It should be noted that in the 19th century had the opportunity to establish good-neighborly relations between Russia and Japan. At the current time, after a 2-Russian-Japanese war, the Japanese intervention in the Far East during the war in civilian clothes of, active union land of the rising sun and with Nazi Germany and the United States, claims about the so-called Tokyo. "Northern Territories", it sounds weird. But specifically Japan impartially could add Russia to the East, as it was able to make Germany the West. That did not work out, Russia and Japan among themselves pushed around in the same way as it was made with Russia and Germany. Often, this "grazing" twinkle same figures who diligently spoil Russian-German affairs, like Witte.
By the mid-19th century, the Russian Federation has had two trials to establish relations with Japan: 1792-1793. Expedition Adam Laxman was already established contact with the civilization of the East, but due to a number of "dark" events, our homeland was not able to sustain this success, the journey Rezanova in 1804-1805 gg. was frankly poor, the Japanese government forbade the Russian ships to harass the Japanese coast. With Russian America, in St. Petersburg had to systematically increase its presence in the Asia-Pacific region. This could result in a shift and the deadlock and Japanese cases. Instead of Petersburg and the Minister of Foreign Affairs Karl Nesselrode (headed the Foreign Ministry from 1816 — to 1856) almost gave the initiative in the Pacific, the U.S., the UK and other countries. Suffice it to say that for the whole 18 years — from 1834 to 1852 year, in the waters of the Pacific Ocean was sent only 5 Russian ships.
Even fixing the Amur region of Russia almost did not work out due to the policy of official Petersburg and the Russian Foreign Ministry, but because of the dedicated and independent action Gennady Nevel and its supporting Count Nikolai Muraveva. When August 14, 1850 Nevel to secure the mouth of the Amur River to Russia, founded the fort Nicholas DC and raised over him a Russian flag, the Council of Ministers, with the filing Nesselrode, decided to betray Nevel military court as a man of harmful and "pushing the Fatherland to imminent danger." Saved by a brave traveler and personal audience Muraveva Emperor Nicholas. Monsieur the governor and captain gave and said, "Where once raised the Russian flag, it must not fall." Unfortunately, this principle is already upset Alexander II and the majestic Prince Constantine, who came down the Russian flag on the Russian America.
The main opponents of the "Far East adventures" were money and the Foreign Ministry. Nesselrode's most dreaded 'displeasure Europe ", first UK. This run-in on the outlook of the West "hacked" a huge number of relevant activities that could potentially lead to the prosperity of the Russian Federation and its leadership in the Asia-Pacific region.
But even ponderous Nikolaev Our homeland beheld the need to establish formal relations with Japan. In 1843, Vice-Admiral Euthymios (Yefim) V. Putyatin recognized by the traveler and diplomat, has developed a plan for the organization of the expedition to the eastern sea borders of China and the Land of the Rising Sun. In a memorandum addressed to the emperor, Putyatin wisely noted that our homeland is a need to examine our eastern border with China, to search for "trustworthy port", to explore the bay between the mainland and the Sakhalin and make the latest attempt to open relations with Japan. Emperor Nicholas I, in spite of the opposition of the Minister of Foreign Affairs Count Nesselrode, who said "the ability of the gap with China, the displeasure of Europe, especially the British, in the case of any vigorous action on our part," ordered an expedition. But supported by the Minister Nesselrode money EF Kankrin, which read about the huge embezzlement on tour, also feared complications with China and harm "Kyakhtinskaya trade," expedition has been postponed. However, little has been sent to the brig "Constantine" under the command of Lieutenant Gavrilova, but he was unable to perform the puzzle. A special committee under the chairmanship of Foreign Minister Nesselrode and the role of the Minister of War Count Chernyshev, Quartermaster General of Berg and others immediately decided to accept the Amur basin belonging to China and turn away from him forever. " How not to think of Stalin and his "You fool or an enemy." Only Nevel and Ants were able to break this bad tendency. Large Amur region was still Russian.
Putyatin not forgotten his own ideas about traveling to Japan. In 1852, the government returned to the idea of open diplomatic affairs with Japan. In addition, data were obtained on the preparation of the Yankees squadron under the Matthew Perry. The expedition apart from Vice-Admiral Putiatina included: the bureaucrat trade department, secretary Putiatin writer Ivan Goncharov, a bureaucrat, an expert on Chinese and Korean IA Goshkevich, Alexander Mozhayskiy (later Rear Admiral and founder of the first Russian aircraft ), a scientist-orientalist, and Archimandrite Avvakuum. In the path went on a 52-gun frigate "Pallada" under the command of Captain Unkovski. Putyatin had to seek an order opening the Land of the Rising Sun by peaceful means.
The frigate "Pallada".
October 7, 1852 the frigate has set out, he went out of Kronstadt. The route ran around Africa, across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. During the journey the ship's hull was cranky ocean passage, "Pallas" hit the two typhoons (in the Indian Ocean and in Hong Kong). Because of Kronstadt sent the second 52-gun frigate "Diana" under the SS Lesovsky. He walked through the Cape Horn. August 12, 1853 "Pallada" arrived at the port of Nagasaki, a month after the first visit of the "black ships" Perry. But Japan's bureaucrats have taken Mail Count Nesselrode shogun only 9 September 1853. Apparently, it is necessary to send an expedition was more presentable, following the example of the Yankees. During a visit to Nagasaki Putyatin showed Japanese inventor of the steam engine, which assist Hisasige Tanaka then make the first Japanese locomotive.
Euthymios offered by Japanese bureaucrats to establish commercial matters and to draw the line between the Russian and Japanese possessions in the north of the country of the rising sun. Seeing that the people of the country of the rising sun delaying negotiations Putyatin decided to visit the Philippines, then Korea, to reconnoitre the east coast of Primorye. Russian expedition discovered Pos'eta bays, Olga and Rimsky-Korsakov Islands. July 11, 1854 to the Far East came frigate "Diana", which Putyatin went to Japan again. The frigate "Pallada" had to be towed in Constantine Bay Harbor Imperial (Russian harbor), where it sank in 1856.
November 22, 1854 "Diana" has arrived at the port of Shimoda, where a month, negotiations began. Almost one day after the start of negotiations — December 23 came out strong earthquake and tsunami. Russian sailors helped the local population. Russian frigate was very damaged, but from the beginning of 1855, during transportation to the place of repair, sank. February 7, 1855 in the church Gekusendzi Vice Admiral
EV Putyatin and Tosiakira Kavadze signed the first contract of Amity and Commerce between Russia and Japan (Shimoda contract). Treatise consisted of 9 articles. Inter with 2 powers to establish a "permanent peace and sincere friendship." For the Russian courts were open three ports — Hakodate, Nagasaki and Shimoda. They allow the limitation trade, under the supervision of Japanese officials. In Japan, the Russian consul appointed — it was Joseph Goshkevich (in 1858 — 1865 — Consul Russian Empire in Hakodate).
Already in this contract were laid controversial moments. Putyatin, despite his award to the Fatherland, apparently gave a blunder. Keep in mind that at this time Japan was "obsolete" power, behind the advanced countries for centuries in technological terms. Our home also was among the world leaders. We can not forget the shock the Japanese, which was caused by a demonstration of the power of the American squadron. The moment was very fortunate to secure for Russia Sakhalin and the Kuril islands all. But for some reason Putyatin agreed that Sakhalin is unrequited demilitarized zone co-ownership 2-powers. Kuril islands to the north of. Etorofu declared holdings of, and residents of the country of the rising sun retreat of the Kuril Islands — Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan and Habomai group. The result was the Treaty of Shimoda document on which Japanese politicians refer to this time, raising the question of the territorial jurisdiction of the Kuril Islands. It was an obvious and grave errors Russian diplomats. Perhaps influenced by their Crimean War, which has undermined the authority of the Russian Empire. But this does not justify them, Japan to the war had affairs, and had no ability to resist the accession of the Russian Federation of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. One must also take into account the initial error Petersburg — have not had to send a frigate and a detachment (squadron) of the number of vehicles on which it was necessary to bring the industrial products of, pictures, photo albums RF, To give an idea about its history and power. Be sure to follow the example of the Yankees and act tough it was impossible. But to show the strength of the Russian Federation needed. Just demands needed to reinforce the apparent power of Russian empire.
I must say that in general, the Russian sailors expressed in the Land of the Rising Sun Unlike the Russian national character, from the Western European, South American. After a natural disaster, the crew, who himself lost his ship, assisted the local population. During this expedition began cooperating land of the rising sun and the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology. For example, a broker with the Russian workers and materials for the construction of the vessel. It was the first experience in the construction of the Japanese ship Euro standard. April 14 schooner "Heda" was launched on April 26 and the Russian sailed home. By the reference of the schooner residents of the rising sun lined up a few more ships. The Russian was later given the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun and "Hede", together with scientific devices and 52 cannons from sunken frigate.
In the 1857-1858 years. Putyatin twice visited Japan and concluded additional contracts that gave Russian negociant additional benefits in trade, provide a better port for the Russian courts instead of Shimoda, allowed Russian to come by or with their families "on a temporary or constant habitation", was given permission to opening Land of the rising sun of the Orthodox Church. All in all it was a positive configuration, but St. Petersburg was more concerned with trade than configuration issues unprofitable for Russia territorial subdivision north of the Land of the Rising Sun.
Unfortunately, it was not the beginning of a fruitful collaboration and alliance between Japan and Russia. Japan chose to focus on more rigorous and resolute West. Petersburg also continued to make mistakes with regard to the Land of the Rising Sun. The government of Alexander II in general has broken the record for stupidity in its own Far Eastern policy. The governor and his brother Prince Constantine dignified "liberated" from Russia Russian America in 1867, the public interest powers in the Asia-Pacific region was dealt a severe blow. Soon he was "liberated" from Russia and the Kuril Islands. April 25 (May 7), 1875 in St. Petersburg, has been awarded a contract between Russia and Japan. According to him Japan "refused" from the Sakhalin — he she never belonged. Even during the Rezanova natives of Sakhalin Ainu, stated: "Sakhalin — the land of the Ainu, the Japanese land on Sakhalin … no." Against the Russian citizenship they did not mind. But in the "exchange" Our homeland gave the Land of the Rising Sun all 18 Kuril Islands.
So Makar, from the very beginning in relations between Russia and Japan were committed fundamental errors, which served as the basis for more than a century of hostility. On the part of St. Petersburg has been taken durnost in consistency silly mistakes and adventures in the field of American, Korean, and Chinese politics. On the part of the Land of the Rising Sun — a foolish samurai arrogance, coupled with the same adventures in Korea, China and Russia.
St. Petersburg contract in 1875 (Archive Foreign Land of the Rising Sun)
Extensive walking. Advances land of the rising sun in the Far East
Start capitalist Land of the Rising Sun was more than impressive. In 1872, the first Japanese steel road linking Edo (Tokyo) to the port of Yokohama. In 1873, the foundation was laid for modern metallurgy — steel plant nearby mines in Kamaishi, Iwate Prefecture. However, this first experience was bad, after 10 years, the factory was closed. But in 1901, the city has earned naikrupneyshy Yawata Iron and Steel Works. Japan from 1891 to 1907 year increment own merchant fleet tonnage by 704% (!). For comparison, in the same period in England increment own merchant fleet tonnage by 91%, France — 49%, USA — 217%, Germany — by 222%. It is clear that in absolute numbers (611 thousand registered tons to 1907) Japan is still very inferior to the stately powers, Great Britain 16 times, Germany — to 3.5-fold, United States — 2 times. But Japan is already ahead of Italy and France caught up. In the late 1880s, in the Land of the Rising Sun telegraph network was practically equal to zero, after 10 years, the country has had almost three thousand miles of telegraph lines, and by 1908 — more than 8 million km (in Italy there were 2 million). In 1893, Japan produces first Russian steam locomotive. In 1909, the Japanese box office BEAC had 8 million depositors (English — 11 million). The growth rate of the economy and the transition to the abolition of the country's largest contemporary life and a brand new level of sovereign power were still unheard of for the world. Only Stalin's USSR will surpass Japan in the pace of configurations, but it will happen later.
Interestingly, in this turbulent era in the land of the rising sun has not put forward a specific, one public favorite. In the land of the rising sun in the "Meiji era" figures were brightest and energetic, but there were many. Among them were Toshimichi Okubo and Kido Takayoshi — they have carried out an administrative reform in the Land of the Rising Sun, the creator of the constitution Hirobumi Ito. Most of them were young people, in their eyes Japan "discovered" and began to humiliate. A
nd they began to create the newest Japan, selflessly, with full vigor and energy. They want to learn the knowledge and skills of Europeans and catch up with them in force. They had to overcome serious internal resistance of limited power, it is almost resulted in civilian war. It can be safely put the blame to the West, particularly since the Americans and the Europeans caused a split in the Japanese society. Land of the Rising Sun had to overcome the lag is not gradual, evolutionary way, and the revolutionary leap. Many reformers have paid for it with their lives. May 14, 1878 a group of disaffected samurai Okubo Toshimichi destroyed.
First Japanese steam engine, built in 1853 Hisasige Tanaka on the model of the machine on "Pallas".
Japan in this era led initiative, brave people, who led Japan to victory and sovereign power. It is clear that good emotions to them, we feel we can not, for reasons entirely clear. But their biographies and works cause respects. They opened to the Japanese really majestic future. And with smarter policies Petersburg Our homeland and Japan together could lead the region to prosperity and stability.
For Korean residents of the rising sun behaved in a similar fashion as they behave towards Land of the Rising Sun Commodore Perry. In 1876, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun With years of opening for proprietary trading port of Pusan in principle, and in 1880 — Wonsan and Chemulpo. Korea was overrun by Japanese traders, soldiers, adventurers of all kinds who were fishing in the "muddy water", "open" country. They are fools, robbed Koreans participated in various internal intrigues at the Korean court, sought the predominant influence in the courts of the Korean feudal lords. This sassy pressure twice led to the open revolt — in 1882 and 1884.
To be continued …