Grenada — a small patch of land in the Caribbean, won independence in 1974. Earlier, the peninsula was considered a British colony and could not do without the help of others to determine foreign policy. But getting free country immediately began to torment the revolution, insurrection, coups and other disasters of public character. Freedom from the yoke of three hundred years has been long overdue, but it would be a shame as it may sound, is not happy. The government of the young country has gone through severe property bundle, falling living standards, intrigues, fruitless struggle between numerous politicians. Elected as a country lawyer, Matthew Gair of promising turned into a hated figure of population, but the powerful despot, to solve the growing prepyadstviya death squads. In fact, Grenada enveloped plainclothes war, because the terrain of the island is constantly there were killings, including mass. A huge number of innocent people killed in this difficult period ending in March 1979. As a result of the municipal party won a coup by Maurice Bishop, stick to thoughts of socialism and Marxism.
March 13, 1979 was the beginning of the socialist period in the history of Grenada. Rapprochement with the countries of the socialist camp, it was very imprudent act on the part of the government, because the consequences for the young and still militarily weak little country have been very sad. With Grenada were installed immediately affairs by the Soviet Union, Cuba, North Korea, while in some issues of partners pursued only geopolitical interests, ignoring the safety of the population. The fact that little free island, located in proximity to the specific U.S. border, because it can be used as a successful military position. Specifically, the plans appear, and chased the Soviet Union and Cuba in the 1980s. In particular assertive was Fidel Castro, while Russian control only organized financial and military aid Grenada.
Selection of political direction of Grenada far not explained Marxist gaze premiere. Background to the start of cooperation with the socialist states is much simpler and more prosaic. As the revolutionary government heralded its own victory world, it immediately appealed for monetary help to the Yankees, but they were able to isolate the island on democratic reforms only 5 thousand dollars. Bishop was obliged to turn to the other world power, or lose only newfound power. Tips willingly gave Grenada large loans and even sent about 2-thousand certified professionals for the reconstruction of infrastructure and the construction of a new airport. Bishop's fatal mistake was not so much co-operation with the Soviet Union, many Cubans providing its territory as a strategic military site. Tough-minded Castro provoked South American government in the face of Reagan openly directing the military to peninsula.
The generosity of the Union, of course, also had its own purpose. Placement of the island is profitable in terms of the location of aircraft and even naval bases. Russian strategic adversary of the country the United States is very vulnerable at the location at this point the military base. Had on their views of the countryside Grenada and Cuba. Despite the fact that even now the official sources deny the presence of military forces on the peninsula of Cuba, this fact is obvious. In the country at the time of the transactions under the title "The outbreak of rage" was about seven hundred well organized armed Cubans.
The U.S. government was watching developments on the peninsula and the actions of the new government. The Caribbean countries have in a long time, the Yankees are the sphere of influence and the number of backyard strong power. Naturally the prospect of visiting this region Russian or Cuban base became a major irritant and a prerequisite for intervention.
The current at the time President Reagan has repeatedly stated that the terrain Grenada is the construction of the air base, but the Bishop persistently pointed to the only civilian airport destination. Engaged in the construction of the controversial facility Russian and local special on Cuban developments. It must be emphasized that the U.S. claims were not unfounded, as the airport even in the version in which it is built, all the same could be used for military purposes. Bishop's assurances about the absence of Grenada goals exploit a controversial subject for military purposes, in the presence of 3 contracts for military assistance from the Soviet Union looked over're not impressive. Indecision premiere aroused indignation Cuban government. There is a perception that Cuba was specifically involved in the arrest and killing of the next Bishop. In reality, the role of this country in the displacement of unwanted premiere is not clear. Some believe that the Inquisition was organized by the CIA, but the evidence is also omitted.
The official version is the Minister of Finance and other premier Koardu seemed criminal decision to allow private property in the state in favor of a strong friend, because Bishop was placed under house arrest. Supporters of the prisoner came to the house and released him, but in the process killed a few people. It is believed that Bishop shot and killed in a shootout, but there are other details about his death. So, Grenadians believe that the disgraced prime minister was assassinated after voluntarily surrendered to end the death of people.
Americans used the unrest, the formal reason for the operation was the arrest of 600 students — people of the U.S., which, in the opinion of the South American government, was in danger. In fact the country was declared a curfew violators who were shot on the spot. Preparing for the invasion of Grenada began in 1981, have been carried out even rehearsals and exercises, but by the time the "outbursts" South American forces were still not cooked. In special groups out maps of the area, there was no transport to transport troops, t
here was no reliable information on air defense Grenada.
The operation was planned to prepare NIGHT MODE on October 23 and begin landing troops already 25th of the same month. The first on-sparing planted in groups according to plan, "seal" their task was aiming for aircraft landing peninsula paratroopers on the group was to occupy the station. Orders "Delta" was instructed to take the jail and find the precise placement of air defense, the other group had to conduct reconnaissance for planting Rangers. It was assumed that the Rangers will take Point Salinas Airport and local police stormed the camp and the People's Army, which held the arrested students. Landing and assault as needed bombing were to provide four aircraft AC-130.
But the very first step of the Yankees appeared human loss. Four were missing swimmer searched "seals" finished, fearing for the success of the operation. Then followed the failure of the motor boats, in the end the group was aboard an aircraft carrier, "Caron". Most of the equipment had drowned as a result of clear guidance could not be reached. Keep the radio station "seals" failed because the Grenadians had a fierce resistance. Considerable assistance in the defense of the island they had excellent armed Cubans. Retreating, "seals" broken equipment, that station is not able to work.
Intelligence activities on the ground for landing troops also failed, as a result of the paratroopers landed at dawn. In addition, after take-off 18-C130-s it turned out that on the drive is faulty navigation. Landing performed in excess of the load, almost always without emergency parachute. The soldiers tried to take a greater number of guns and ammunition, because sacrificing security. After-permanent, but fierce fighting peninsula was busy. The United States has stated that in the course of the operation were killed only 30 people, but assess the real experts at the loss of 300 or even 3,000. Invasion, despite the long preparatory training was disorganized, any group of one hundred percent unable to perform the task. Patrons of the island had lost significantly more fighter but this statistic does not accord with the laws of armed clashes. Defending always lose the least amount of fighter than forwards, although there may be an element of surprise played a role. During the operation the Americans have lost several helicopters, but all the same, "a flash of rage" was a success. By October 27 Grenada was completely occupied by U.S. troops.
Despite the close cooperation that neither the Soviet Union nor Cuba even more so, to provide military assistance to the partner's own socialist in no hurry. Russian government squanders huge amounts of money for the war in Afghanistan, because the interests in the long Grenada seen as secondary. The international community has condemned the acts of the United States, but no sanctions followed, as in general, and the reaction to this world aggressors themselves.
In December 1983, the troops were withdrawn, but the policy of Grenada from now carried out pro-American. Proponents of the socialist camp, including the Minister of Finance Bernard Koarda were convicted. Koardu hanging was replaced by indefinite detention, only in September 2009, the case was reversed, and the prisoner was released. Soon after the withdrawal of troops in the U.S. were to lift all economic sanctions and were set tight fit relationship.