Despite the fact that the history of Ilyushin KB posted thousands of articles, monographs, and went monumental works ND Talikov’s books and YA Egorov, in any of them are not even a mention of IL-52 — strategic bombers of the «flying wing . » Curiously, why? Creator implies that the job itself plane C. In. Ilyushin not received, and the project was worked out in the rough, «on reserve», so to speak. But little prehistory.
The history of the creation of high-distant bombers (RRT) began in the late 40s. End of the second world war was marked by the emergence of nuclear weapons, which for the first time in history, has been used by South American air force in the war with Japan.
A new kind of weapon he claimed for the creation of a good delivery vehicles. Because right after the war in the United States and England were deployed large-scale research and development projects to create medium and languid strategic bombers.
In the U.S., companies «Convair» and «Boeing» was designed and built aircraft YB-60 and B-52, which had an intercontinental range. Preference was given to the B-52, and in August 1954 he began to come into service air wings SAH.
Earlier, on a competitive basis were built medium strategic bombers Convair XB-46 Boeing XB-47 and Martin XB-48. The best was the B-47, and in March 1950 started its mass creation.
In England, the tests have been completed and launched a series of medium strategic bombers Avro «Volcano,» Vickers «Velient» and the Handley Page «Victor».
This could not bother the Russian military command, because such work began in the Soviet Union.
First, as a carrier to be used plane Tu-4, which was the «analog» American «sverhkreposti» B-29. But this was only a temporary measure.
Despite the momentary speed with which it was put into mass creation, the Tu-4 is only a transitional type of bomber, because its flight characteristics such as speed and range, as the mass of the payload does not meet the Russian military administration.
In the criteria frisky development and improvement of jet fighter planes, bombers piston connection could not be successfully overcome the strong potential enemy air defenses, which, incidentally, was confirmed at the time of the Korean War in 1950-53., When the B-29 and B-50 in aerial combat with the MiG-15 suffered a tangible loss and had to go to the fighting NIGHT MODE.
Creating a languid bombers represented at that time a very complex technological puzzle.
The transition from piston aircraft with a takeoff weight of about 40-50 m and flying speeds of 500-600 km / h on jet technology to the masses of 150-200 m and transonic velocities claimed a huge amount of aerodynamic research, scientific elaborations on the strength and aero-elasticity, the creation of completely new designs, materials and equipment.
The problem was complicated creation massive turbojet engine (TRD) — the first turbojet just appeared, had a small draft and resources, huge fuel unit costs, low reliability.
In addition, in the middle of Russian aviation professionals at that time did not have a single view of the ability of creation itself summer with TRD, which has an intercontinental range.
Some of them believed that make such plane in a short period of time at all unrealistic.
One day, during a conversation with the minister of aviation industry Khrunichev, Stalin asked whether do intercontinental bomber based on the Tu-16, adding two engines and increasing its size and weight? To which was answered in the negative. Then he decided to talk personally with AN Tupolev.
A similar question Tupolev leader said that with the available engines gain a huge range will not work. Then Stalin said that another designer is taken to make such a machine. To do this, it will be made all the terms. This designer was Myasischev.
The history of the creation of the famous «Buffalo» carefully described in the «Illustrated Encyclopedia aircraft EMZ them. Myasishchev «, Volume 5.
Sergei knew about that conversation with Stalin from the Khrunichev, the benefit was with him in a good way. Exactly as the Tupolev, SV Ilyushin also would not undertake this kind of work, even if I was approached by Stalin to the same question.
But, being a man from afar, Ilyushin department instructs common species make first estimations type of strategic bombers. TK No, no Government regulation of tight deadlines were not hanging over the heads of the designers — the absolute creativity.
Got a unique machine — bomber of the «flying wing». Of course, before we were BOS — for example, the draft IV Chetverikova of 1946, but Sludge-52, even at this point, after 60 years looks breathtakingly elegant and modern. Even IL-54, made and tested later, was a relevant example of the structure of the jet bomber mid-to late 50s, whereas IL-52 was carrying within itself all the features of modern machines 80-90-ies.