Of the total abundance of guns used in global wars, both managed to participate in only a small number of types. The most famous of them — rifles, Russian-Soviet Mosin rifle and the German Mauser 98.
The three-way rifle mod. 1891
In the second half of the XIX century in the Russian Empire showed some difficulties in small tool for the army. Its peak was in the 60's, when a frisky pace and without much deliberation on arms took half a dozen different types of guns for different cartridges. Later this move as irrational, and DA Milutin past while defense minister, later described the situation as "unfortunate rifle-drama." In the end, during the long years of work actually always gone and the controversy surrounding the renovation "park" small guns, but we are only interested in the competition in 1892 to create a multiply-charged rifle. Need to see, then rifles (the word-short for "vintovalnoe gun") called at least some rifled cannon, and the fact that at the moment is meant by this word, then was referred to a gun. First on the competition were presented zabugornye standards: 8 mm Mannlicher rifle (Austria) and Krag-Jorgensen (Denmark). Next year, the applications for the role of Sergei Ivanovich Mosin filed and Leon Nagant, the first gun was 7.62 mm, the second — 8 mm. Curiously, shortly before the creation Nagant rifle Mauser lost in the Belgian army. Although not lose another "tender" Revolver even offered to modify Russian military rifle under his not so long ago developed 7.62 x 54 mm cartridge. This cartridge was created NF Rogovtseva Belgian-based 8-mm cartridge, and at the time was considered more promising for the Russian army.
According to the test results in the subsequent round of the competition took place only standards and Mosin Nagant, but in 1890 further considered two 10-ka different guns. In the same year began comparative tests both rifles, and later adopted the Mosin rifle. However, it was not the same standard of experienced 89-year: at the insistence of the competition committee, Sergei Ivanovich raised his own project in a number of new features, among other things, taken from Nagano (again, the same requirement military).
Due to some problems of industrial temper the first few games of the new instruments, received the title of "trilinear standard rifle in 1891," were ordered in France, and the first units are fully produced in Russia were made at the factory Sestroretsky exclusively in '93. Need to see, and later "Mosinki" will be made from time to time is not in our country. Several sources indicate that in 1916 the tsarist government, since congestion of defense plants, was forced to order the United States to a certain amount of "trehlineek." But the best part of the order was carried out after two revolutions of the seventeenth, and a certain amount of Mosin rifles were sent to the South American army and the civilian market. Differences between the American "trehlineek" from Russian consisted of different labeling and material lodges: Americans vystrugivali it from nuts, but here in the main lodge made of birch.
In structural terms "Mosinka" looked after images: a tool with a longish (up to about 104 calibers depending on the version) rifled barrel with 4 rifling. Caliber of the barrel is three lines (0.3 inches) or 7.62 mm. But from time to time there is the fact that because of the low production of crops or wear caliber guns to "walk" in the range of a few hundredths of a mm. Feed system is made of integrally box magazine for four cartridges plus a fifth placed in the chamber. Reloading Manual — on the rifle used the sliding bolt and barrel locking when turning the latter by means of 2-combat constipation. There was also a typical fuse — it was delayed trigger back and turned around its axis. Aiming at the first version of the rifle was made with the help of a sector run, which took two positions. At first it was possible to conduct fire at ranges of up to 1,200 steps (divide by 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200), 2nd — on more distant. Chuck 7.62 x54R, made in 1888, has a protruding lip that is often described as a defect and anachronistic, even for the end of the XIX century. The first version had a cylindrical bullet cartridge with a rounded end. For close combat "trehlineyka" had detachable bayonet. More specifically, the design of the bayonet allowed to take it off, but with all this very varied characteristics of precision: the point of impact at a distance of 100 m shifted by 12-15 cm bayonet rifle — rectangular with dales, was attached to the barrel by means of a tubular base and clamp. The tip of the bayonet had a special sharpener, this one could use it as a screwdriver.
In 1891, the armament were made three versions of the Mosin rifle:
— Infantry. Was of the very long barrel (800 mm), equipped with a bayonet.
— Dragoon. The barrel length of 729 mm, similar to the bayonet mount and a new belt. Now instead of wire antabok he was threading the notch on the bed.
— Cossack. Distinguished only by the lack of dragoon bayonet.
In the years 1908-10, the troops went to a new version of the 7.62 mm cartridge with a pointed bullet. Ballistics slightly changed, so we had to modify the scope of new rifles. After the October Revolution, when the opportunity to "restore order" in the nomenclature of arms, of all the options, "trehlineyki" left only dragoon, as combining in itself a greater ease of use and sufficient characteristics of a fight. In 1930, again, is the modernization of the rifle. Now reworked layout sight under the metric system, changing cleaning rod and bayonet mount, also introduced a number of other small amendments, for example, changed the design lozhevyh rings that hold the trunk. This is the "standard rifle Mosin 1891-1930 years" and was the basis of arms of the Red Army in the pre-war period and the first half of the war. In the 38th issued the first rifles with a barrel length of 510 mm. At first, he does not have a bayonet, but in 1944 carbine gets it. At the same bayonet 44th year and is made integral with the folding to the right.
Also, already in the process of stateliness Russian, was released a certain number of options sniper rifle Mosin. They were distinguished by the presence of an optical sight and shape of the handle speed: it was bent and in the charge does not hit the target. Curiously, some snipers ri
fle used in conjunction with a bayonet — it was a typical weighting and provided great accuracy.
In 1871, the brothers presented Mauser military rifle Gewehr public newest 1871 (also occasionally called Gew.71 or just "71"). Immediately Prussian War Department had ordered more than 100 thousand units of this tool. In the next couple of years, other countries ordered Mauser rifles under their demands and one by one the following types emerged: Gew.88, Gew.89, Gew.92 and Gew.94. After the creation of the latest rifles and William Peter-Paul Mauser attended to the problem of the connection of all the innovations applied to different versions of "71" and the current trends of arms production. In addition, relatively recently (in 1888) made a new Mauser cartridge 7,92 x57 mm with pocket without protruding flange. Structurally, the new girl rifle, betrothed Gewehr 1898 was quite identical with their "peers" such as the same rifle Mosin. At the same time, Gew.98 fuse was newly designed as a pivot arm on the rear side of the shutter and more than compact store. 7,92 x57 mm cartridge was not serving chimes, therefore had little smallest dimensions and can settle down closer to the store, including, in two rows. Because of this box magazine Gew.98 for 5 rounds practically acts beyond the lodge. Covered options for capacity growth to 7 or 10 rounds, but the customer in the face of German military decided that rather and 5. In addition, it was noted that the fitted jacket on the 10 rounds have huge size and the least comfortable to carry. What's all the same to the actual rate of a small shop, it, against zabugornyh samples deemed sufficient.
As already mentioned, in terms of design Gew.98 not much different from the Mosin rifle. The same of the sliding gate, almost that of a very long rifled barrel (740 mm), fastened to the bed on the rings. At the same time, the guide to the German rifle forbidden to charge the cartridge into the chamber at once — do not allow construction of the extractor, he could just break. Fuse located on the gate, with two positions — all the way to the left (drummer blocked) and all the way to the right (you can shoot). Sights "Mauser" is a closed ring removable front sight and adjustable open sights. The design allowed the latter to conduct fire at ranges of 100 to 2000 meters. The trunk is likely setting bayonet. Different members of the family, "98" was created seven options bayonets different shapes and lengths. In the first version installed Gew.98 sword bayonet.
In 1908, he was released with little modification Kar.98a modified the gun under the latest version of the cartridge with a pointed bullet (bullet previously applied with a rounded end). Curiously, the presence of the title word "rifle" does not influence either the length of the barrel, not on the overall dimensions of the gun. The only difference between the "Carbine" from Gewehr.98 not counting the sight was to mount the carrying strap. It was on the rifle sling wire, carabiner — the slot in the box. The fact is that while the German arms towards carbines were called rifle with refinement for use in the cavalry. To "the worldwide" the meaning of the Germans fled in just a few decades. In the 23 th was released Kar.98b — he got the handle folded down the shutter and light scope. In 1935 he launched a series of best-known modification of the "98» — Kar.98k. This rifle was eventually shortened (barrel length — 600 mm), also introduced the slide stop: Flow detail shop in your own high position did not allow the bolt to move forward and to report to the arrow, it's time to get the latest clip. Another innovation for the annular grooves concerned — after charging the store and when applying the gate ahead she flew machine. Have not been forgotten and sniper modification. In 1939, the troops went Zf.Kar.98k rifle with telescopic sight Zf.39. But he did not accept the shooters — dimensions of sight is not allowed to charge the gun with the help of clips, in addition, he often got lost and did not give the appropriate accuracy. On the 41th sniper rifles were equipped with sights Zf.41, which was mounted on a special board, which does not give him a move, and had the smallest size.
Kar.98k eventually became the most massive modification of the "98" — was released about 15 million rifles. Specifically, this tool Wehrmacht began the Second World War. Yet, at the German depots still had plenty more versions of old times Gew.98, which are used in the main voluntary formations.
Very hard to look at the gun and the enemies do not try to associate it. Also, as you know, everything is known in the comparison. Let's try to "know" Mosin rifle and Gewerh 98.
The difference in seven years, almost did not have a huge impact on the design of a "young" guns. At the same time, the German rifle was made under a more promising cartridge without protruding flange. At the same fighting properties he had a little more comfortable shape that affected the device stores both rifles. In addition, the store made Gew.98-lane and the gate, in contrast to the Mosin rifle, has no fragile components designed to work with the rim. Another benefit of the family of "98" is associated with a bayonet. According to documents on the use of "Mosinkoy," it had to be targeted with a fixed bayonet. Respectively, and further exploit the rifle was required without removing the last. Bayonet, naturally comfortable in close combat, but makes the rifle is longer and harder. However, some snipers, as already mentioned, it did not take off.
Advantages of Russian-Soviet rifles are more "thermal safety": the trunk is closed wood lining almost the entire length and industrial aspects. Mosin first laid in the construction of the huge rifle comparable tolerances that, while maintaining sufficient traits had a positive effect on the price and convenience of manufacture. Also, "Mosinka" better Gew.98 more conventional and comfortable design of the gate, because for repair in the field criteria needed only parts without additional tools. As required fighter could use the bayonet as a screwdriver.
Summarizing, we can safely say that at relatively similar characteristics, both rifles — Russian and German — in tactical qualities of the prototype were dependent on the owner. In addition, in response to a question from the subtitle could serve as the overall result of the war: the men with rifles Mauser, despite fierce opposition, still lost both world wars.