On the Russian bath! The origins of traditions

Lev Gumilev in his book "Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe" writes that Christianity is difficult to get accustomed to the Kievan Rus', but the harder the Slavic tribes conquered Kiev princes. Military victory over the pagan Slavs — vyatichi was won by Vladimir Monomakh, but spiritual, or rather, an ideological victory long in coming to the XIV century. On most of Russia in the narrow sense (Kiev, Chernigov, Pereyaslav) dualism existed long. The most ancient cult — veneration of the spirits of the dead — stood up to the XX century. These spirits — navii — demanded little from living people: feast on Maundy Thursday and cooked with melted bath towels on the floor bath sprinkled with ash ash, and the next day found the footprints in the ashes, like chicken, what saw evidence for steam baths dead — "came to us navii wash."

Of course, the priests claimed that demons would come, but the most interesting fact of this question not put. After the bath, and prepared to give in a couple of navy, people did not go there for the day. The whole ceremony was not burdensome.

The introduction of the Greek faith and culture, Christianity has led to some complication of the system, ie the role played negentropic pulse. Where paganism resisted — at Polabian Slavs — German victory at the end of the XII century. And where there is established a sophisticated system — in Russia, in Poland, the Czech Republic — the German onslaught was halted. Thus, "navi spell" played for the Slavic ethnogenesis enough positive role. Christian clergy had given up on them hand and left alone in a bath, killing only those cults which practiced blood sacrifice, which is a species of Satanism.

The chronicle attributed to the monk Nestor "Chronicle" is described in the steaming bath Novgorod. Nestor, from the standpoint of Christianity already wrote about the baths, referring to the events of the time of St. Apostle Andrew, preaching the word of the Gospel in Kiev, went later in Novgorod, where he saw a miracle — in the bath parivshihsya people. According to the description of Nestor people parivshiesya in the bath, were similar were the color of the skin on boiled crawfish, "Come to Novgorod and see how their razozhgut oven-hot, undress, and hvoschutsya and obolyut themselves kvass, and again hvoschutsya rods young and struggling themselves, and then they will become that little slezut alive and obolyut icy water, and only then come to life … ".

But "Radziwill Chronicle" tells the story of Princess Olga Drevlianys revenge for the death of her husband. Who came to her after drevlyan Olga commanded, "wash and come to me." Those in the hot bath istoplennuyu entered and steamed. And Olga asked whether they like the room, and ordered to light (bath) from the door, and burned everything. "

In "Radziwill Chronicle" also tells that in 907 by the Treaty of Prince Oleg with the Greeks had special conditions, of which stipulated that the troops used the gift of Oleg Greek baths, "and yes they are doing mov as they want."

Starting from XI century, when Christian Orthodox monasteries there were public baths for the poor, poor, ruined peasants and pilgrims. About these baths mentioned in the Charter of the Grand Prince Vladimir of St. from 996 years.

In 1091, Bishop Ephraim, later — the Metropolitan of Kiev, commanded the "plant structure — vrachevo bath and all incoming bezmezdno (ie, free.-Ed.) To heal." During these years, a monk of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery Agapius, famous as a skilled physician, heal the sick with herbs and bath. By monastic charter patients supposed to wash in the bath three times a month.

In the annals of XI-XII century. a. mentioned aqueduct, built for "Yaroslav's Court." Moscow princes took water for the bath of the Moscow River from the river or Neglinnoy. Later, at the beginning of the XVI century., On the orders of Ivan Kamet paved inland from the river bank to the walls of the Kremlin oak pipe and delivered water to deep well-cache from which it has a bucket carried the right place.

Churchmen could impose public opinion is local, not Byzantine bath "nasty." Do not belittle the bath — as a material fact — it was impossible to play down the "former" pagan gods. So the church through the monastic orders and the unwritten orders still brought the case to the end.

The bath is forbidden to place the icon and pray. Since evil spirits living there, it was forbidden to make a bath with you clothes. There was also no "rotten bannuyu utensils" to bring into the house. After the same washing and bathing was considered necessary to pour yourself a clean cold water or dip in the lake or river, regardless of the season, in the winter is to drive in the snow, to wash away all evil. Without doing this, the person had no right to enter the church.

In general, the same day immediately after a bath to go to church is not supposed to. Therefore, in the new Christian times "bath day" was not attached to the holy days — Friday and Sunday, but was allowed on a day that was sacred to the Jews only — on Saturday. "Remember the sabbath day: go to the baths." "Those who are washed on Sundays, will always hurt." Last superstition prevalent in urban areas and in our days.

Even "banische" (the place where once stood bath) has long been considered unclean and build her house would not do. In rare cases, allowed to go to the bath also on Tuesday to Thursday. On Monday, it was not recommended, "the girls head to wash — spit come out."
There were special ritual days on which was laid in the steam bath. In calendars we find: "23 June — Agrippina Globe: start bathing the previous day (and night) Midsummer collect medical and voodoo roots and herbs. Washed and steamed in the baths, and general swimming with songs and other entertainment.

But in medicine, as of old, a hot steam bath continued to be one of the major healing of many diseases. "Bath — second mother or mother dear. Bath soars, bath rules. If it were not bath, would we all lost. " In the bath, read plots on patients with fever, suffering from various skin diseases and festering, steam the patient ruled sprains and fractures.

Bath as well as at Pagan played a big role in the wedding ceremony — wash and warm up before the wedding and after the wedding night, it was considered essential. Bath continued to appear in the ceremonies connected with the birth of the child. Suggest a tired traveler heated the bath-house for him was a necessary condition for the hospitality of the Russian people, remember what upbraided Prince Ivan Baba Yaga — those that did not offer heated the bathhouse.

In addition to the literal meaning of purification, washing in the bath, for all her "evil", perceived as acts of spiritual purpose and ritual cleansing. "Bath wash away all sins." In connection with this guy in the bath after childbirth permission of the burden, and the bride before the wedding the couple after the wedding night was almost religious, but not Christian, the mandatory nature of almost all of Russia.

Bath is also still used as a place of remembrance of the dead. "According to the ancient teachings of the pre-Mongol era, [Holy Thursday] … offer different food dead and stoked for them baths, middle baths sprinkled ashes, and then if notice this ash marks, then say," come to us navya (deceased) wash ".

In some areas of Russia believed in "bannuyu grandmother" — good decrepit old woman, helps all ills. It is referred to the plot when washed patient scrofulous child for the first time after the birth. According to legends in an unheated bath is always a special spirit, often harming people "bayniha", "bath grandmother", "obderiha." She especially does not like women in labor, and not be left alone in the bath. Bath grandmother, mother bath — a mythical creature that lives in the bath: a decrepit old woman good, cures all diseases. The emergence of bath grandmother sometimes directly related to childbirth: it accompanies the woman in labor and the baby, usually friendly to the weak, the sick.

More often than in the "grandmother" believed in "Bannik", "bath". Feared when washing banging and screaming, and then the "bath" dislikes. Hot steam for a while would throw him out of the bath. According to legend, if one evening three lines of people washed in the bath, it is the turn to bathe "bannomu", and the person at the time to stay in it is dangerous, "bath" will not let him bathe. At best, the "bath" can scare washable. Will dabble in tubs of hot and cold water, hot stones throw from the stove or run out, slamming the door behind bath and there will mutter deathly, terrible voice. In a worst case — sderet with living skin (because it represented with clawed paws instead of hands and feet). He tortures and torment to death those who come to the bath did not bless or around midnight, especially in the night under the holidays or Christmas holidays.

"Bannik" presented in the form of a cat with glowing eyes, a dog or a frog. When first stoked a new bath, thrown on top of the stove salt as a sacrificial bath. He also donated a black hen, whose bones were buried under the threshold. Preferred to bathe in the bath for about five — seven o'clock in the afternoon, but in no event later in the evening, or swab, and the heater broke, and all the water pours out.
At the entrance to the bath greetings to the swab, and on leaving thanked him, "Thank you, Baynushko on baynichek steam." In order not to anger-bath while washing tried not rattle, do not knock loudly and not to talk. Violates this order man-bath could scare by throwing stones from the oven, and even tear off a live kozhu.Opublikovano on ruslife.org.ua

If the swab becomes angry, then washable people should move to the door backwards. Departing from the bath, allowed to swab the broom, a bar of soap and water in the tub so he could clean up. When the last fire, three times go to the bath — do not go forth: "swab" must wash.

Sentence, go to the bath, "Banny prince Take our dirt, give us a clean body." Go back, "Thanks, banyushka, obmyla." Brush, soap — everything remains in the bath. The water in the bath until the end never poured to master pomylsya.Opublikovano on ruslife.org.ua

In baths shave hair, nails, and then they were burned or buried in the ground, sometimes allowed in running water, but less — no one knows where to swim to cut hair, and no one who could use them in magical purposes.

Of course, in the baths and sorcery. If the girl had to bewitch sweet, so much so that "it shall never fall out of love", it should pull out of a twig broom, put it under the threshold, to wait until the threshold is crossed its kind, and then to run with this switch in a bath, there to attach it higher. The higher is twigs, hotter than steam, the more it will dry to sweet.

Often room was a place for divination. Here is an example of a typical bath divination: unmarried girls who exhibited the cold cheek, and some specific parts of the body, and asked brownie, what would be their true love. If the bodies concerned and warm furry hand, it was believed that the marriage will be happy and rich. If cold, smooth — it was not good.

For "bath" was left in the bath broom, a piece of soap, lye or ashes and some water in the tub, thanks to his exit. At the first firing of a new bath throwing up at the stove, a handful of salt and buried under the threshold strangled black cock or hen. And in the bath for a "Bannik" left a piece of bread and salt. Sometimes the dishes.

Generally bath also inextricably linked with Russian cuisine — soups in Russia has always been more fluid than in the world, were called pottage hlebalovom, yushkoy as liquid after bathhouse emergency needs. No wonder that more than a thousand known recipes drinks: jelly, Izvara, was brought down, fruit drinks, kvass, honey, beer, home brew pilis of birth for poslebannogo feast dishes — in Bratina.
And so with two hands, and so eat the bread, so that did not fit in her mouth and a neighbor came out!

Remember the refrain — "I was there, honey beer drinking, flow through mustache, mouth not horrible."

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