Like an airplane — with the emergence of bombers boundary between the front and rear somewhat worn off, submarines eliminated this difference to the sea.
…Unbearable longing and nightmare bowed captain uzrevshih suddenly, out of the water, and there is growing dark big-eyed circular cutting, similar to the body without the tentacles of an octopus.
However, in those days — first century — the submarine belonged to his victims with a certain chivalry: to torpedo salvo signal was given: "Boats over. Passengers and crew to abandon ship. " Captain with the vessel's documents were taken to the submarine.
As the same bitterness of war at sea divers were sinking ships without surfacing — from the periscope. Then hundreds of anxious eyes looked out from the height of the Mars pads and baskets of balloons: Do not emerges from the waves where the long-necked head with no small giant eye. For her, as if the cobra hood, snow-white surf swell. It was better to come across in the desert cobra than in the open sea with a periscope.
Leaf through the diary Haskhagena, the commander of one of the first German U-boats of the century.
"… At first sight it seems something of a submarine and aggressive mind-blowing … The device is clear of aircraft. He had wings like a bird. But the submarine? It floats at the surface exactly the same as another ship. And yet, it is less than a minute disappears without any trace of the water … Yet no one has come up a sunken ship is not without the help of others. The submarine goes into the abyss as well as the sinking ship. But she vorachivaetsya with "the other world", having been on the wrong side of the visible world we know, as do the ghosts and werewolves. It pops itself, and there is something magical … "
"The undercurrent ship" Yefim Nikonov. Tested in the presence of Peter I. 1724
No one knows where or when it became the first submarine boat. If you believe Aristotle (and not trust him no circumstances), even Alexander the Great descended into the water in a glass (presumably) a barrel with full military purpose — to explore for oil booms at the entrance to the port of Tyre.
Can be considered the first of the 40 divers Cossacks that crept to the Turkish vessel in the underwater canoe, trimmed with cowhide, and took it on board the ship.
We can assume that deep-diving began with a dive underwater galleys Dutchman Cornelius van Drebbel in 1620, and the first commander of the submarine — British King James I, son of Mary Stuart.
It can be assumed that the warships went from the depths of "secret vessel" Yefim Nikonov, whose project approved Peter first. It is not just approved, and he has experienced in one of the park lakes Sestroretsk. Now in place of those tests, the busts of King submariner, a chapel and a memorial stone.
Certainly one thing: the submarine was born as a tool of revenge — Latent and cruel. Every time the shores of the country, which possessed a weak fleet squadron approached strangers, the Patriots enthusiasts assured own Admirals defeat the enemy out of the water: projects underwater Tara, minors, and even submarines were put forward, one by one.
Underwater vessel "Turtle" South American designer David Byushnelya (Bushnell). 1776
That was in 1776, when North Americans were unequal war with the "mistress of the seas" — Britain for their independence. Construction of single Underwater boat "Turtle" financed himself, George Washington. How many hopes were connected with this awkward egg-shaped unit of coopers boards and sheet copper …
So it was a quarter of a century later, when only just come to power, Napoleon Bonaparte was not averse to attack the powerful English fleet under the water. The future governor dismissed the desired amount of South American inventor Robert Fulton, and Paris rattled riveting hammers. But … the only thing that brilliantly managed then to Fulton, it's come up with the name — almost generic, passing from century to century, from generation to generation submarines — "Nautilus".
So it was the other day, the Crimean War, when the winner of the best in St. Petersburg photo Ivan Alexander, being in the UK for his own studio, he saw the roads severe fleet, was preparing for an attack on Russia. "Inspired by a patriotic desire to assist Russian navy — shows a historian — Alexander began building a submarine." In 1866, it was built and launched. The first time the course underwater vessel gave no muscle strength Crew (like Schilder), and mechanical engine runs on compressed air. How annoying would that sounds, it lacked the supplies of only three miles (about 6 km), and of speed left much to be desired — just one and a half knots. And yet it was already clear prototype submarine with a single engine. Ivan Alexander's ahead of his time on the good half a century.
Submarine "Nautil-2" by French designer Robert Fulton. 1801 year
In all these attempts to arm in the battle of David and Goliath miraculous instrument, invent some sea magic sword operated faster natural human fear of the unfathomable depths of the residents, if the actual fighting properties underwater fighter. But sometimes horror rescued position.
In 1857, the Danes, blocked the sea with the German city of Kiel, hastily taken away ships, a little out of the harbor on its own 37-ton cetaceans "monkfish" Corporal Bower.
In 1904, the Japanese fleet, indoctrinated about finding Vladivostok Russian submarines, did not risk all the same approach to the town.
To storm the British frigate "Eagle", a U.S. submarine "Turtle" had to get close very tightly to the side of the enemy ship, then Sergeant Lee — one for all the people — has become a gimlet hole in the bottom for the suspension of mines. First in the world of underwater attack brought the ridiculous results — the blast blew off powdered wigs with heads of British officers. But luck, as you know, is variable, and after a couple of years, in 1943, the British themselves have had to resort to this antiquated strategy when attacking the Nazi battleship "Tirpitz" dwarf-type submarines «X». The driver midget submarines "X 6" Lieutenant Cameron, "approached the battleship so that he began to rub on his
armor and threw the explosive charges …". And the "Tirpitz" out of action until the end of hostilities.
…But let us return briefly to Napoleon. Disappointed with the submarine Fulton, which was spreading over the surface and under sail, with a mocking grin he put the highest resolution: "Further experiments with Underwater Boat South American citizen Fulton finish. Means do not let go. " Could the government then imagine that for his escape from the island of St. Lena undertake countryman inventor — some smuggler Johnson with … submarine, and only the death of Bonaparte prevent these things daring adventurer.
By the way, and Adolf Hitler, who wanted to emulate nearly all the "great Corsican", his hopes to escape from the burning of the Reich in a submarine whose crew is, in general, and himself ship, in 1943 to a special secrecy was declared dead.
The idea of a submarine as the ordinary. She — yes forgiven pun — on the surface. Undermining — an ancient method to take a besieged fortress. Here's submarine is precisely not that different, as "quiet Sapa", arranged in the interior of the sea, the path which continues to the bottom of the ship self-propelled mine — a torpedo.
"The first subs did not come out of the field experiments and had no practical implementation priemuschestvenno because in those days was not invented the engine, which could cause the boat to move in finding her under the water — rightly argued magazine" Around the World "in 1914 . — Steam engines for this purpose were not good at all. Because there was an idea to put on submarines engines 2-genera: one to bring the boat above the water, and the second — under water. "
Oh, so just for this handy three majestic invention: gasoline engine, electric motor and battery. Oil and electricity have allowed a man with confidence to invade Hydrospace.
Hard to believe, but the first motor earned during the life of Pushkin in 1834 Russian scientist Boris Jacobi has designed and launched into the first electric motor in the world. Its power does not exceed one horsepower. But it was a breakthrough in technology, similar invention sail mill wing and the steam engine. By the way, first drew attention to the curiosity, the rotary tool invisible force sailors. And after only five years on the Neva against the current (!) Went to the boat without sails or oars. Its electric motor turning the propeller, eating from a galvanic battery, composed of 320 parts. And the battery, motor and it was he who gave the submariners — St. Petersburg inventor Jacobi. The first who not only thought of to put the batteries and an electric motor on a submarine, and did it was countryman Jacobi, Stepan Karlovic Drzewiecki. It happened in 1884. It was the first submarine in the world with an electronic engine. The idea was picked up by the British. Through year the Thames was underwater boat-electric boat designed by Campbell and Ash.
And yet Stepan Drzewiecki … The scion of Volyn landlord made history at the same time does not agriculture. 10's years, he gave the cause of the invention, a submarine and a lot has to be said that has succeeded.
Incidentally, the coat of arms of the Russian submarine fleet fair to decorate orchids, and here's why. In 1879, remembers the patriarch of the Russian shipbuilding academician AN Krylov, "Alexander III was briefed on the boat Drzewiecki. He wished her to create. It was ordered to bring the boat to Gatchina and pull in different water clarity Silver Lake and appointed day boat show king. Drzewiecki few days furrowed the lake, studying royal marina and how to stick to it more agile. Knowing that Alexander III inseparable from the queen Maria Feodorovna, Drzewiecki ordered a bouquet of the most beautiful orchids — flowers beloved queen. Then came a day of tests. The governor and the Queen sat in the boat, which went out in the middle of the lake, and Drzewiecki, using the transparency of the water, maneuvering around the other boats, occasionally passing under it. In the end, the boat was at the dock, the governor and the queen came … Drzewiecki easily got up, opened the neck, went out to the pier, knelt and gave the queen a beautiful bouquet of orchids, saying: "This is a tribute to Neptune, Your Majesty." The Queen came to the ecstasy, the governor was very pleased, thank Drzewiecki and ordered to duty Adjutant-General to tell about these experiments, the War Minister, PS Vanovskomu, that he can be bothered to hasty construction of 50 boats … "Perhaps it was the first victory of the Russian submarine fleet.
A strange thing, sailors built the first plane (captain I rank A. Mozhayskiy) and the first car (in Russia — Navy officer E. Yakovlev). But to invent the submarine were taken … farmers and monks, smugglers and political prisoners, the artillery and the paparazzi, the harsh engineers and uneducated adventurers. And only at the beginning of XX century, the case took a wizard: naval engineer and sailor-miner — Ivan G. Bubnov and Misha Nikolaevich Beklemishev. The first — just 28, he had just finished brilliantly Naval Academy, the second — a little over 40, he has seen a lot, commanding gunboats coastal defense. Then came together talent and experience, and the calculation of roughness. The work was conducted in the strictest secrecy. Forbidden even to use in documents and correspondence of the word "submarine". Underwater ship called at first "113 torpedo boats." Then the number was changed to the name "Dolphin". Prior to undertake work Beklemishev, a little-known teacher of mine Kronstadt classes, visited the United States, Britain, Germany and Italy, where the crazed pace, with an eye on the neighbors (not head to!) Built submarines. Beklemishev managed to be in the 1 st of boat dives famous South American inventor Simon Holland. Though what the designer before the sit down to work, exploring all that was made by his predecessors. Specifically, have done so, and Bubnov with Beklemishev: they have integrated information obtained Beklemishev, and developed their own, unique, design, the main principles of which are respected Russian shipbuilders fifteen years. If we compare the two commensurate boat — Russian "Dolphin" and South American "Fulton" (the company Holland), the comparison is obviously not in favor of the overseas designers.
"Dolphin" sank 20 meters deep, "Fulton" (50 and 30 meters), walking on the water faster assembly and a half, 2 times stronger than was armed (two torpedo tubes instead of the 1st). The only thing he conceded, "Fulton" — so it is in range of above-water swimming: 243 miles vs 500. Immediately after the "Dolphin" Bubnov Beklemishev drafted with the newest boat with a huge displacement — 140 tons. Head ship was given the name "Killer Whale". After it went "Scat", "burbot", "mackerel" … Russian submarine fleet came not from the backwater — swirl Russian-Japanese war drew a newborn ships directly from the stocks. Shivering, unsafe faster for their own crews than to the enemy, these boats diving bravely went into the sea and took up positions there.
"… In the early afternoon — wrote in his diary submarine commander" Killer Whale "Lt. Mike Teder — I saw on the horizon, some haze, why immediately began to raise the anchor. Soon clearly taken shape silhouettes 6 destroyers, which kept me on the right course. Assuming that this enemy destroyers, I wanted was to start a dive to take the attack submerged, but … remembered the injunction authorities — not to dive. Here's the thing. My superiors, sending me into the sea, and of course, knowing perfectly well what a scuba diving experience I had, having the most miserable of his course, and fearing to take responsibility in the event o
f the death of my crew and the boat disaster, has decided to get out of a difficult situation and gave me just in case the prescription, of course, verbal, during this "fighting campaign" — not to dive …
It was impossible not to bow to each of the commands of our unit. That have driven him here, on submarines, in the crucible of this threat, where any minute could cost him his life, where each lay a mass of liabilities and the heavy work, while when bolshennom battleship he could almost get rid of them. The officer could still count on us every kind of "well-being", because nothing similar could no longer expect sailor, meanwhile, how many selfless service was evident in his every step on the boat, how many ideological perform its own debt, foreign to some selfish purposes. "
In fact the case, then were polueksperimentalnye standards that have not been really any industrial or field tests with nedoobuchennymi teams with bezopytnymi officers. But even in such a family of iron dolphin inspired the Japanese fleet severe fear. Ships Mikado did not dare to come close to Vladivostok with its desperate submarines.
By 1900, in any navy the world has not had a combat submarines. But in the next three years, all the major maritime powers began to build these ships almost crazed pace. The first part of its fleet submarines entered Americans. This submarine was built by an engineer from the Netherlands Peterstona. The first version of his underwater vehicle was almost identical in all the submarine Drzewiecki. Only the ninth project stubborn South American designer was adopted by the military department and the first underwater "Holland" were enrolled in the Navy as warships. It happened in 1900. Therefore, specifically the Americans first celebrated 100 years of its own submarine fleet. Although we have been able to celebrate the anniversary of a similar 20 years earlier. After all, particularly in the 80-ies of the XIX century in Russia was built the most massive series of submarines Drzewiecki — 50 units. The whole fleet! But the fact is that they are not enrolled in the combat fleet, and have subjected the Engineering department as a floating torpedo batteries for protection of coastal forts from the sea.
So, people went into the submarine and went on to attack her for a long time before the birth of the book "Nautilus" Captain Nemo, well, most of Jules Verne. Since that time, over 100 years old, with a small initial "Turtles" stretched, gaining quick outline of pike bodies.
It took another fifty years, and submarines have grown in size, plump in the forms of: steel Kurguzov-rounded, like a slimmed-down of satiety leeches. In this way — in the form of atomic "nomadic" underwater raketodromov — they are not safe now not only for ocean shipping, and for at least some large cities, the widest of the continent. Their so called — "City killerz" — "killer cities". It was then thought of the submarine with skinny bodies schuchimi — remember diesel-electric submarines. They, of course, nuclear-powered ships are inferior in speed, but under the water and virtually silent electric motors, and the means and more empathetic. And the "killer cities" — iron "dragons", "scorpion", "rays" and "shark" — were cautious in their own native element …