Hot-air ballooning in Russian of, in this case exclusively for peaceful purposes, the beginning of a revival already in 1920. Initially, the USSR waged work and experiments on the restoration of old times Russian airships, and then went in and designing their own models. In the late 20's and early 30-ies of the last century, airships have played a role in the development of Siberia, but were just coming out of the sky driven aircraft. XX century — was the century of aviation.
First attempt revival managed aeronautics in the country of the Soviets was made in 1920. Get in the analysis of the legacy of the Russian Empire, equipment and parts of old times airships showed that at best at the time the condition of the hull of the airship "Astra", because it was decided to work on his recovery. Following the production of individual parts of the mechanical part of the suspension and the latest in autumn 1920 in the village of Salizi (near Petrograd) aeronautic squad began to work on the assembly airship which renamed "Red Star". This work is finished in the middle of November, 23 November airship envelope filled with gas, and January 3, 1921 he performed the first private flight. Total this airship performed 6 flights, the total duration of which was about 16 hours.
The second Russian airship was «VI October", which was built in 1923 by students of higher forces aeronautical school located in St. Petersburg. The airship was designed as a sea of British intelligence and was made from scrap materials. And it was his shell of 1,700 cubic meters. meters was sewn from the shells of old times tethered balloons. The total length of the airship was 39.2 m, width — 8,2 m, capacity power plant of 77 kW. Own the first flight of the airship completed November 27, 1923, it lasted for about 30 minutes. November 29 airship took to the skies the second time, now flight lasted 1 hour and 20 minutes during the flight, he headed for a height of 900 meters. After that flying airship «VI October" were stopped because of the very highest gas permeability of membranes.
In 1923, the Society for the Friends of the Air Fleet of the USSR was created special Vozduhtsentr in tasks which included the promotion of Russian airship in Russia. After a while Vozduhtsentr was renamed vozduhsektsiyu Osoaviahima USSR. In the autumn of 1924 year then completed the construction of another Myagenko airship under the title "Moscow chemist rezinschik" (MHR). His title pointed to the fact that it was made by means of chemical industry workers in and around Moscow. The creator of this project was the airship N. Fomin.
MHR airship envelope had a volume of 2,458 cubic meters. meters, its length is 45.4 m, width — 10.3 m Motor power was 77 kW and a maximum flight speed equal to 62 km / h This airship could pick up in the sky up to 900 kg. payload. Own the first flight of the airship made June 16, 1925, under the control of VL Nizhevskogo, the airship held in the air for 2 hours 5 minutes. This airship is operated to illumine, 1928, for all that it upgraded a couple of times and rebuilt. Total "Moscow chemist rezinschik" has made 21 flights and the incident in the overall difficulty of 43 hours and 29 minutes.
Go with the decommissioning of the airship MHR in the country actually got all the training and flight operation. For this reason, at the call of the print edition of "Komsomolskaya Pravda" has begun raising money to build a new airship. Work on its production were conducted by the students of the High School aeromechanical, controls the operation of N. Fomin. In order to speed up the construction of a new airship was decided to use the highest project MHR, as amended in a number of configurations. The new airship was named the "Komsomolskaya Pravda".
July 25, 1930-built airship was filled with gas and 29 August to meet its own first flight. The commander of the ship became EM Oppman. Already 31 August 1930 "Komsomolskaya Pravda" for the first time flew over Moscow. A total of 1930 airship managed to make 30 flights, and next year another 25. These educational campaign missions have had a very great importance for the accumulation of operating experience and training of cadres airships aeronautics.
At the end of 1931 at CAB CAF was created by special arrangement under the title "Dirizhablestroy." This organization was to unite the efforts of various groups of professionals working in the field, as do the planned deployment of the work in designing and building the next Russian airships. Also, the organization should take the time to research on the topic of aeronautic and improve methods of exploitation airships.
By May 1932, the organization has released a brand new 3 Myagenko airship — the USSR B-1, B-2 USSR "Smolny" and the Soviet B-3 "Red Star", which in the main have been set up to implement educational and propaganda operations, as clusters of experience with Airships in the economy. Small volume airship B-1 was equal 2200 cubic meters. meters, airships B-2 and B-3 5000 and 6500 cc. meters respectively. Also, airships were different engines, having all this monotype design. The shell of all 3 airships were made of three-layer rubberized material and has an inner wall that divided the volume of the 2nd equal parts. This partition allowed to reduce transfusion of gas along the shell with trim of the aircraft.
On these 3 airships had performed a series of successful flights on the routes of Leningrad — Moscow — Leningrad, Moscow — slightly bitter — Moscow, Moscow — Kharkov, etc. All three airship, also joined them in the USSR-4 held on November 7 in the wake of the column reddish area. According to its flight
characteristics of Russian airships B-2 and B-3 is practically not inferior zabugornom analogs of this class. All this says that despite little experience and the lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals in the USSR in 1933 was able to fully capture technology design, manufacturing and operation Myagenko airships.
On the airship USSR-2 "Smolny" is connected with one fascinating case. September 6, 1935 dirigible, who was at the airport Stalino (Donbass), was frustrated with his own bivouac parking flown flurry. With all of this snap all 60 anchors that he was held, were pulled out of the ground. Have seized on one of the cables commander of dirigible NS Gudovantsev managed at an altitude of 120 meters to get to the gondola, in which at that time there were 4 crew members and 11 tourists pioneers. At an altitude of 800 meters were running engines. After that, having waited the adverse weather conditions in the air, the airship landed safely after 5 hours and 45 minutes. For this heroic act Gudovantsev was awarded the Order of the Red Star.
With the passage of time before the "Dirizhablestroem" was staged brand new goal — developing the production of semi-rigid airships type, which in comparison with Myagenko devices in a much more responsive to the requirements of particular use in various sectors of the economy. In order to speed up the execution of the tasks in 1932 in the Soviet Union was invited by the Italian Umberto Nobile, who was to head the technical management of the project.
By the end of February 1933 was prepared first in the USSR in the semi-rigid airship-5. April 27, 1933 he first took to the air. This airship was comparable small size, its volume was only 2,340 cubic meters. meters. It was explained that the USSR B-5 was conceived as a semi-rigid airship, established to give practical dating Russian designers with Italian semi-rigid system, and identifying those problems that might face in the USSR in the production of airships larger volume. In addition to the C-5 was planned to conduct training of ground staff and pilots.
In May 1933, after passing a series of municipal acceptance tests, which have been found to be successful, B-5, was admitted to the civilian air fleet. In 1933, he made over hundreds of flights that have substantiated that the airship has a set of features not bad stamina and manage the entire spectrum encountered weather conditions. The experience gained during its construction, and operation was the basis for the construction of the largest airship in the USSR-6 "Osoaviakhim."
For the base design USSR B-6 was to take Italian airship of the N-4, with the introduction of a number of its design improvements. The volume of the airship was equal 18,500 cubic meters. meters, length — 104.5 m, width — 18.8 m airship assembly lasted for 3 months. As a comparison it may be noted that in Italy, the construction of airships of similar size to a more comfortable dirizhablestroitelnyh bases takes 5-6 months.
Own first flight "Osoaviakhim" made Nov. 5, 1934, he ran the machine Nobile, and the flight was 1 hour 45 minutes. The following flights have proved its highest flight and technical characteristics. Seating capacity is 20 people airship, the required load — 8500 kg., Maximum speed — 113 km / h, maximum range with a full load — 2,000 km. All this made it possible to consider a V-6 as the first Russian airship, which could produce certain national economic tasks. With the use of this airship in the Soviet Union planned to open the first large passenger air strip length.
Convincing proof of the suitability of B-6 for the realization of remote passenger traffic was set a world record flight duration — 130 hours and 27 minutes. But these plans were not realized it was fate. In February 1938, the airship suffered a tragedy during a training flight in Petrozavodsk, of the 19 members of his crew killed 13.
Go with a V-6 in the Soviet Union was built airship Soviet B-7, named "Chelyuskinets", its volume was 9,500 cubic meters. meters. Own first flight was performed in 1934. In 1935 was built the same airship, designated B-7 bis, in the future, the USSR V-8 in the amount of 10,000 cubic meters. meters. In addition to the "Dirizhablestroe" worked on the project with an impressive semi-rigid airship parameters — volume — 55,000 cubic meters. meters, length — 152 m, diameter — 29 meters, cruising speed — 100 km / h, the radius of the act — to 7,000 km. In addition to the plans was the release of 2 high-altitude semi-rigid airships amounts to 29 000 and 100 000 cubic meters. meters respectively. But after the V-8 in the USSR no semi-rigid airship was not built.
Later in the Soviet Union built 4 more myagenkoy airship design B-10, B-12, B-12 bis of the "Patriot", as the airship "Victory". Airship "Victory" was created in 1944 for 6 months, its volume was 5,000 cubic meters. meters. The airship was designed to transport gas for barrage balloons. After the war it was used quite successfully to search for sunken ships and nevytralennyh min.