December 25, 2011 16:16
This land was one of the known poetically called "the land of the lunar landscape." Yes, this country is, rather, a realm where an amazing blend and weave wonders of nature and the mystery of human history. Cappadocia … enchanted world, whose main miraculous divom considered "fairy chimneys."
Although fairies no part in creating masterpieces of stone, unfortunately, did not participate. Cone-shaped rocks and towers, topped by stone "hats" — a whimsical fantasy of Mother Nature. Their appearance, they do resemble chimneys, and if we add the occasional smokers over them a thin stream of smoke …
Height separate "pipes" can reach many tens of meters. Some of them are painted in black or, conversely, bright colors, while others change color throughout the day depending on the sunlight.
To create a similar, nature took millions of years. Scientists have found that the main reason for the appearance of "feyskih pipes" — erosion. Once the area, now called Cappadocia (located in Turkey), was the center of an active volcanic region. In Tertiary powerful eruption covered the ground trehsotmetrovoy layer of lava and ash, of which later formed tuff and basalt. And then came into play fantasy nature, using all the resources of extreme continental climate of Cappadocia. Sudden and significant changes in temperature, tremors, ice and water, winds and storms split the plateau part, destroyed the rock, carried pieces of volcanic rock, and the "carved" the rocks were formed independent vertices.
Enchanted "moon" the world Cappadocia keeps many mysteries of human history. People could not remain indifferent to this realm of stone, from one century to mastering the mysterious land.
SECRETS OF UNDERGROUND CITIES
And if the "fairy chimneys" — the main miraculous wonder of Cappadocia, the underground cities, cave temples, monasteries and churches — a miracle of human hands. In Cappadocia there are 36 underground labyrinths, whose age is estimated by many tens of centuries. And, perhaps, not all open maze, called the underground city.
Over these years by a maze of hundreds of ordinary village, and the people who lived there, had no idea that beneath their feet is a world of tunnels and mazes that stretch under the ground for miles. Only by chance (in the 30-ies of XX century, a peasant, deepening his cellar, accidentally punched a hole in the "second level"), the "outside" world became aware of the underground cities of Cappadocia.
Some of them have amazing depth. Thus, a city located at the village Derinkuyu goes down to 8 storeys and has a depth of 54 m and an area of 400 hectares. It could accommodate nearly ten thousand people!
His most profound of cities found, named "Deep Well" goes down to 12 levels. A city Kaimakli some even called the "capital" of the underworld. Despite the small area (of 4 sq. km.) Is established as an intricate system of mazes that get out of them without the help is almost impossible.
All of these underground cities have been adapted for a full life: the air here did a special ventilation shaft depth of 85 m, were also chimneys, putting out the smoke out, there were storage for grain and wine, wells for water, churches, dining and even a specific cemetery where dead bricked into the wall.
The Greek historian Xenophon found a curious comment about the underground cities of Cappadocia: pundit lamented that for all his undeniable talents and virtues of the residents "of the Underdark" does not ennoble the wine with water and drink it "terrible" barbaric way — not diluted.
LIFE FOR LEGS
Historical science is at a loss on a number of issues related to these cities. First, it is unclear what kind of people lived in the "Underdark" and why people prefer life underground sunlight.
Some researchers believe that these cities are served only to hide from the enemy, because the external inputs to the underground world of man-made carefully disguised (in the same Derinkuyu external input — nothing remarkable hole in the ground). Entrance hall overlap huge stone discs, which rolled out of the side niches, in which the inside — stops to roll, and the outside — perfectly smooth surface (not grasp), and in the center — the loophole.
Other members of the scientific fraternity mind: that the enemy armies through Cappadocia, usually held in transit, without stopping, and build underground so powerful and complex building exclusively for the shelter for a short time does not make any sense. And the development of "infrastructure" mysterious "Netherworld" indicates that it has been adapted for a permanent life underground.
Among other issues, which are not the answer, there is this: Where are the great amount of rock extracted from the bowels of the construction of the underground cities, and as she rose to the top? Even some scientists are concerned about … drain. If the underground cities could accommodate about 10 thousand people, how they cope with the flow of sewage? Where it all go? In general, a lot of questions, answers — zero.
BLESSED MRAC dungeon
In the heart of the "kingdom of chimneys fairy" is a unique town — Göreme. Currently, he is the world's largest open-air museum.
The uniqueness of this city is that there is a surprisingly "exposure" — more than 30 churches carved into the rocks, statues, stone chapels, monasteries and even — in the Byzantine style and decorated with frescoes, many of which are well preserved to this day.
According to legend, the first Christians came to Cappadocia in I century AD, led by students of the Apostle Peter. Then, in times of persecution, fleeing from persecution, Christians have expanded and deepened the ancient caves, turning them into secret refuge. They say that Göreme supposedly does "let no one sees."
Life in the caves is not stopped even after the persecution of the Christians. These places, according to the "cave" of the monks, were an ideal haven for hermit monasteries, and as though it may sound strange, it is here, under the earth, the righteous become closer to God.
The first cave monastery in Goreme Valley was founded by one of the three Cappadocian Fathers and all the pillars of early Christianity — Basil. He is credited with not only the basis of monasticism, but also the invention of the iconostasis, making the liturgy and writing the world's first charter of the monastic life. In the VI century, after violent disputes and wars with the Arians, Basil went to Cappadocia, that among the silent stones and dark caves to find peace in my heart and start a truly good life.
Mysterious underground worlds Cappadocia has chosen and holy Diodorus, Archbishop Kappodokiysky. And the last one is so fond of the cave, he wished that his tomb carved one word «Acarus» — «an earthworm."
With the advent of the IV century in the valley of "fairy chimneys" of the monastery of the Archangels associated miracle. According to legend, in 325, Queen Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, heading for Jerusalem, dreamed a dream in which the archangel Michael announced that "the Holy Cross of the Lord, hidden in the earth, extract it from there." Astonished vision Empress promised to build on the place where the angel appeared to her, temple. However, the Messenger of God have another place: "… in place, overgrown with thorns, which I'll take you myself, it is necessary to build a monastery in the name of the archangels and all the bodiless powers that can save us and establish thou the righteous stand in righteousness." Waking up, I saw the empress of a fiery star, which led her to the path and stopped over the place where he lay one stone. Here and found the throne of the Archangels, and raised from the ground stone set into the wall so that you can see both the opposite of him, different color.
I should say that all the underground churches of Cappadocia richly painted, and the frescoes have survived to this day. Some of the faces of the saints are traces of saber blows once warlike Seljuks.
In these places, and in our time, opening up new churches with murals intact, the entrance to which was once filled up. How many more secrets keep this wonderful land — only God knows.
The fact that "the kingdom of fairy chimneys" — a special place, no doubt. Cappadocia is a "top five" places where there superpovyshennaya UFO activity and paranormal phenomena. And because of that ufologists claim that the mysterious underground city built to shelter and protect people not from foreign invaders and attacks from space aliens. In 2005, Goreme, in one of the rock formations, even a Museum of the UFO, which was run under the slogan "We are not alone in the universe."