Not once seen that in the Navy of the USSR was a mind-boggling relationship: the smaller the warship, the more of it was useful.
Until now, it is not clear yet what were the languid Soviet Navy aircraft carriers. Large ships with displacement below 50 thousand tons left behind only bitter disappointment: the highest complexity and overhead, lack of coastal infrastructure for their deployment and, in general, made a vague assignment TAVKR ineffective and, simply put, worthless — neither one of them initially assigned to tasks TAVKR could not solve, and those tasks that they were in force, were solved much more a cheap and effective methods.
Russian cruiser and BOD acted much more confident. The ships were carrying on active service in all parts of the oceans, often in combat zones and vigilantly watched the forces of the "potential enemy." Some even managed to "touch" the enemy live: in 1988, a moderate BOD 2 Rank (patrol) "whole-hearted" iron flurry collapsed to the deck missile cruiser USS Yorktown, blew him half board, crew boat and the MK-141 to start the ASM "Harpoon" . Amerikanckim Mariners had to postpone cruises on the Black Sea to the best times.
In these days of "whole-hearted" is based on the old days, and U.S. Navy ships are free to conduct exercises «Sea Breeze» in the waters of the Black Sea. The Montreux Convention prohibits the presence in the Black Sea warships of non-country for more than 21 days, but not a lot of formality confused Yankees — once in three weeks the ships go in the Sea of Marmara, and a few hours later vorachivayutsya back. So Makar, a rescue ship "Gresp" U.S. Navy conducts diving operations in the port of Odessa in May 2012.
If the ships of the main classes of adequately representing the interests of the Soviet Union in the vast ocean, the Russian-built missile boats, to use the Internet jargon, just burned. In the truest sense of burning destroyers, transport ships, boats … In the flow allowed at least some of the enemy. Small boats were delivered intensively Navy third world countries, which further increased the possibility of their combat deployment.
At times it seems to me that the sinking of the destroyer "Eilat" given a lot of value — the missile boats are other notable victories. For example, a daring raid on Karachi missile boat of the Indian Navy (Russian pr 205) in December 1970. It was sunk by several Pakistani warships and three vehicles. In conclusion, was given a lovely fireworks — M-15 rockets blew 12 large storage tanks located on the shore oil storage tanks.
The development of electronics and missile technology make it possible to implement even more severe. The evolution of missile boats in the Soviet Union led to the creation of entirely new class of warships — the micro-rocket ship with a memorable cipher 1234.
Clot combat matter full displacement of 700 tons. Full speed of 35 knots. Cruising range of economic progress can cross the Atlantic Ocean (4000 miles at 12 knots). Crew — 60 people.
MRC pr.1234 completely accidental dubbed "gun to his temple imperialism." Main battery — 6 launchers, anti-ship missiles P-120 "Malachite"! In the title complex directly contains the estimated firing range — 120 km. Starting weight of a terrible weapon — 5.4 tons. Warhead weight — 500 kg, some missiles equipped with special battle part. Cruising speed of the rocket — 0.9 M.
Also, a complex of small arms rocket ship included:
— SAM "Osa-M" for self-defense ship (20 anti-aircraft missiles, an effective firing range — 10 km, while reloading launcher — 20 seconds. PU Weight without ammunition — 7 tons).
— a coupled system of an artillery caliber AK-725 57 mm (in the upcoming replaced by 76 mm single-barreled AK-176)
— upgraded MRC pr.1234.1 further equipped with 30-mm AK-630 machine gun mounted at the rear of the superstructure.
Even noticeable to the naked eye, as the ship is overloaded weapon and combat systems. As for a sober assessment of MRC pr.1234, the sailors ambivalent attitude to these vehicles: on the one hand, the volley is equal in power to several Hiroshima, on the other hand — low survivability, bad seaworthiness and too little chance of getting to the distance the rocket attack. U.S. Navy Command skeptical of the "missile frigates": aviation AUG hour explores the 100 thousand square kilometers space — Russian bolshennymi should be optimistic to expect to approach undetected. The situation has worsened the problem of the standard in a naval battle — target information and guidance. Own electronic warfare IRAs can detect surface targets at ranges of radio horizon (30-40 km). Firing rockets at full range likely in the presence of external agents targeting (for example, the Tu-95RTs). And, though, is a tremendous power of these little boats malehankih forced to reckon with them, even the 6th U.S. Fleet. Since 1975, the small missile ships were frequently are shown within the 5th operational squadron of Black Sea Fleet, and countless vsesuschie, they did a lot of problems of the South American Mariners.
Notwithstanding its intended purpose — fighting ships "potential enemy" in enclosed seas and near-ocean zone — IRAs, etc. 1234 successfully doing tasks for the protection of state borders, provide military training aircraft and navy, and even used as an anti-submarine ships, with all this without specialized tools on board to fight submarines.
Total for the project in 1234 was ranked 47 small missile ships of different modifications: 17 on the underlying project, 19 for improved Ave 1234.1, 10 RTOs in the export version, etc. 1234E and the only ship pr.1234.7 "freewheeling" (on it instead of "malachite" were mounted missiles "Onyx").
Apart from the emergence of new tools and systems jammer, one of the rank-and-outside IRAs pr.1234.1 differences from the baseline scope, was the presence on board incinerator furnaces — now sailors were provided with fresh bread.
Body dimensions of export ships pr.1234E remained the same. Power plant consisted of three diesel engines with a capacity of 8600 liters. with ensuring the full speed of 34 knots. (On a basic project were the engines capacity of 10 thousand hp) Crew decreased to 49 people. On the export versions of IRAs to improve household criterion crew were first installed Kondyukov and extra fridge.
Changed shock weapons: instead of ASM "Malachite" ships were P-15 missile in 2-twin launchers located at the board. In addition, to increase the combat strength added two PU PC-16 for passive jamming. Instead of RFCs "Titans" is an ancient established radar "mast", while at the same time, the impressive dome of the radar "of the Titans" was reserved for solidity.
All small missile ships assigned "weather" names, for classic heroic patrol ships majestically Russian War — "Breeze", "Monsoon", "fog", etc. During this connection IRAs were called "division bad weather."
The results of an in-dash: Smith> milk, Petrov> milk, Sidorov> Petrov
Many of their own end-of-life missiles P-15 finished his career as a target for air combat training anti-aircraft gunners. With the transformation of the target missile in the RM-15M on it disconnected seeker and the warhead was replaced by ballast. April 14, 1987 The Pacific Fleet conducted live fire training for practicing reflection rocket attack. Everything happened seriously: MRK "Monsoon", IRAs "Whirlwind" and the number 117 of the IPC formed a warrant on which were fire missile boats from a distance of 21 km.
Until now, it is not clear how this could happen. Self-defense is not able to repel the attack, and rocket-target with an inert warhead hit the add-MRC "Monsoon". In some witnesses had the memory of the disaster that homing missile target has not been disabled. This was read as a line of motion of a missile and its "behavior" in the final uchatke. Hence the conclusion: Based on admitted criminal negligence, forgetting to disable missile seeker. The official version says something like that case, flying a ballistic line of traffic, without aiming a rocket hit IRAs "Monsoon". The invisible hand of Providence, the ship was destined to die this day.
The components of rocket fuel caused a big explosion and intense fire in the ship's interior spaces. In the first second commander were killed and most of the officers, as first deputy commander of the Maritime fleet, Admiral R. Temirkhanov. According to the views of many professionals, the premise is so angry fire and toxic smoke was the material from which made the construction not only "Monsoon", and virtually all modern warships. This aluminum-magnesium alloy — AMG. Material killer Hassle promoted the spread of fire. The ship is de-energized and the internal ship lost radio contact. Tormoznul fire pump. Jammed almost all hatches and doors. Were destroyed by fire system and irrigation system fore and aft ammunition cellars. In order to avoid an early blast Mariners managed to lift the lid cellar with anti-aircraft missiles to lower internal pressure.
After checking the temperature of the bulkhead near 33rd bulkhead, behind which was a cellar with anti-aircraft missiles, and making sure that bulkhead red-hot, sailors realized that the ship has nothing to promote.
At night IRAs "Monsoon" sank 33 miles south of Fr. Askold, taking a depth of 3 kilometers charred bodies of 39 people.
After his death in 1982 URO destroyer "Sheffield" from unexploded rockets "Exocet" Western military experts have come to the conclusion that the spread of fire Hassle helped a huge number of different fuels, namely, duralumin alloys. Since 1985, the superstructure of American ships are insulated from silicate felt in combination with glass fiber. British engineers have developed insulation under the title "kontfleym" to protect structures from fire. Yet, AMG alloys heretofore widely used in the construction of ships.
And it could be called a fluke, but the 1st time apparently was not much. April 19, 1990 in the Baltic Sea were conducted live fire training for practicing reflection rocket attack. In such circumstances, the missile hit the target RTO "Meteorite", knocking several antennas on the ship's superstructure. Proparhay it a little lower — and the disaster could happen again.
"Missile Corvettes' in battle
During the incident in the Gulf of Sidra (1986), the South American cruiser USS Yorktown (Black Sea that "hero") found a small-sized target 20 miles from Benghazi. It was Libya IRAs "Ein Zach" sneaked up to the Yankees in radio silence, simulating a fishing boat. Even a short-term (only two turns antenna) including radar unmask small missile ship and blew off the attack. 2-launch missiles, "Harpoon" MRC was set on fire and sank in 15 minutes. Until now, no clear description of the battle: some sources attribute the death IRAs successful actions based aircraft. Americans also call another aircraft destroyed small missile ship "Vohod." Significantly it is clear that in this battle, suffered regular IRAs "Ein Mara" — he had to undergo emergency refurbishment with the elimination of battle damage on the seaside factory in Leningrad, in 1991, he again returned to the composition of the Libyan Navy under the name "Tariq ibn Ziyad" .
If pochetaemye readers on the basis of these data, concluded helplessness and worthlessness IRAs pr.1234, I suggest to check out the subsequent history.
Sea battle off the coast of Abkhazia, 10 August 2008 was the first combat severe collision of the Russian Navy in the twenty-first century. Here is a short chronology of the events:
On the night of 7 to 8 August 2008 from the bay out to sea detachment of the Black Sea Fleet and headed for Sukhumi. The detachment is a large landing ship "Caesar Kunikov" with a reinforced company of Marines on board, and its outposts — MRK "Mirage" and a small anti-submarine ship "Murom". Already in the march were joined by a large landing ship "Saratov" who went from Novorossiysk.
Aug. 10 from the port of Poti to meet them out of the Georgian 5-speed boats. Their task — to storm and sink our ships. Attack strategy known: high-speed small boats filled with massive anti-ship missiles, at one point strike at bolshennomu amphibious assault ship and go. If successful outcome scenario — "shock and awe". Hundreds of dead Marines, scorched ship and triumphant Saakashvili: 'We warned the intervention, "" Do not Russian fleet, no matter what they can not. " But everything turned out the opposite. "Vesti" managed to gather detailed information from the participants in this battle:
18 hours 39 minutes. Russian radar intelligence was found a few high-speed maritime goals coming battle heading build our ships.
18.40. Enemy boats approached at critical distance. Then, with the flagship &quo
t;Caesar Kunikov" was given a volley of MLRS A-215 "Grad". This does not stop the Georgians, they add speed and try to achieve so called "dead zone" where the missile weapon worthless. Small missile ship "Mirage" is ordered to kill the enemy. Distance to target — 35 km. Prepare for shock calculations — it was made almost a couple of minutes. Sea battle is always fleeting.
18.41. Commander of the "Mirage" instructs "Volley». First rocket went to the goal. After a few seconds — 2nd. The flight time to the Georgian boat "Tbilisi" — only 1 minute 20 seconds. The distance between opponents — about 25 km.
The first missile hit the engine room cutter "Tbilisi". A second — progress report — getting second in the wheelhouse. On the radar of our ship in 30 seconds was a powerful flare, which means complete destruction goals, followed by a huge release of thermal energy.
18.50. Commander of the "Mirage" instructs the replacement position. The ship leaves at high speed towards the coast sovershet turn and again falls on the combat course. Radar indicates only 4 goals. One of them — Georgian boat, speeding, again goes to the convergence of our ship. "Mirage" opens fire from SAM "Wasp".
At this time the distance was reduced to 15 km. Rocket hits in the side of Georgian boat, which immediately began to smoke, slowed down and tried to get away from the strip of fire. Other Georgian ships out of the fight, turning sharply to the downside. "Mirage" is not intended downed opponent to finish off the order no.
From the report of the commander of IRAs "Mirage" flagship "of 5 targets one destroyed, one damaged, three out of the fight. Consumption of missiles: anti — two, flak — one in the middle of the personnel losses not. No damage to the ship. "
As of 2012 in the Russian Navy are 10 pr.1234.1 IRAs and IRAs pr.1234.7 1. Taking into account the difficult state of the Russian Navy, these ships are a good moderate support — their operation does not require huge costs, while at the same time, they might have kept their fighting properties, which again confirmed the sea battle off the coast of Abkhazia.
The main thing — do not set small missile ships impossible task to counter aircraft carrier battle groups to apply other means.
The creation of highly efficient maritime traditions of guns are not forgotten — in Russia planned to build a series of 10 small missile ships, etc. 21631 "Desperado." Total displacement of a new type of IRAs will increase to 950 tons. Water jet provides speeds of 25 knots. The shock of the new ship weapons will increase at the expense of a universal shipborne firing system (UKSK) — 8 cell launchers for launching missiles family "Movement". MRC head pr.21631 "Grad Svijazhsk" was already launched in 2013, it will join the combat strength of the Caspian Flotilla.