that of the social system in which seniors were transformed into a wealthy landowners or the wealthy burghers, losing a significant portion of privileges and status. Seniors have faced a choice: lose the privilege with respect to the mass of the population, or a sacrifice them in relation to the royal power. Yes, they are not fond of rulers waged war with them, but the lower classes priperli them to the wall, and the seniors went to the alliance with the crown.
This pattern is significantly different from the liberal-Marxist, according to which the alliance and fight the crown and burghers (bourgeoisie) against seniors have become the foundation on which "grew up" capitalism. It is obvious, and that the balance of social forces, which read as liberals and Marxists had taken place. But he was not the principal, the principal was in the path of transformation of the feudal lords of the capitalists, connecting them to arise in the XVI century. the world market. On the broad material is perfectly demonstrated in the work of R. Lashmen "capitalists against their will."
The first result of the union of the corona and seniors was the emergence of the so-called "new monarchies" (Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England) — structures much m
ore institutionalized than the feudal and much more repressive than the latter, was the master of "specific" on sovereign to all subjects, not only in relation to their vassals; duty modern, in fact postfeodalnoy nobility towards the crown became more severe than those vassals era of feudalism. For the "new monarchies" was not a term, and it was invented. It did Machiavelli, "run", the term lo stato — the government. The government has become a powerful tool of the former feudal lords against the lower classes. Another instrument was the army of the new type.
In 1492, Columbus discovered America, and in the XVI century. Western Europe has rushed silver and gold. These funds were invested first in military affairs. The result — a military revolution in the XVI., The emergence of modern forms of military organization with which the Nizam was hard to cope. In addition, the discovery of America, the emergence of what Marx described as "the world market", as Wallerstein — "European world-system," and that in fact constituted a new international system — the North Atlantic — the division of labor, provided the tops perfectly new abilities. Included in this system ex-feudal lords and negotiators sdelochnuyu dramatically improved their socio-economic position in relation to the lows, as now operated at a highest level of economic areas — macro-regional than the lower classes, the rest at the local level, dependent on the macro-regional.
As a result of all these configurations to 1648 in Western Europe and in power at various levels were 90% of the families who ruled "peninsula" in 1453 this Makar, the feudal lords in their own class interests dismantled feudalism, to save power, privilege and wealth and in the course of this struggle have made the newest system. Capitalism thus Makar, a by-product of the feudal lords fighting for the broadcast itself in the future in a new system "form." Surprisingly? You do not. After all, he wrote a VV Wings that class struggle is the development of the productive forces (the first social) outside the sphere of production.
The subsequent crisis, which it must be said — the crisis of late Antiquity, antique-slave system (IV-VI centuries. BCE). From late feudal this crisis is different to many. I note the point. In 1-x, an ancient system of slavery was extensive (extensive-oriented), she needed the expansion and availability of the periphery. Intensively-oriented feudalism does not need this. In-2, in the crisis of late Antiquity peak of the Western Roman Empire was destroyed, scattered or absorbed by the top of the barbarian tribes. Between the late antique and early medieval horseback lack of continuity, and between the end of Antiquity and the beginning of feudalism — Dark Ages (VI-VIII centuries. BCE).
Late Antique crisis, in contrast to the late feudal — an example of unsuccessful actions tops and the collapse of the system, coupled with this vertex. It is significant also that the crisis of feudalism, turning removal, not destroy Western civilization — capitalism has become (albeit with aspects of) the subsequent stage of its development, while the crisis is antique and the slave society was the collapse of an ancient civilization, that is, More and civilization, in contrast to the late feudal, the crisis (crisis "Longish XVI century" was intra-civilization).
Third crisis, which will be discussed (and the third type of crisis) — Upper Paleolithic (25 thousand — 10 thousand years BC). This is perhaps the worst — the resource-demographic (sotsiobiosferny) — the crisis. It lasted 15 million years old, drew a line under several hundreds of thousands of years of Paleolithic and enveloped almost the entire planetoid, more precisely, its populated part. It resulted in a decline in the population of the planet by 80%, decline and degradation of society and culture. The way out of the crisis of the Upper Paleolithic was the so-called "Neolithic Revolution" — the emergence of farming, ranching, towns, classes, etc. — in short, civilization.
So, we have before us three different crisis: systemic formational, formational and civilizational system (in the narrow, specific sense of the term "civilization") and system sotsiobiosferny, who replaced one type of "Games of the Company with Nature" (S. Lem) — Paleolithic, on the other — civilization.
And now, having become acquainted with 3 systemic crises, we'll see what happens in the world today, more precisely, what happened to the 1970's. In fact, in the eyes disappear, melting the world that emerged in the years 1870-1930 and which bloomed in the "glorious thirty years" (J. Fourastié) 1945-1975.
Slabnet AND COMES decline in the nation-state, the situation is aggravated by middle and working layers of the kernel even kapsistemy, not to mention its rank and file and its periphery; skukozhivaetsya civilian society — and the ability to influence the power of the state and even more so at the global level, and in fact : many Western societies of societies people are converted to the society and minority communities, that is, become postzapadnymi; policy is increasingly transformed into a combination of administrative system and show business, is replaced by a monopoly market, the decline comes rational knowledge, whether progressist ideology of Marxism and liberalism as elements geoculture Enlightenment, or science — there are books with symbolic names "The End of Progress" "Commemorating the Enlightenment"; quickly degrade the science of society (deteoretizatsiya, petty themes), and education; Bologna system undermines the institution as a paradox of modernity era, there is a decline of Christian morality and ethics — in fact, we are already living in a post-Christian society, growing numbers of garbage / slum people — the "new outcasts", among which ripen grapes of wrath.
Why is this happening? Part of the processes in question are of a spontaneous nature, in part — the design, ie are the result of conscious action. Whose?
In 1975 saw the release of the report, "The Crisis of Democracy," written by order of the Trilateral Commission by Samuel Huntington, M. Crozier and Dz. Watanuki. The report clearly captured the ruling stratum dangers of the situation — first, that it begin to work against democracy and the welfare state (the government of general social welfare), took shape in the aftermath of the war. Under the democracy crisis had in mind is not a crisis of democracy in general, and this development of democracy, which is not cost-effective top.
The report stated that the development of democracy in the West leads to a decrease in the power of governments that different groups, taking advantage of democracy, began to fight for these rights and privileges, which had never been claimed, and these "excesses of democracy" are a challenge to the existing system of government. The threat of democratic rule in the United States is not outside nature, wrote creators, its source — the "internal dynamics of democracy itself in the highly educated, mobile society, characterized by the highest degree (politicheskogo. — AF) role." Conclusion: the need to promote the growth of non-involvement (noninvolvement) masses into politics, the development of a certain apathy, moderate democracy, based on the fact that it is only a method of organizing power, and is not universal: "In almost all cases, the need for expertise in the position and Advantages rank (seniority), experience and special features may outweigh the claims of democracy as a method of constituting power. "
The weakening of democracy and the middle class meant the weakening of the basic institutions of capitalist society, in fact — their removal. It is the nation-state, political, civilian society, the optimal knowledge. In other words, we are talking about capitalism. It is worth
noting that, contrary to the view of many, capitalism — is not just a celebration of capital, capital existed before capitalism and will exist after him.
Capitalism is not a simple institutional system which limits its long-term capital interests and provides (at first by the country) its expansion into space. The latter is of fundamental importance for true capitalism because of its extensive orientation. Another capitalism can not be, it solves many of its contradictions, bringing their own framework for the increment and place.
As the global rate of profit falls, capitalism pulls, pulls out a piece of non-capitalist areas and turns it into a capitalist periphery — a source of cheap labor and market. And so to the future of serious lower profits, hence — colonialism, colonial expansion, which did not take place constantly, and jerks. Let us emphasize that for normal functioning of capitalism needs non-capitalist area, which he transforms into the capitalist periphery, and without which it can not exist, too — as well as the antique and the slave-owning system without its own periphery. Among other things, the exploitation of the periphery helps to maintain social peace in the center ("core"), to maintain a certain standard of living of most of its population. Well, the capital constraint in the core are, as already mentioned, the nation-state, politics, civilian society and a number of other forms and institutions. And, as we know, specifically, these universities and their associated social groups are destroyed / dismantled since the mid-1970s. Dismantling these institutions really mean dismantling of capitalism as a system, which is undertaken supranational (global) vertex in the interest of preserving its power (the world control), privileges, wealth from the 1970s, which accelerated in the 1990s and, apparently, accelerate further in the 2010s. What is the background of this process?
The first of the circumstances is frankly a class character. At the turn of 1960-1970's peak of the bourgeoisie in the nucleus kapsistemy the criteria of economic success and political impact of the middle and working classes, the Left parties, the growth of the "size" of the nation-state in the form of welfare state was in a position similar to the one in which feudal lords were in the XV century. Progress was made equivalent — the dismantling of the system. Only if the feudal lords did not understand what they are doing, and acted in obedience to social instinct, the burzhuiny, which employ thousands of "think tanks" ("think tanks") have started dismantling consciously, though completely possible that at first was thought to dismantle the parts, and not the whole system. But it soon became trivial systemic perspective.
Revealed that with globalization, especially after the collapse of the head of the bastion "of the system of capitalism" — the USSR. Globalization (capital) — "daughter" NPT and "granddaughter" cool war — was a complete victory for the capital, which is converted into an electrical signal and actually overcomes all the limitations (spatial, social, political), the real can not keep control of the virtual — the various levels ( On the contrary — maybe). The whole world has become a capitalist-neoliberal, including the USSR, Eastern Europe, China. Capital (ism) is everywhere! Victory! But wrote on another occasion N. Korzhavin "But their failure was a victory — / Behind it opened a void." Missing non-capitalist area and now the capital (ism) can no longer solve their prepyadstviya, bringing them outside — nowhere. A type of war 1914-1918 and 1939-1945. is also possible.
Where are the poor capitalism go? Where are the sources for the upcoming congestion? Just inside himself. But the fact is that capitalism — is extensive, and not actively aiming system, it institutionally "locked up" for extensional and its reorientation, the "reset Matrix" asks removal of system parts, ie the system itself and its place in the creation of another that is typologically, the equivalence of niche will be similar to feudalism, precisely, will return to the principles of its organization on the new, more highest turn of "spiral development" — adjusted for the fact that it will not wind , not a Christian and not a local society. The exhaustion of the world's cities with globalization was another, but the class, a prerequisite for the dismantling of capitalism.
So, the dismantling of capitalism its top a la dismantling of feudalism in the years 1453-1648. But are all obmyslili his lord of rings and their mental attendants? I have bad news for the "Dismantlers high-altitude": with capitalism will not work because it came with feudalism — the feudalism was not the periphery, the presence of which significantly alters the nature of the crisis and the process of dismantling, and the vector of development. Including in their processes in the global market large masses of the population, all the planetoid, capitalism has grown demographically its Afro-Asian and Latin American periphery because the population within these regions would have never grown up. And now the capitalist periphery, is not really suited to the kernel because in the "good old times capitalist times," just does not unbind. It puts pressure on the core, seeps South to the North, creating their enclaves and undermines him that AJ Toynbee, Jr. called the "Union of internal and external proletariat" promotes peripherization core, capture peripherals with direct and obvious danger if you do not change, the significant modifications of the elites, at least a significant part of them. So Makar, an attempt to dismantle capitalism, feudalism turns a la crisis is not late feudal, and the Late type, and more precisely, combines in features and qualities of both. But that's not all. There is one more bad news.
Capitalism — a global, planetary system, based on the exploitation of not only the man, and nature. Including in his production and economic processes of the biosphere as a whole, capitalism has led her into a state of the global environment and the population of the earth — the state of the resource crisis. Typologically itself was not since the Upper Paleolithic crisis. With all of this of course, is not comparable with the current scale of Upper Paleolithic. So Makar, dismantling capitalism develops against the background of the global biosphere-resource crisis, and by his late feudal and the Late crisis qualities added much more difficult for its content and consequences — of the Upper Paleolithic. We get a crisis-doll, the crisis domino where one crisis leads to another, more extensive and destructive.
The hallmarks of the three crises, which were discussed, the current crisis is not limited to the dismantling of capitalism. His gun crisis means several crises. In-1's, it is a crisis of Western civilization, in the form in which it was formed in the last thousand years. In-2, it is a crisis of Christianity in its various capacities: personal (the crisis of the Protestant case to work on the background of a rapidly growing trend towards hedonism, consumption, more or less active as the idleness of the upper and lower classes), general (Christian type of crisis personality), project. The latter is worth a special mention, as the crisis of capitalism at the end of XX — beginning of XXI century. it is a crisis of biblical project.
During the 2-1000-lety top (first Mediterranean, then European, and in XIX-XX centuries. — Global), using and adapting to their needs protest-emancipatory project of Jesus Christ and immediately muting it (ideologically — first with the Old Testament, organization — with the Christian Church), turned it into a biblical project. Bible Project as a means to keep in check "malehankih man" priemuschestvenno inside (internalization control) has replaced the ancient Egyptian project personifikatorom t
he last of which was the Roman Empire, with its emphasis on external control. Despite the fact that the Bible has given the project a lot of failures (breakaway Catholic-Orthodox — orthodoxy for political purposes, the emergence of Protestantism as the beginning of the Judaization of Christianity, the emergence of pantheistic and atheistic Enlightenment and its "processes" — liberalism and Marxism in particular as not just a secular, de-Christianize the biblical version of the project), for almost 2-thousand years in general, that all the worse, but he coped with puzzles, for which it did. In the last third of the twentieth century. Bible project did not work. "Dismantlers" capitalism will have to make not only the newest system, and a new project. Globofashizm "neocons" — these leftists have passed "right school" Leo Strauss and well-read Plato's hardly pass.
B-3, the crisis of capitalism — a crisis of civilization, that is, human civilization in the form in which it exists the last 10-12 thousand years (13653 years on Indian history; 13542 year — the ancient Egyptian and Assyrian, 10498-10499 chronologically Olmec and Maya). Era of human civilization I call the Age (or time) of the Pyramids and the Sphinx: archaeological evidence of recent decades suggest that the age of the pyramids and the Sphinx in particular older than expected, these buildings date back thousands of years BC 8-10 and built apparently of the civilization that preceded the Egyptian.
World Pyramids coming to an end, along with capitalism. The technological revolution (STR) by which information (real) reasons for starting to dominate the real ("real") — is not the second industrial revolution, but something more serious, comparable in scale to the Neolithic.
World on its last legs relative hasteless decade before the crisis, dolls, unique, and that there was, it seems, will sweep away not only capitalism and its proponents and opponents, but all posleneoliticheskuyu civilization. And if the population of the earth will turn out, though reduced in size to 0.5-1.0 billion., Survive him, the new society is likely to be different from Civilization (Pyramid of Peace — in the sense that the Egyptian pyramids — the main sign of the whole era posleneoliticheskoy ) is not less than it differed from the Paleolithic.
Fourth, we should talk about the decline of pure white race, whose very existence expansion of capitalism that caused the population explosion in the South and the mass migration of its inhabitants to the North, has called danger — the number of white in the modern world is rapidly reduced.
C-5's, on the agenda of the day or can be shipped crisis Homo sapiens. One thing the crisis of the biosphere 25 thousand years ago, and quite another — now on the planet, stuffed with nuclear power plants, and other bacteriological weapon, with a population of 6.6 billion. people (by 2030 will be 8,000,000,000.). Planetary tragedy can mow or general population, or throw it imprint itself that the upcoming "development" would be likely only in one form — the degradation.
So makarom, dismantling capitalism has opened a Pandora's unheard unheard box with untold consequences. But we have not uttered the strengthening in the XXI century. (Peak — XXII century.) Geovulkanicheskoy activity nor an imminent change in the direction of Earth's axis (occurs once every 12-15 thousand years, the last occurred 12-13 million years ago), nor that ends with a "long summer" — warm interval of ten thousand in each stotysyacheletii — 90 thousand years fall on the ice age.
It is obvious from all of this can be dismissed as fear mongering, from "chernovideniya" (Art. Lem). But it is better to live by the principle of "forewarned is forearmed" than to become a victim of a "syndrome Sidonia Apollinaris," ie, I should build a fence already looming overhead hazards.
What are the options for post-crisis development — obviously, if we can get out of the crisis, few catastrophic way? At the theoretical level, several options — from sverhtehnologichny civilization of the type described in Ivan Efremov "Andromeda" to futuroarhaicheskih empires of the type depicted in Lucas 'Star Wars': in other words, from Dara wind up Darth Vader. Real brand new system is likely to be futuroarhaicheskoy — the world supernova technologies will coexist in peace neoarhaicheskih or even neovarvarskih structures.
As in the XIV-XVI centuries., On the planet will be mosaic of different forms of social, economic and imperative device. It will be a world of contrasts: near ultra-modern enclaves "region-economies" (E. Ohmae) will exist demoderniziruyuschiesya, archaic and even antisocial zone. The capitalist era, especially its modernistic phase will seem mind-blowing time, which is rapidly mythologized. The pace of development of post-capitalist, posttsivilizatsionnogo world will be markedly lower than kapsistemy, and maybe even the Age of the Pyramids as a whole. Most likely, the civilization was short exponent between the asymptotes with 2 — Paleolithic, and that goes for the replacement of Civilization. It's a shame? Yes. But offensively from the standpoint of the Enlightenment project and biblical Christianity with which to say goodbye, — vixerunt. The future — it's not a linear extension of the era of capitalism, and even the Age of the Pyramids, this is something different, more complex and more than the usual once.
The development of the new system, like much of the social system, it will last 600 years, most 1000 will take place in all the least suitable natural conditions, and therefore completely probable, if not inevitable and imminent increase barbarization archaism in different parts of the planet. In any case, one of the important tasks of the people of the future will be to keep unkind knowledge and preparation for natural disasters, first — the newcomer to the ice age. But for this unkind future XXIII-XXX (?) Ages must still be overcome in the XXI — XXII century., And now.
What can now be countered Dismantlers? Not so is not small, and not so much — the will and mind. Oppose the will of their social-Darwinian progress ethics Brahmins and Kshatriyas, ie Ethics changed their philosophy Gesheft to oppose the ethics of warriors and priests (priests). Mind — a new rational knowledge about the world. Brand new ethic and a new knowledge — that shield and sword against civilization changed. Does that guarantee a victory? No. The victory is gained in the struggle. But it guarantees the will to win and dignity as a state of mind and soul. And hope that we will pass the crisis, which plunged capitalism and Western civilization, that we will stay on the ship, sliding on the waves of the Ocean of Time, which is immersed in the Age of the Pyramids.