The budget of the church: how many actually earns church in Russia

[B] Cross income. What now earns church [/ b]

[I] In the vast pavilion factory "Sofrino" wandering priests, church items purchased. Father weighty physique looks at gilded altar table, stares at the price tag:

— Yes, the price is rather big, 220 thousand.

— Well, you can find something cheaper — offered his services consultant.

— Do not, — with a call answered the priest. — Why buy stuff?

And concluded:

— It is better to find a sponsor and do rank by rank. [/ I]

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[Cut]

The richest Russian Orthodox Church is not too rich. At the Patriarchate did not dream about the multiplication of wealth, but of generous sponsors. And envy of worldly power, to build financial and administrative hierarchy. Find the money — the biggest headache for the entire Russian Orthodox Church. She survived the violent nineties, experienced themselves in commerce, barely otmylas flows from compromising and is now trying to figure out how to contain thousands of congregations, Sunday schools and seminaries, to repair churches. Nor is simply not ruptured himself. Contrary to stereotypes, the richest Russian Orthodox Church is not too rich.

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Before the Russian Orthodox Church formally not a task to make a lot of money as before by the shipping company or the main thing, to be able to feed itself. Given the Orthodox prescribed nestyazhatelstvo and medieval structure, even a big problem. At a time when the Kremlin builds and strengthens the chain of command, and after him, so do the largest state-owned companies, the Church is the only institution of the federal scale with "branches" in every region of the Federation and even the small town, which is completely decentralized. Sort of a feudal state with a nearly-independent vassal princes who do not like to report to the lord.

In the center, in the Patriarchate, and not only in the center, more and more jealous of worldly power and establish financial and administrative discipline and, as a consequence, which received almost unlimited resources. And the greater the closer the transfer of land property to religious organizations — Ministry of Economic Development is preparing a law.

Without vertical

The only thing that looks like the social fabric and the Russian Orthodox Church, because it is a blatant inequality. Father Vsevolod Chaplin, deputy chairman of the Department for External Church Relations, remembers coming to a non-black soil zone: two monks, ten recently released prisoners and subsistence farming. At the local church served potatoes and turnips, and only a few old women who were paid in the nearby village of retirement, sometimes in the parish bought candles and ordering required — only cash income. A close — the richest monastery, which found sponsors and established economy.

"We need to look for more effective mechanisms to help the poor rich monasteries — says Chaplin centralization and redistribution taken from worldly power. — In my opinion, sometimes the individual parishes and monasteries behave too loose. Parishes and monasteries give reports diocese, the Diocese provide reports to the Moscow Patriarchate. But there can be no mechanism for total control over their business operations. "

All dioceses, as they say in the Patriarchate, in fact the local church. And they will keep farming as they see fit. "Sometimes the diocesan administration is much poorer situated on its territory monasteries, and there are cases where this kind of" income inequality "becomes a pretext for conflict with the Abbot Bishop" — says Michael Edelstein, author of the book "The economic activities of the Russian Orthodox Church and its shadow component . "

Father Vsevolod Chaplin says that the service is quite the altar and the priest. But it is doubtful whether he is proud of the fact that most of the temples in central Russia are without roofs and with holes instead of windows — as they passed the church, so they are holding. What to do with a ruined church in the middle of an extinct village, no one knows, it all depends on the priest, and he will be "cool."

The coming-flow

Several years ago, the clergy were divided into two groups: the "builders" and "prayer." For example, the prior of a large regional church near Moscow with undisguised irony listened to "report" on a nearby monastery. "Well, what are they? — He asked. — All heads together on the floor beat under his leaky roof? "And he brought fresh inspect buildings in the churchyard, with special pride stressing that recently without any permission from the authorities moved ogradku a few meters away from the temple. The abbot nearby monastery abbot passed the economic hello: "Well, well, I suppose all builds. Come, God on Judgment Day will incur a ogradku show. "

But today most remember about ogradku than about the Last Judgment: the ability to earn appreciated by all. And also — do not give away too much to the diocese.

Rural church in average annual earnings on the strength of fifteen hundred dollars. A little richer life in a small town — in a remote district center church receives up to $ 2,500 of income. All of it will be spent on repairs and maintenance of the Sunday school. In the city more and more money: in the regional center of the temple can earn 120-150 thousand. But also spend all: for school or high school, a charitable dining room or repair — the most expensive.

In each parish there is an accountant who keeps a log of every day, how many have spent as received — except donations to the abbot. "Out of the money from the sale of candles, books, jewelry, ritual performance every three months, I am in the Diocese of 10%, which is about 10,000 rubles", — tells Newsweek priest of one of the parishes located in the diocese of Kashira (area) near Moscow, who asked not to be named.

The main source of income — donations. "That in all the churches throughout utensils and services have price tags, but it's illegal — says the priest of the deanery of Kashira. — The Church — it's not a commercial organization. Therefore, all the price tags that are in the churches for candles, icons, symbolism is an approximate amount of donations. "

In Kashirskom deanery 14 rectors of parishes, each of which, according to the priest, carries on a quarterly basis to the Moscow diocese their tithes. "That count. Only with our not very rich deanery quarterly metropolitan diocese drove about 140 000 — multiply by 42, the number of districts in the suburbs. " It turns out that only suburban churches Diocese quarterly receives about 6,000,000 rubles. and 10% of that amount deducted by the Patriarchate. "A Moscow churches, according to my calculations, a quarter earn at least 10 million", — says the priest.

But that's only the official amount that is recorded in accounting records. How much is deposited in themselves priests — is "God knows," admits the source Newsweek. Pay, of course, no one wants, so in a town with a population of thirty thousand temples can be found, where the official documents in the five year committed two funerals and weddings. But if you come to this church on any Sunday — you will see the gate were two or three marriage procession.

"I have two notebooks, which are recorded all receipts and expenditures," white "accounting — for audit of the diocese," the black "- for me to consider to whom, how much, for what he gave. Otherwise, there will be a living — he explains. — I shoot the official income to the needs of the church and the people working for me. Of this money, seller pay the salaries of church benches and myself — 5000 rubles a month. FAQ about getting the money to the tax office wear. All the others who earned a temple in the church community leave. I live in sponsorship money. "

God sent a sponsor

The expenditure of sponsorship fees — the conscience of a priest. Most often, the money transferred to the abbot of one-on-one, leaving the entire amount yourself or to spend on equipping the parish — the abbot decides.

Bugaevskiy Alexander, who represented the Moscow Patriarchate in the government for the return of church property, he knows a lot of nasty example of this independence: "We have the richest parish — Compound in Bari, in Italy, where the relics of St. Nicholas. The abbot there gathers a lot of money, some reports to the department, but I think it's crumbs. The buildings sit like tenants, but does not appear that the building work for the pilgrims. "

The priest of the Moscow diocese, even the terminology is the same as that of the sponsors: "If you abbot, and not one of the communicants, the very use of the money. And then you're in the chocolate. Although there are among us, and those who think only of God, not of worldly goods, and all proceeds from sponsors, donations, other services and sales, than that is laid diocesan "rollback" is spending on the community and his church. "

The priests say that in the 90's was a lot worse — not in the sense of greed priors, but in terms of their safety. "Now the poor parishioners, but docile, not that that was ten years ago — says the father of one of the churches of the diocese of Kostroma. — Here I remember the case was. To me 'brother often came from Kostroma, money for the restoration of the temple sacrifice. One day in the fall came alarmed and said, "Pray for us, sir. The arrow at us with serious people. " Time has passed. I had forgotten about them, and then in the evening a knock on the window. I opened — on the verge of "sponsors" are the eyes suffused with blood. One starts to shout: "Well, what, sir, are you ill pray for us! Our-then killed! Let's get the money that we gave you back. "

According to the priest, by such impudence he had lost the power of speech, and the next morning went to Moscow to classmates — Before the dignity he studied at the Higher School of the KGB, "This is the guys with the lads and sorted out by worldly concepts."

Now Orthodox sponsor — is a businessman who on his way to his villa drove to the church and out of pocket money paid for repairs. The most popular option — put the chapel. "Unfortunately, we now like to sign was: it is built Ivan Ivanovich Ivanov" — sigh Vsevolod Chaplin. He certainly appreciate your concern, but regrets that few of sponsors is taken for less "prestigious" projects such as a soup kitchen.

This charity by large fringes of the funds. "There are a number of organizations such as, for example, the Club of Orthodox businessmen, Unity of Orthodox Christian Nations Foundation, Andrew, — perechislyaetAndrey Sebentsov, chairman of the Commission for Religious Associations of the government. — They are not religious organizations, but expend funds for purposes that are blessed by the Patriarch publish magazines, restore temples, missionary work and organize [pilgrimage] trip. "

In the media, they are not constrained — the same fund Andrew supervise Russian Railways. Get hold of the sponsor — happiness not only for the parish or diocese, but also for the metropolis: the budget of the Moscow Patriarchate huge holes.

The budget of the patriarch

At the Council of Bishops approve the budget of the Moscow Patriarchate — these data are hidden from the public. This is a general church budget — money that will go to the center of the recovery of large monasteries, the highest ecclesiastical institutions — such as the Theological Academy, the maintenance of the Synod and the Patriarch with the whole apparatus of control of church affairs. To all this, the diocese is isolated from 10% to 30% of their income. It sounds loud, but these millions — just a tenth of what later would be spent on the general church needs.

The budget of the Patriarchate in deficit year after year. Recent public information — the report of Patriarch Alexy II at the Council of Bishops in 2004: "During the period from 2000 to 2003, contributions to the diocesan offices of general church needs accounted for only 6% of total revenues." Mere Moscow churches give five times more. After that, the Holy criticized "certain dioceses" for the fact that they seem to ignore the center.

As told Newsweek in the Patriarchate, and the situation, and the figures for the three years have not changed. "You'd be surprised if we open these numbers [central government], as far as they are small. We are no one would not believe it, "- complained to Newsweek spokesman for the Patriarchate Father Vladimir Vigilyansky.

The main income of the Patriarchate continues to receive from the activity of art-production enterprise "Sofrino", the annual income is close to 100 million rubles., Researcher says Edelstein. Over the past five years, "Sofrino" did what failed state — has doubled production. Now this is a factory complex behind a high fence, with private security, private parking and a temple. It makes everything from candles and vestments of the priest to the gilded domes. Sales Department "Sofrino" — several large pavilions that resemble furniture storage. Only here, instead of sofas and kitchens on display altars, crucifixes, etc.

The plant is actually a religious monopoly on the market of products, it also offers the benefits of: a religious objects do not pay VAT. This product is not only in Russia but also abroad. Crosses are ordered even Copts. However, no customs facilities — which is understandable, given the scandals of the 90's. "If you are traveling more than five icons — this is considered to be export", — says Archpriest Vadim Polikopa, rector of the local church in Sofrinsky plant. He is a native of Kharkov, and is familiar with the problem firsthand, "Here and agree priest, who as you can. If you have a friend at customs — no problems, and if not — will have to pay $ 200 on each side, so that customs officers did not notice that in your bag. "

If it were not for "Sofrino" Patriarchate would probably have gone bankrupt long ago, so the general director of the plant Eugene Parkhaev, let man of the world, but in the Church is very respected. He also realized another profitable project ROC — Hotel "Danilovskaya" proved so profitable that grew up in a Christian pilgrimage center in the Danilov Monastery. These two companies bring the ROC to half-church income.

In the coming years, the Church has found another source of income — it plans to actively engage in the construction. Including this investment programs of the Center of the Russian Orthodox Church. Construction on the church land will conduct a third-party investors, who for "complicity" will share in the ready-made objects. For example, in the Moscow business center "on Spartacus," about the underground "Bauman" 70% is owned by the investor, and 30% — of the nearby Cathedral of the Epiphany (the income from the last activity of the center — more than 60 million rubles. Annually). Among the other "church" in the capital projects — the construction of an office building on Pjatnitskoj street, residential complexes in different areas, as well as shopping centers, hotels, etc., will not only build in the capital — in terms of a network of three-star hotels in Central Russia, " Seating yard "in Tver, a house in Suzdal and Vladimir.

Investtsentr only earned, and it already being criticized detractors. Lawyer Alexander Bugaevskiy representing the Church in matters of property, indignant: "They take a part of the church land and build a house on this site. On the Prospect of Peace in Moscow, built a 10-storey building, the investor receives a 70% share of the city — 17% of the temple — 13%, or one floor with a tail. I ask the elder: mil-man, and that you could not single-storey house with attic itself to build? Answers: Well, actually I could. And why are you so burdened the church land? "In his view, the church land in the course can not let it be" to accumulate and multiply. "

But the abbot of the temple in Moscow think otherwise. To get an immediate income, the priests are forced to accept onerous conditions. For example, the Moscow government may issue an order in which the church building will not be in use, as in the lease, and the church has the right to take it to the sublease. "The bulk of the money actually goes into the coffers of the city" — explains Alexander Bugaevskiy scheme. It turns out that the Moscow government, as it were doing a good thing and it does not remain a loser.

But the real trouble can happen when the Orthodox Church will give the land and other property in the property.

The Holy Land

The land issue could blow up poor but sedate existence of the Church. And, in the very near future: Ministry of Economic Development has this year a draft law on the transfer of property to religious organizations. Now the earth beneath the temples of all denominations in the gratuitous use. If you become the property — ROC-sized landholdings can not compete with "Gazprom" and Railways. And already in full swing debate who should dispose of that property — Patriarchy, dioceses or parishes at all.

"Temple in the village — it is clear, and if it refers to the cathedral or spiritual academy or even any diocesan institution, it is right that goes to the church of the diocese. But if it is a regular parish, I think it's wrong to give him straight diocese ", — says Andrey Sebentsov, a government official for relations with religious organizations.

In the ROC talking about it only in private: if all the land will give the center, the diocese may rebel, until the transition to another jurisdiction — for example, of the Moscow Patriarchate in Constantinople. So that the center would not insist on the right, again relying on the acquiescence of archbishops and bishops.

And, as feared at the Patriarchate, begin again the talk of the wealth of the church and its very close ties with the state — that Academicians have already written a letter about the threat of clericalism. Needless to say — hard to be the main church in a secular country.

"There was a house on Dolgorukovskoj, 23 is not a temple, a mosque, the director of the studio" Soyuzmultfilm "flew from there to 10 years back with a bang", — complains about the old wounds Bugaevskiy Alexander, who for more than ten years fighting for the church in Moscow, where Soviet-era housed multipliers. Home for the last 75 years, much rebuilt, and as soon as the building of the Russian Orthodox Church will have to start all over again: builders, equipment, walls, floors. Well, a new altar and iconostasis of "SOFRINO" — if the sponsor and will have enough money.

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