Who are just not taken for reforming the Russian language, which may only offer to him? And bent over his knee, and poach and mangle, and torn to pieces, and put in the spokes of a wheel in its history, to stop, to break, to defile, and he still lives, the great and powerful, and will live forever, is still alive on earth at least one real Russian man.
I would not, perhaps, as they say, put pen to paper in connection with the performance of Michael Epstein on the Russian language in the TV program "Culture" on October 14, if not for some enthusiastic attempts at US-Russian philologist change Russian language creating a new dictionary . For example, one of the statements:
"It turns out that the free writing characters in the internet or" mangling "of words, which so annoyed many" eyes "is not bad, that it is creation of words. But the "Romanization" of the language — is the way to the death of the Russian language.
Really hooked me 2 lectures Michael Epstein on the channel "Culture". In the end, subscribed to the mailing list of his "gift of the word."
Previously, the root of the "good" and "evil" were used up to 200 words for each root. And now about 40. Is the word "villain" and "virtuous" is dead. There is a "mischief" and "dobrodeystvo" also died …
I will try to regularly read "The gift of speech" and put into use new words. "
What kind of a new word in question?
But first a few words about the usual Epstein. He has a lot of titles. He graduated from the philological faculty of Moscow State University and author of many articles and books on literature, language, history and theory of Soviet ideology and philosophy, professor of Russian literature at Emory University (USA), member of the Russian PEN Club and the Academy of contemporary Russian literature, winner of the Andrei Bely (1991 ) award by "The Star" (1999), Prize of the Russian emigration Liberty (2000). At least, so it appears on the Internet.
And what has the Russians in his lectures on television and in ten years the network implements the project "The gift of speech," the professor of Russian literature at American University?
The main idea of it is that it is necessary for the survival of Russian native speakers allow it free from the shackles of Russian grammar, which allegedly does not allow the free creation of words, limiting their useless outdated rules.
But, first, why the Russian language should be saved? I agree that it is vital, but why and by whom to save?
In my opinion, a resident of Russia and writing in Russian, although the specialty I am a teacher of English, Russian is now in danger because he began to pay less attention to our schools, literacy, school and college students has decreased, which contributes largely oral cultures and fall of radio and television broadcasters, which in previous years had been the benchmark of the Russian language.
Russian language is in danger of the introduction into our vocabulary of a large number of foreign words, mostly English.
Russian language threatens free publication of literary works, many authors, using the fact that the print works at his own expense, allow the use of not only illiterate in literary terms of words and phrases, but also obviously unacceptable profanity.
Russian may be badly hit and the not fully thought out or come up with nefarious purposes innovations in Russian grammar type elimination of the use of the letter "e" or change the rules for the use of foreign words like "coffee".
Finally, instead of the survival of the Russian language could come to degradation, if users will respond to the exhortations of some, I may say, foreign linguists, are free to murder, inventing and introducing into practice their own words.
Fortunately, this will never happen because the Russian language, as well as all other languages of the world, is formed not on instructions from above. He really live, our language, and every day there are new words, but they are produced by its own laws, and not someone else's recommendations.
For example, Epstein offers among the hundreds he invented words (pick one at random) "lyubol." Say this word in conversation to someone, and no one will understand what I mean, until you hear the explanation of the inventor:
"It is a love that takes in pain, becomes inseparable from the pain, and sometimes loves and cherishes this very pain. Pain according to a loved one, the pain of misunderstanding nonreciprocity, incompatibility — all this could potentially fill love and do it lyubolyu.
— Do you still love him?
— Yes What kind of love. Lyubol one left. "
This is a contrived word never enters the vocabulary of the Russian language for the simple reason that the author of the very state of far-fetched. Love with a heavy heart is, and quite often, when you realize that this man can not love, and love against all common sense. Not by chance in saying: "Love is evil — fall in love with a goat." Because you will not come up on this new word "kozlyubov", which is just a reflect this idea?
No, the new Russian words are formed in a completely different principle. They are well known in the theory of language. One of them — occasionalisms when, say, the child says, "Look, the rain naluzhil." There is no such word in Russian "naluzhil," but one of the parents had mentioned it in his book. It is clear, someone may have used it in a speech jokingly, but in general usage the word will not be included. The like words often in conversation, but nobody did anything comes up. They are born of the association. When a person says, "I was attacked hohotunchik" it does not require much explanation. Everyone knew what was said, even though that word is not in the language. But when, by analogy with the word "ignoramus" Epstein offers a new word "reluctantly", it necessarily needs to be clarified, and therefore not viable and will not be used.
Yes, writers and poets invent new words. They are called in literary theory individual stylistic neologisms. For example, Alexander Blok's poem "The Islands" introduces a new word:
Snowing again columns.
Elagin bridge and two lights.
And the voice of a woman in love.
And the crunch of sand and snorting horse.
This is subsequently used the same word, and Anna Akhmatova
That is understood, there is no need of words,
Snowmaking branches are easy …
Network has already spread out birder
on the bank of the river.
Beautiful, good, though the word is a neologism, and copyright was not included in the Russian lexicon.
One can cite the example of the original word "Avoska." It appeared in a book of children's writer Nikolay Nosov of Neznaika along with another hero "Neboskoy." But in Russian existed before these words and sayings. In one of them says "keep Avoska for Nebosku, but both fell into a pit." However, the widespread popularity with a very different sense of the word has gained thanks to the famous artist Arkady Raikin, who used the word "string bag" in one of his interludes for the name wicker economic grid. In this sense the word and went to the people and out of use because they themselves household grid replaced plastic bags.
Avant-garde poets have been working to create new words or neologisms were copyrighted. Among them were well-known poets such as Osip Mandelstam, who wrote:
I panpipes in his pipe,
And the world is like in their wanted.
That is an exercise with the Russian language many do. History has long shown that the Russian language he finds ways of development without someone's guidance. The fact that he is not fit, he rejects. But this does not mean that we should look with indifference on the way treat our language, as it is trying to spoil, even using humane slogan "help the survival of the language."
"I also have to read a lot of letters rabselkorov," beginners "of writers, students, and I have this impression: the Russian language is distorted, vulgarized, its clear form swelling, feasting upon the local sayings …".
I think that today we need to pay attention to is the fact that the youth attended a beautiful Russian language, enriching its natural neologisms created for the convenience of communication, not for the desire to become famous at least those that come up in the dictionary Epstein one or two dozen new words and with punched obscene, thus claiming their full freedom in the language.
And on this subject, that is, the use of profanity in Russian, shortly after Epstein's lectures on the channel "Culture" another TV channel, NTV, held October 22 program "Russia without a mat?" Yavivshuyusya another intervention in the development of our national heritage.
It has served as more than one person, but a conglomerate of experts. But the transfer began with an apology on behalf of enteveshnikov for showing the video of such content, which is particularly sensitive viewers asked to close his ears, and then went to a demonstration of how young children are almost three years of age pour his speech profanity. Beep, clogging too emotional words, cutting ears, sounded almost continuously. A curious reaction sitting in the studio, who listened to the text without cuts and plugging obscene words sound. It seemed that all listened with interest. Only famous announcer of the "Time" Anna Shatilova Soviet television, hearing is not used to the obscene, seems to have been struck by the fact that it can be opened to show, and did not know how to behave. After a short demonstration plot host of Anton Khrekov identify the issues for discussion in the studio audience to people, who believes that mate — it's a shame the nation, and those who believe that the mat — is an integral norm of life today. And the audience was asked about it:
How to solve the problem of the free use of the mat?
Plant for fifteen days or a couple of years?
Or cancel the concept of "mate"?
In short, to discuss the topic "Russia without the mat"
Michael Politseymako, Honored Artist of Russia, drew attention to the fact that there are no laws prohibiting the use of a mat on the Internet, and video, in his opinion, was shot specifically for adolescents at the Internet. He believes that the freedom of speech there is only freedom of the mat, as the State Duma are not doing anything in this regard and deal with the mat can only whip.
But when Anna Shatilova told that the theater was a performance in which it is almost entirely composed of artists of profanity, the same honored artist Politseymako said it was the theater where the play was allowed to play permitted. However, his comment was left unnoticed and Shatilova went on to tell how in the Soviet time in school is widely discussed and condemned the behavior of the student, if he smoked and swore.
I remember this time. We also do not allow obscene expression. Moreover, I remember, once on active duty in the army, felt uncomfortable because my friends at work laughed at me, saying that I am not a man, just do not swear and do not smoke. And then I decided to prove them wrong. One secret from friends bought a pack of cigarettes and train delayed by smoke. Then, when we were a small group to the site of duty, I am in the process of conversation, something telling quietly swore obscenities, took out a cigarette and lit it. Here on my attention, surprised that I smoke. And I say that not only can smoke, but also cursed, but no one noticed it, adding that this is done very easily and no masculinity is not required, but to give up swearing, learn to speak the language of normal and do not smoke — it is much more difficult that's the real and manifests itself in nature. Having said that, I took out a pack of cigarettes, dropped to the ground and trampled, asking who else can do that? My friend Arthur said at the time: "You know, guys, Eugene rights", and also gave up smoking and swearing.
I also remember, as soon as the school I went to work at the studio, where co-workers, people are supposed to bring me apologize if you accidentally swore obscenities in front of me, because they knew that I do not tolerate foul language. One of the filmmakers in the hearts swore obscenities on the set, and then apologized to the general meeting, vowing never again will not be tolerated. And I must say that the profanity in those days, though it was, but not hanging in my ears all the time, as is the case today.
I will not describe in detail troubled me of channel NTV, when publicly in the studio sounded bad words so clearly that intelligent woman Anna Shatilova even going to leave the transmission. Member of the board of directors of the publishing house "Kommersant" Andrey Vasilyev, in the presence of all used the word engineer to transfer the signal had to score, but did not bother to apologize. This was not the only episode in the program. That is, members considered possible in the discussion to use the very same expression, against which allegedly was directed broadcast. Film director Yuli Gusman said that the use of the mat, as the use of wine, from which some can not refuse. In explaining his position against the use of the mat, he said, for example, obscene word, stabbed to viewers acoustic signal, and also do not think an apology, since he spoke of a word that is sometimes found in the literature.
Even let the word rapper Roman ignition, which acts from the scene obscene vocabulary. He mentioned that he came to him with congratulations, Prime Minister Putin, and then read the poems with swear words, for which he was awarded the audience applause.
Full screen showed the lines written by Solzhenitsyn, Pushkin and Lermontov, which employed abusive obscene words. TV studio exploded with applause. Then give the floor Alexis Plutser-Sarno, author of a large vocabulary of the mat. Well, so it is something he could not do, not only without swear words, but without some detail disassemble the letters, telling about history and etymology.
Oleg Cassini, an employee of the Ministry of Culture, represented as a fighter with obscenities, tried to explain how he struggles with his statements to the prosecutor against the mat in the film by Nikita Mikhalkov, and telestudiynaya audience demanded that he said those words out loud, against whom he spoke. He could not do that because of their upbringing, then Yuli Gusman speaker accused of lying, but it was all the same that the prosecutor's office opened a criminal case into allegations Cas
This is called the fight for the purity of the Russian language. Listening to the debate on NTV wanted to remind the disputants, which says that everything is transitory and that
not today, tomorrow will be allowed, such philosophers like to recall that the talk prinarodno mate — is the same as in public outdoors to relieve themselves. Once this is not prohibited, when there was no toilet. In some countries, the toilets in the streets open. That is until they have culture. But we have made today their personal affairs do indoors. So the issue with the mat. It is not accepted to say in public, but because even vote, as it did on NTV, use a mat in the literature simply immoral, as immoral looked all program dedicated Russian mat. It was of course necessary, but beyond the bounds of decency, which failed to comply with the participants and organizers.
In conclusion, I would like to say that the language — a living organism that needs to be treated the same as a living person. If you want to do with it some sort of operation, wear sterile gloves to not pollute, does not stain, does not damage your own bacteria ignorance and lack of understanding of what is good and what is bad for the language. Surgery — it is always dangerous.
Eug. Buzni, writer, member of the Russian Academy of Literature