From the Atlantic to the Urals, experts now calculate the damage to agriculture from all-time frosts. Southern Russia this year could lose half the crop of grapes. Under threat — and the collection of winter.
Record cold weather began to bring their "harvest". Experts have started to count the losses to agriculture. Cold this winter have set their own rules on the vast territory — from the Atlantic to the Urals. In Russia, most of all a strong negative hit southern regions. Thus, according to experts, farmers, in 2012, the country could lose up to half of the total harvest. In addition, serious damage has been done stone fruits — apricots, peaches, plums.
Severe frost threatened and yield of winter crops, including wheat. We attempted to assess the extent of frost impact on agriculture. Marked "almost exactly" the serious losses in the agricultural sector say in six regions of the federation. On the map are marked in dark blue. This Stavropol, Kuban, Kalmykia, Astrakhan and Rostov regions. Here are most anxious for the gardens.
Such low temperatures, as in this year, for the southerners drop infrequently. Separately allocated Dagestan. Ministry of Agriculture reports that the total damage for the industry — a few billion rubles.
Waiting for March and the losses while talking with caution five regions. Among them — the Urals and Tyumen. In these latitudes, plants normally kept and minus 30 and minus 40, but more than a month there was no snow. And the same to winter's important to have a blanket of snow.
Now to the numbers. Greatest concern now winemaking. "The drink of the gods" in Russia produced just in the victims of Stavropol and Krasnodar region. This area is called the "zone of risky wine," which means, year on year, however.
In the Stavropol region frosts destroy the grape harvest about once every 3 years. In the Krasnodar region — once in 10 years. But this winter, the Kuban cold places were the kind that will not remember even wine with 25 years of experience.
Loss of industry in the south of Russia can be from 30 to 50% yield. Initial tests have shown a 30 percent death of buds in the vineyards. For comparison — in the last season it was also 30%, but in the extreme cold in the Kuban and Stavropol last much longer, so the outlook for losses increased to half of the total harvest. In the Krasnodar region — and even higher.
Meanwhile, the wine is not so much worried about the current crop, but about the long-term damage. To restore wineries traditionally takes years. Especially if severe frosts are combined with high humidity.
Experts have identified a number of possible consequences of such a cold winter for the local wine industry. This may mean, first, the increase in imports of wine. The resulting hole will have to somehow be patched. It is assumed also that the parts manufacturers have to uncork stocks — to market vintage wine. Well, among the adverse effects — likely increase in the number of counterfeit products.
With wine and problems encountered in Dagestan. Such strong and prolonged cold weather service of the republic is not fixed already 124 years. In Makhachkala, and 11 regions of the country operates a state of emergency. According to preliminary estimates, have killed more than 10,000 hectares of vineyards, about 7000 acres of gardens, 40 hectares of winter crops. Farmers are trying to find a way to preserve what's left. But for a lot of damage from frost threatened the entire business.
In second place on the degree of damage by frost strike — stone. This apricot, peach, plum, cherry plum. Fruit trees, related to pome crops like apples, have been more stable. And yet, in the south expect 10 to 30% mortality of flowering buds. What say you, of course, and the harvest. The trees themselves, as shown by examination, whole, that is, the loss will not be massive. However, for a given region the situation is worse. In the Astrakhan region of 30 degrees of frost destroyed three-quarters of the kidneys of apricots, peaches and plums.
For the record: According to the Ministry of Agriculture in Russia now — more than 73 thousand dacha. Their use — about 1 million 200 thousand hectares of land. This is comparable to the entire territory of Montenegro.
In the Rostov region fear for the harvest of rape and winter barley. Confidently say how much they have suffered, can only be based on the results of special studies. They start when the temperature on the thermometer will exceed zero. A complete picture should become clearer in March. However, after the cold region is preparing actively fertilize fields. Already signed an agreement with a major Russian producer to supply 35,000 tons of agricultural chemistry.
But not only Russia counts frost damage. In Europe, too, because of the severe cold frozen earth. And the harvest of early vegetables and fruit — in question. According to the association of wholesale trade of France, some vegetables (such as leeks or lettuce) for the week went on the shelves and a half to two times. A Confederation of Italian Farmers' loss of national agricultural sector due to the abnormally cold estimated at 150 million euros. In a crisis such spending EU countries, of course, very inappropriate.