Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex Thor

Work on the creation of anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor" (9K330) were initiated in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 04.02.1975 in co-operation that has developed in the development of anti-aircraft missile system "Osa". The works were completed in 1983. As with the development of a mix "Wasp" and "Osa-M", along with the development of the complex for the Army launched work on shipboard "dagger", partly unified with it.

In fifteen years that have passed from the start of the development of SAM "Wasp", changed not only the tasks facing the troop anti-aircraft missile systems, and the ability of their solutions.

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor"

Apart from the solutions of the classical puzzles against manned aircraft, army air defense systems had to ensure destruction of aircraft weapons — planning bombs like "Walleye" missiles "air-land", cruise missiles and ALCM ASALM, RPV (remotely piloted aircraft) type of BGM-34. To effectively address these challenges required automation of the whole process of combat operations, the use of more advanced radar.

The changing views on the nature of possible military operations have become a prerequisite in order that the requirements for the ability to overcome the army-SAM aqua swimming bottlenecking were dropped, but the need was identified to provide data for all components of the anti-aircraft missile systems similar rate and extent of terrain with infantry fighting vehicles and tanks cover your parts. Given these requirements and the need to increase ammunition anti-aircraft missiles, a transition divisional complex with a wheeled chassis for heavy crawler.

The scheme of vertical launch missiles in the development of the spent S-300 similar to those permitted to embody. solution in air defense systems, "Thor", a vertically placed eight missiles along the axis of the tower BM, protecting them from damage by shrapnel bombs and shells, as adverse weather effects.

Leading developer of anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor" led NIEMI MCI (formerly NII-20 SERC). Efremov VP was appointed principal designer of the complex as a whole, Drize IM — 9A330 combat vehicle of the complex. The development of anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M330 for "Thor" was engaged in the ICD "Torch" MAP (formerly OKB-2 GKAT). Ran this work PD Grushin By developing missiles and combat aircraft, means those. software and services, and other organizations involved industry.

The composition of the combat vehicle 9A330 included:
— station to detect targets (NOC) from the base of the antenna stabilization systems and the identification of state property;
— guidance station (CH), with the channel coordinator capture anti-aircraft guided missiles, 2 rocket channels and one channel motivated;
— special computer;
— Trigger, which provides a consistent vertical launch 8 missiles stationed on battle machine and equipment of various systems (home automation, survey and navigation, documenting the process of combat operations, multi-function control war machine, life support, autonomous power in what used gas turbine generator).

All those indicated. facilities were located on a self-propelled crawler having a higher permeability. The chassis has been created by the Minsk Tractor Plant GM-355, and it was unified with the chassis anti-aircraft gun-missile complex "Tunguska". Weight combat vehicles, including eight missiles and a crew of 4, was 32 tons.

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor"
Fighting machine 9A331-1 at the rehearsal of the Victory Parade in Moscow

Station to detect targets (SOC) — coherent pulsed radar radial angle centimeter range, which has in elevation frequency beam steering. Partsial (beam) width of 1.5 degrees in azimuth and 4 degrees in elevation could take up to eight positions elevation plane, covering such makarom sector to 32 degrees. In elevation survey could be carried out simultaneously in 3 partial. The priority for the review of the partial served as a special programm computer. The main mode of operation envisaged pace of the review of the detection zone for 3 seconds, the lower part of the zone searched twice. As required space could be provided an overview of a 3-partial rate 1 second. Mark coordinates 24 goals were tied found in runs (up to 10 tracks at once). Indicator displayed on the command target in the form of points with vectors that characterize the direction and magnitude of its velocity. Around them were shown the forms that contain trace number, the number on the degree of threat (fastest time of entering into the affected area), № partsiala in which the target is also a sign produced at this time of the transaction (searching, tracking, etc.). While working in heavy clutter to SOC for the possibility of blanking signal from the direction of interference and downtrodden section distances to targets. As needed had the opportunity to introduce a computer located in the coordinates of the target sector blanking to generate targeting by the manual covers the marker on the target veiled noise and manual "chipping" mark.

The resolution of the detection station in azimuth was no worse than 1.5-2 degrees in elevation — 4 degrees and 200 meters — range. The greatest error in determining the coordinates of targets was less than half of the resolving capability.

Station to detect targets at receiver noise figure 2.3 and 1.5 kW power level detection products soaring to heights of 30-6000 meters of the F-15, at ranges up to 27 km with a probability of at least 0.8. Unmanned means of air attack at a range of 9000-15000 m were detected with a probability of 0.7. A helicopter with rotating propellers, located on the ground, detected at a distance of 7 km with a probability of 0.4 to 0.7, hangs in the air at a distance of 13-20 km, with a probability of 0.6 to 0.8, but was carried out at the height of the jump 20 meters from the ground at a distance of 12 thousand square meters with a probability of at least 0.6.

The coefficient of oppression signals reflected from objects in the local analog channels receiving system SOC 40 dB, the digital channel — 44 dB.

Protection against anti-radar missiles and provided them with the detection and defeat their anti-aircraft guided missiles.

The station guidance — coherent pulsed radar centimeter range with a small element phased array (phased array), was formed in elevation and azimuth beam width of 1 degree and provides electrical scanning in their respective planes. The station provides a search target in azimuth sector 3 degrees and 7 degrees elevation, tracking of the three coordinates of a target monopulse method, start one or 2-anti-aircraft missiles (every 4 seconds), and their guidance.

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile comple
x "Thor"

The transfer aboard the guided missile command was realized by a single transmitter station through a phased array antenna. The same antenna at the expense of the electric beam scanning provides simultaneous measurement of target coordinates and 2 missiles induced by it. The frequency of the beam to the appeal objects — 40 Hz.

The resolution of guidance station in elevation and azimuth is not terrible — 1 degree range — 100 meters. Standard errors autosupport fighter in elevation and azimuth is less than 0.3 d a. By distance — 7 m, the speed — 30 m / s. Standard errors escort guided missiles in elevation and azimuth were of the same order of magnitude range — one 2.5 meters.

The station aiming at a sensitivity receiver 4 x 10-13 W average power and 0.6 kW transmitter provides a range of transition to automatic tracking fighter equal to 20 km with a probability of 0.8 and 23 kilometers with a probability of 0.5.

Rocket launchers in the combat vehicle were without transport containers and launched by catapult powder vertically. Structurally, the antenna and a trigger device united in fighting vehicle antenna-starter, which revolved about a vertical axis.

Solid-fuel anti-aircraft guided missile 9M330 made under the "duck" and equipped with a device that provides gas dynamic declination. In the SAM used folding wings, drop-down and the seating position in the flight after the missile launch. In the transport position, the right and left console were folded towards each other. 9M330 with active radio controlled fuses, radio unit, autopilot with rudder actuators, high-explosive fragmentation warhead with a safety adapter, had a power supply system, the system of gas-dynamic control surfaces at the launch site and gazopitaniya control actuators midcourse flight. On the outer surface of the rocket body and the antenna for the radio unit radio controlled fuses, as gunpowder was mounted catapult device. In fighting machine rockets loaded with freight and loading vehicle SAM.

The missile launch was ejected at a speed of 25 m / s catapult vertically. Inducing a guided missile at a given angle, direction and magnitude of which was introduced with guidance station in autopilot before starting, before starting the rocket motor in the end expiration combustion products specials. gasifier through 4 dvuhsoplovyh block gas distributor mounted at the base of aerodynamic wheel. Regardless of the angle of the steering overlap flues leading to the nozzles directed back. Combining the gas distributor and aerodynamic steering into a single unit gave the opportunity to exclude the introduction of spec. drive for the system declines. Gas-dynamic device rocket zaklonyaetsya in the right direction, and then suspends her turn before turning the solid motor.

The motor-driven rockets carried out at a height of 16 to 21 meters (or at the end of the second delay from the start, or when you reach 50 degree angle from the vertical differences missiles). So Makar, the entire momentum of a solid rocket motor is spent on giving the ISG speed toward the target. Set velocity missiles began after starting. At the distance of 1500 m speed was 700-800 meters per second. With the distance of 250 meters began the process of command guidance. Due to the wide dispersion characteristics of the motion targets (height — 10-6000 m and speed — 0-700 m / s) and linear size (from 3 to 30 meters) for the management of the covering of the warhead fragments of high-altitude targets aboard the guided missile with issued guidance station features radio controlled fuses delay, which depend on the speed of convergence of missiles and targets. At low altitudes, provide for selection of the underlying surface, also triggering radiovryvatelya only goal.

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor"

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor"

Starting weight of anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M330 — 165 kg (including the warhead weight — 14.8 kg), the diameter of the housing -235 mm, the length of the rocket — 2898 mm wingspan — 650 mm.

Develop a set of somewhat delayed due to difficulties in the development of tracked chassis. Joint tests of anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor" held at the Emba range (control Unuchko VR) in the period from December 1983 to December 1984 under the control of the commission, headed by RS Asadulin SAM adopted a decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 19.03.1986.

Complex "Blade" is partly a unified set of "Thor" entered service after a further 3 years. By this time, for almost 10 years at sea the ships for which it was designed this complex, actually came out naked.

Batch creation of BM 9A330 organized at the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant MCI, anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M330 — at the Kirov machine-building plant them. XX Party Congress MAP tracked chassis — at the Minsk Tractor Plant MSKHM.

The complex provides a defeat targets flying at altitudes of 0.01-6 km, at a speed of 300 meters per second, the spectrum ranges 1.5 .. 12 km with a parameter to 6000 m Maximum range of fire at the target speed of 700 m / s was reduced to 5000 m, the range of heights of defeat narrowed 0.05-4 km, and the parameter to 4000 m effectiveness of lesions aircraft one anti-aircraft guided missile was 0,3-0,77, helicopters — 0,5-0,88, remotely-piloted aircraft devices — 0,85-0,955.

Transfer time from marching into battle-ready position — 3 minute, the reaction of the complex ranged from 8 to 12, loading a combat vehicle with the transport and loading vehicle — up to 18 minutes.

Organizational anti-aircraft missile systems, "Thor" is reduced in anti-aircraft missile regiments divisions. The structure of the regiments were regiment command post, four anti-aircraft missile batteries (consisting of 4 9A330 combat vehicles, the battery commander Fri), units of service and support.

Battery commanding Fri temporarily served as control points CP-12M, as the command Fri Regiment — SP-12M or command and control MP22 machine and machine data collection and information processing MP25 developed as due ASUV (automatic command and control system) and the front is also included in the set of Auto PU chief defense division. With a team aunktom shelf Matching the radar detection P-19 or 9S18 ("Dome"), which is part of the radar company regiment.

The main type of combat anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor" — Battery life, but not ruled out either mixed centralized data management Battery commander of air defense missile regiment and division chief of defense.

Go with the adoption of anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor" on arms modernization began at SAM.

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor"

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor"

Refinement of existing and development of new means of anti-aircraft missile system, received ind. "Tor-M1" (9K331) involved:
— Scientific-Research Institute of Electro-Minradioprom (leading enterprise research and production association "Antey") — the head by anti-aircraft missile system "Tor-M1" overall (Efremov VP — Chief Designer) and 9A331 combat vehicle (model 9A330) — Deputy. head designer and chief designer of the complex BM 9A331 — Drize IM;
— Software "Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant" Minradioprom — in constructive revision BM;
— Kirov Machine software to them. XX Party Congress Minaviaproma — Design chetyrehraketnogo module 9M334 used in BM 9A331 (Zhary ON — chief designer of the module);
— Automation Research Institute of Ministry of Radio Industry (leading enterprise research and production association "Agate") — to develop a framework of separate development work uniform battery KP "Rankings Basic" 9S737 (Šeršņovs AV — Chief Designer) and ICD "Torch" and Minaviaproma other organizations.

Finally modernization AA missile Complex entered the second channel is motivated, in anti-aircraft guided missile warhead used by a material having inflated amazing properties, implemented modular conjugation anti-aircraft guided missiles to MB, and increases the affected area and low-flying targets, to interface with a standardized battery BM KP "Rankings Basic" to ensure the management members of the batteries combat vehicles.

Martial means anti-aircraft missile system "Tor-M1":
— fighting machine 9A331;
— battery commander's point 9S737;
— 9M334 missile module with 4 guided missiles 9M331 (in the combat vehicle two modules).

The composition of those funds. provision and maintenance of anti-aircraft missile system were tools used in the SAM "Thor", with completion of the transport car 9T245, transport and loading vehicle 9T231 in connection with the application in "Tor-M1" Missile 9M334 module.

Fighting machine 9A331 to 9A330 comparing had the following differences:
— used brand new dual processor computer system having an inflated performance, implementing protection against false trails, dual-channel operation, advanced multi-function controls;
— to the station to detect targets introduced: three-channel digital signal processing system that provides improved suppression of clutter without interference situation analysis; the input of the receiver selective filter, switchable automatic, provides a more effective noise immunity and electrical compatibility of the station due to frequency selection partsiala; amplifier to increase replaced in the input sensitivity of the receiver, introduced automatic power control, arrives in the station in each partsial, changed the procedure for the review, which reduced the time runs ties purposes; introduced a method of protection against incorrect markings;
— pointing to the station introduced a new type of probe signal, which provides detection and automatic tracking of hovering helicopters in television-optical viewfinder introduced automatic support for elevation (increases the accuracy of its support), have introduced an improved indicator commander, introduced the hardware interface with unified battery KP "Rankings Basic "(apparatus and radio transmission).

For the first time in the practice of the creation of the anti-aircraft missile system launcher used instead of 4-seater transport and launch container 9YA281 for guided missiles 9M331 (9M330) with the body which is made of duralumin alloys. Transport and launch container in totality with the data was guided missiles 9M334 missile unit.

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor"

Weight module with 4 guided missiles with catapults and transport and launch container was 936 kg. The case of transport and launch container was divided into four cavities diaphragms. Under the front cover (filmed before loading BM) was located four foam protective cover, sealing the cavity of each transport and launch container and destructive course of the rocket during its launch. In the bottom of the mechanisms established the connectors for connecting electrical circuits serving the WPK and the SAM. Transport and launch container with a combat vehicle electrical circuits connected through an on-board electronic connectors located on each side of the container. Next to the lids of these ports were closed with a plug for the switching frequency hatches Liter guided missiles as they are installed on the BM. Rocket-ins for storage and transportation are stacked with beams — in a package of up to 6 modules.

Transport vehicle 9T244 could carry two sets consisting of 4 modules, TRV — two packages consisting of 2-modules.

Anti-aircraft operated rocket 9M331 was one hundred percent unified with 9M330 missiles (not including material affecting parts of the warhead) and could be used in anti-aircraft missile systems, "Thor", "Tor-M1" also in the ship's complex "Dagger".

A significant difference in anti-aircraft missile system "Tor-M1" from "Thor" was the presence of a uniform battery KP "Rankings Basic" as part of its agents. Namely "Rankings Basic" intended for automatic control of fighting anti-aircraft missile system "Tor-M1" as part of a missile regiment, armed to the complex. The structure of anti-aircraft missile regiment consisted point of command and control (command post), four anti-aircraft missile batteries (each battery Unified Communist Party and four combat vehicles 9A331), a unit of software and services.

The main purpose of a unified battery KP "Rankings Basic" in relation to the anti-aircraft system "Tor-M1" is the management of autonomous fighting batteries (with the production, control of the fighting machines of combat missions, target allocation, target designation). Centralized management was implemented through a unified battery commander item with batteries commanding the regiment Fri. It was assumed that the team will be used Fri regiment command post machine MP22-P and a special machine MP25-P, developed as part of an automated system of command and control of the front. With the command Fri Regiment was in turn must match the higher CP — control station chief defense division, consisting of the designated machines. With this team were coupled Fri spotter "Caste-2-2" or "cupola".

The display of unified battery 9S737 gearbox displayed up to 24 targets for disk imaging from the upstream CP (Command Fri or Fri shelf management division chief of defense), as up to 16 targets for disk imaging of BM's own battery. Also displayed at least 15 land-based facilities, which led enterprise data exchange. Rate of exchange was 1 second chance to bring the reports and teams more than 0.95. Dead time unified battery KP one goal in automatic mode was less than 5 seconds. On Fri capable of operating from a topographic map and non-automated tablet traffic situation.

The information that is received from biomass and other sources displayed on the indicator on the scale of 12-10
0 km in the form of points and forms goals. The structure forms goals were a sign of state. Facilities objectives and its number. Also on the screen indicator shows the position of the reference point, a higher command Fri, radar, and the affected area of IP.

Unified battery CP produced target distribution between BM, target designation to them and, when necessary commands for opening fire ban. Deployment time and training the battery commander's job was to Fri least 6 minutes. All the equipment (and power supply) installed on the chassis of a light tracked armored multipurpose floating tractor MT forehead. Calculation command Fri consisted of 4 people.

State. tests anti-aircraft missile system "Tor-M1" were held in March and December 1989, at Emba range (control polygon Unuchko VR). Anti-aircraft missile system was fielded in 1991

Compared with anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor" the possibility of defeat the purposes of the model using a guided missile was increased and was as follows: when firing cruise missiles at ALCM — 0,56-0,99 (in the "Tor" 0,45-0,95 ) for remotely piloted aircraft type BGM — 0,93-0,97 (0,86-0,95); the aircraft type F-15 — 0,45-0,80 (0,26-0,75 ) on helicopters such as "Hugh Cobra" — 0,62-0,75 (0,50-0,98).

Affected area missile system "Tor-M1" while simultaneously shooting at two targets remained virtually such as SAM in "Thor" by firing at the same target. It was achieved by reducing the reaction time of "Tor-M1" when fired from a position of up to 7.4 seconds (from 8.7), and when shooting with small stops to 9.7 seconds (from 10.7).

Divisional autonomous self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor"

Loading time BM 9A331 missile with 2 modules — 25 minutes. This exceeded the time BM 9A330 separate loading ammunition from 8 anti-aircraft missiles.

Batch creation of technical and combat means anti-aircraft missile system "Tor-M1" organized by companies producing means of complex "Thor." New tools — unified battery 9S737 gearbox and four-seater TPK for guided missiles 9A331 performed respectively by the Penza radio factory in the Ministry of Radio Industry and Production Association "Kirov Machine-Building Plant. XX Party Congress" Minaviaproma.

Anti-aircraft missile systems "Thor" and "Tor-M1" with no analogues in the world and capable of engaging airborne targets high-precision weapons, a lot of times showed their fighting abilities to the highest military exercises, training and field firing and exhibitions of modern tools in different countries. The global arms market, these complexes exhibit good competitiveness.

Complexes and now continue to improve. For example, work on the substitution tracked chassis GM-355 chassis GM-5955, developed by the Moscow suburb of Mytishchi.

It is also working on options for SAM with the placement of parts on a wheelbase — a self-propelled version "Thor M1TA" with the placement of the vehicle "Ural-5323" hardware cab and the trailer CHMZAP8335 — antenna-starting post, and the towed version of the "Tor- M1B "(with seating for 2-trailers). By eliminating the off-road terrain and increased clotting time / deployment of up to 8-15 minutes achieved by reducing the cost of the complex. In addition are working on a stationary version of SAM — the "Thor M1TS."

The main properties such as anti-aircraft missile complex "Thor":
Name — "Thor" / "Top-M1"
1. The affected area:
— range — 1.5 to 12 km;
— height — from 0.01 to 6 km;
— the parameter — 6 km;
2. The possibility of defeat fighter with the introduction of a guided missile — 0.26 .. 0.75 / 0.45 .. 0.8;
3. The highest rate of the targeted objectives — 700 m / s;
4. Reaction time
— from the perspective of — 8,7 s / 7,4 s;
— with rather short stop — 10.7 s / 9,7 s;
5. The flight speed of anti-aircraft guided missiles — 700 .. 800 m / s;
6. Mass of the rocket — 165 kg;
7. Warhead weight — 14.5 kg;
8. Deployment time (clotting) — 3 minutes;
9. Number motivated channels — half;
10. The number of guided missiles at military machine — 8;
11. Year of adopting — 1986/1991.

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