Russ was never closed "island", the interaction with the West, the Western kingdoms constantly going: traded, concluded dynastic alliances led war. Kiev, Moscow, Novgorod visited foreign embassies, ambassadors of Rome, had been trading Scandinavians, Germans, Hungarians, Italians.
In the XVI century the British came with the Dutch, curiously, the British, wrecked and who have shown the way the Russian fishermen, and later announced that "discovered" by Russia. But our home was not Africa or the power of the Aztecs, because to do as usual "pioneers" did not dare. I had to find a mutually beneficial cooperation.
Sir Ivan the Terrible, perhaps comparable in "spitting" with Stalin, it is hard to find in this last figure is so hateful as he is. Svyatoslav also not love, but his deeds simply ignore. And Ivan constantly "bark at." However, this did not prevent our people to keep a good memory of him — in Russian folklore he is the patron "orphaned and needy" from "strong", he Severe ruler, who fought with the internal and external enemies.
It was very hard, he soon lost his father, mother, knights of the clans took a lot of power, everywhere around the country were strong adversaries: harassed by raids and arranged trips for "human beings" and the Crimean Khanate of Kazan, for Krymchaks was mighty Ottoman Empire (it was not 19th century, when the Ottoman Turks were forced to tremble almost all of Europe, excluding the North). From the north loomed power Swedes, west of old enemies — Lithuania, Poland.
The governor held a fundamental reform: the military reinforced the army, was created by a powerful Artillery cannons cast by Ivan the Terrible, served for decades and participated in battles in the 17th century, has been cast in Russia and most powerful howitzer Europe — "Kashpirova gun", weighing 1200 pounds and a caliber of 20 pounds, she put things in a nightmare on opponents, took part in the siege of Polotsk in 1563. According to the views of the researcher A. Chernov, infantry infantry Severe ahead of Western Europe: the archers were all the polls armed with firearms, putting them above the infantry western states, where part of the infantry (the so-called pikemen) had only a cool weapon. Were made shelf "foreign order" was applied best practices Swedish and Dutch infantry. Did the zemstvo self-government, and became self-governing peasant communities have adopted a new Code of Law, canceled feeding. The man himself is a very educated, he patronized the development of education, architecture, by his order was created a unique monument of Russian literature — Litsevoy, promoted the development of the printing press.
Our homeland, getting stronger, began to move to the South and East: was annexed all the majestic river Volga, solved the problem of Kazan and Astrakhan Khanate, the citizenship of the Russian Federation fled leg vorachivaetsya Our homeland in the North Caucasus. Has begun to move to the East, it will end access to the Pacific Ocean and the creation of Russian America. Ivan the Terrible was able to halt the expansion of the Crimean Turkish troops in the southern strategic direction: in 1569, near Astrakhan was destroyed by the Turkish army, at the battle of the young July 30 — August 2, 1572 under the command of the governor of Prince Misha Vorotynsky destroyed 40 thousand. (Other sources say 120 thousand). Crimean Turkish army.
Fortunately war was launched for the Baltic area — eminent Livonian War. In case of success of her, Ivan Severe be overtaken by the exploits of Peter stateliness. An old enemy of Russia — Livonian — was nearly destroyed, but then against Russia were strong adversaries — Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, the south acted as the Crimean Khanate. Against the Russian Federation launched the "information war" German government, papal Rome. It was then clearly demonstrated massive enemy cannon — a way of "cultural co-operation, the lure of" free ", the characters, the style of life of Western Europe began to seep into Russia all stronger. He succumbed to the elite part of, to know is in this lies one of the main reasons for the introduction of "oprichniny." Many clans of nobles wished the situation of Polish magnates and gentry, their liberties.
Rome intensively conducted not only an information war, but the organizational work, specifically his agents were able to conduct a brilliant operation to merge Lithuania and Poland in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth — The Union of Lublin in 1569. At this time, Sigismund II was once a stately Duke of Lithuania and the Polish ruler. But in Lithuania throne passed on the heritage, while in Poland the king chose. Sigismund had bound the agents of the Jesuits, at that time there was Yuri Mnishek (Jerzy Mnishek), he supplied the King of the girls, trying to keep the childless ruler did not marry again, in the end he died childless, and with it ended the Jagiellonian dynasty. Jesuit Antonio Possevino managed to convince the king of Sweden Johan accept Catholicism, was made an alliance with the Poles.
Possevino went on a mission in Moscow — in February 1582, he tried to persuade Ivan to union with Rome, the Orthodox Church subordinate to his father. In Rome, the thought that languid defeat to break the will of the king, but did not. In the end, according to the views of some researchers, Ivan the Terrible was poisoned, it was at the time of the everyday way of the Jesuits, and of the court intriguers. At the same poisoned Sigismund 2-wives.
That's why for internal and external enemies of the Russian Federation and the Russian people Ivan the Terrible — enemy, which can not stand up to the stage of animal terror. He spent a successful foreign and domestic policy, reinforced the army, began to create a Russian fleet in the Baltic Sea, with the help of Captain Carsten Rohde. Strengthen and expand the boundaries, Raziel external and internal enemies. Started a movement to 2-main strategic directions — south and east. Succumbed to the temptations of Rome. According to research Skrynnikova, it was subjected to repression by only a few thousand people in Paris for one more cut out the massacre of St. Bartholomew. When it evolved spiritual and material culture of Russia.
He proved himself as a dignified statesman and diplomat, scholar M. Tolstoy writes in "History of the Russian Church": "But the hopes of the pope and the efforts were not crowned with success Possevino. John had all the natural elasticity of mind of its own, skill and prudence, which itself Jesuit had to give justice rejected harassment on allowing Russia to build the Latin church, rejected the arguments about faith and the unification of the churches on the basis of the rules of the Council of Florence and became interested in acquiring the whole dreamy promise of the Byzantine Empire, the Greeks lost as if for a retreat from Rome. " Possevino himself noted that "Russian Sir stubbornly avoided, went from talking about it." In the end, Rome did not receive any benefits in Russia, nor consent to the bosom of the Catholic Church, and the mediating role between Russia and the Commonwealth had to do.
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Chernov AV Countries of the Russian Armed Forces in the 15-17 century. Moscow, 1954.