Mass anti-aircraft guided missiles least 60-65 pounds, which made it possible to charge the launcher manually forces 2-servicemen.
The main purpose of the complex — the cover means and motorized infantry forces from low-flying targets.
The same Decree wondered development of ship anti-aircraft missile system "Osa-M" with the introduction of electronic means and rocket complex "Wasp."
Work on the complex "Wasp" were hard. If trouble during the development of anti-aircraft missile system "Cube" cost two main designers of their posts, then if a "Wasp" changed not only the major designers, and organizations — developers chassis and self-propelled rocket.
Leading developer of anti-aircraft missile system in general and the war machine caused 9A33-20 SERC Institute. Chief designer of the machine and the complex — Kosichkin MM
Development of missile design bureau was assigned to the plant number 82 Mosgorsovnarhoza (Managing Potopalov AV). First 1950s. This plant was the first in the Soviet Union has mastered the creation of a batch of anti-aircraft missiles, developed by a team of Lavochkin, for the first-born of anti-aircraft missile defense troops of the country — "Systems-25". Meant that, like other design bureau, made earlier in the factories and in the late 1950s. Who switched to independent design, CB Potopalova will be able to make an anti-aircraft guided missile with the required features.
As in the case of PU complex "Cube", the development of the combat vehicle commissioned SKB-203 Sverdlovsk Economic Council under the control of AI Yaskina
On the definition of the concept of building anti-aircraft missile system "Osa" had a significant impact on the data in the United States works to create an autonomous self-propelled air defense system "Mauler" with the installation of all equipment on the chassis of multi-tracked armored personnel carrier M-113, the implemented extensively at the time. Note that Yankee ultimately make this complex failed.
Achieved in the USSR in the late 1950s, the brilliant achievements in the development of wheeled all-terrain vehicles (priemuschestvenno — running Grachev VA) led to the choice as a chassis for anti-aircraft missile system "Osa" 1st of the samples floating armored personnel carriers, which were developed for mechanized infantry units in several design teams in the late 50's — early 60's.
In January 1961 the design bureau of the plant ZIL role in the work of the complex "Wasp" has refused, as capacity developed chassis ZIL-153 (1.8 tons) to accommodate complex systems and the missile launcher was obviously insufficient. Missing capacity has become a prerequisite for non-competition favorite armored personnel carriers — BTR-60P developed by the Gorky Automobile Plant. The next few years were made in relation to the wheel chassis "Property 1040", created on the basis of armored vehicles "to 1015" developed in KB Kutaisi Auto Plant of the Economic Council of the GSPC in collaboration with the Special Military Academy of Armored Forces.
In 1961 he released the preliminary design of anti-aircraft missile system "Osa", which resulted in major TTT solutions and the properties of the rocket, as complex as a whole.
Already at the stage of preliminary design were identified warning signs of decoupling characteristics of complex parts and missiles being developed by different organizations.
Initially, for the rocket, similar to the complex of "Cube", was semi-active radar homing head. GSN and autopilot were combined into a functional unit. The weight of an important element of on-board equipment in comparison with the weight was exceeded by 1.5 times and reached 27 kg. In general, according to the views of Grau, the introduction of such homing was not sufficiently substantiated by comparison with the option radio command system with an infrared homing head, was also considered in the preliminary design.
Most of the "funnel" dead zone, which reached across 14 thousand square meters at a height of five thousand meters, made anti-aircraft rocket complex vulnerable to attack aircraft that operate at medium altitudes, with the next dive on the target.
Also mystical were incorporated in the draft anti-aircraft complex managed properties propulsion. The designers have given up in the early stages of the introduction of direct-flow engine — a relatively small rocket engine does not currently provide advantages in comparison with the ordinary solid-propellant engine. And for solid rocket engines technology of that time does not create the recipe of fuel with the right energy. Instead of the desired specific impulse of 250 kg? C / s using a fuel developed by NII-9 was provided only 225-235 kg? / C, and developed GIPKh — 235-240 kg? / C.
On battle the car had to install the complex weighing 4.3 .. 6 tons, which significantly exceeded the carrying capacity wheeled chassis-type APC.
The main features of SAM "Wasp" for project developer materials are presented below in relation to the requirements of the customer and the technical features of the South American air defense system "Mauler", stated at the beginning of 1960.
Comparative properties of anti-aircraft missile systems projects "Wasp" and "Mauler"
"Wasp" by TTT — 10.8 km;
"Wasp" on the project — 8 km;
"Mauler" — 8 km;
"Wasp" by TTT — 0.8-1 km;
"Wasp" on the project — 1-1.2 km;
"Mauler" — 1-1.5 km;
Most height — 5000 m (for all versions);
"Wasp" by TTT — 50-100 m;
"Wasp" on the project — 100 m;
"Mauler" — 100 m;
"Wasp" by TTT — up to 4 km;
"Wasp" on the project — up to 5 km;
"Mauler" — up to 5 km;
The possibility of destruction of one anti-aircraft guided missile type target MiG-15:
"Wasp" by TTT — 0.5-0.7;
"Wasp" on the project
The possibility of destruction of one anti-aircraft guided missile type target IL-28:
"Wasp" by TTT — 0.5-0.7;
"Wasp" by TTT — 500 m / s;
"Wasp" on the project — 500 m / s;
"Mauler" — 660 m / s;
"Wasp" on the project — 13.5 m;
"Mauler" — 27 tons;
"Wasp" on the project — 10.0 tons;
Mass of the rocket:
"Wasp" by TTT — 60-65 kg;
"Wasp" on the project — 65 kg;
"Wasp" on the project — 10.7 kg;
"Mauler" — 9.0 kg;
"Wasp" by TTT — 2,25-2,65 m;
"Wasp" on the draft — 2.65 m;
"Mauler" — 1.95 m;
The diameter of the rocket:
"Wasp" on the draft — 0.18 m;
"Mauler" — 0.14 m
In connection with the problem of the technical features of complex components and missiles fired by the decision of the MIC addition to conceptual design. At this stage, abandoned semi-active radar homing and fled to the radio command guidance. The value of maximum range damage with all this amounted to 7700 data instead of 8-10 thousand meters The desired upper limit of the affected area provided only for the purposes of transonic speeds.
Since the project had armored Kutaisi plant capacity of 3.5 tonnes, for the installation of its funds set minimum weight of 4.3 tons, it was decided to exclude machine-gun armament and go easy on the introduction of 180-horsepower diesel engine, instead applied to the layout of a similar engine capacity of 220 hp Also seen a wheeled chassis MSW-560 Mytischinskogo plant, but its implementation was associated with an unacceptable increase in weight up to 19 tons of SAM.
In 1962 he released those. complex project, but the work is almost were at the stage of experimental laboratory mining complex systems.
In 1963 he made the first non-standard models of the throwing of missiles, but none of the experimental anti-aircraft guided missiles with two-stage engine for independent tests to prepare failed. In connection with the failure of the specific impulse propellant charge weight was exceeded by 2 kilograms. Starting weight of the rocket warhead at a mass of 9.5 kg is 70 pounds instead of 60-65 pounds of data in tactical and technical requirements. Do not put the charge of the development of solid-NII-9 GKOT, working in charge GIPKh was bad. To improve the performance characteristics have studied the substitution of an air balloon balloon powder BATTERY pressure.
Factory 368 and SRI-20 instead of 67 sets of onboard equipment made just seven, experienced standard radar in the NII-20 in this period (Q3 1962) was not prepared.
In addition, the mass of the chassis Kutaisi plant exceeded 350 kg in comparison with the provided in the technical design size — 9000 kg. As a result, excluded transportability SAM aircraft An-12.
In KB-81 hit the mine life-stage solid propellant rocket motor. In the engine, provided the use of a combined 31.3-pound charge, made by a process flow pressing. In the starting charging scheme used telescopic, in the marching — the usual single channel. In the NII-9 was designed TBM recipe — a mixture of ammonium perchlorate and polivinilbutadiena. Specific impulse was given less than 17 kg / kg. To break the deadlock design bureau of the plant number 82 began development of its motor designs developed by GIPKh fuel with a mass of 36 kg charge. The charge made by a process of free casting. Specific impulse for this more promising formulation was expected to reach the desired level.
Although the creation of electronic means SAM went relatively well, the development of ground-based equipment behind. In the NII-20 chassis to saturate the equipment is not delivered and not manned electric power equipment.
In the end, neither joint nor the factory flight tests of missiles 9M33 not been started in this period. By the beginning of 1964 had only four missile launch with a functional unit management system IFAC-K in open loop. Only one run was successful. The factory number 82 put 11 data blocks, while the planned 118 units.
MIC decision number 11 dated 08.01.1964 with in a warning Kosichkin, Potopalovu also the developer ship "Wasp-M" Malievskomu AP organized by the Commission to provide the necessary assistance led Japaridze VA, head of the SRI-2 GKAT. Turning to the commission head design anti-aircraft missile system to the Air Defense Forces Raspletina AA Developer and rockets for these complexes PD Grushin resulted in a very unfavorable for the final team Potopalova and him personally.
Trouble Bureau of Plant number 82 once ordained optimism about the prospects for the development of Russian hard fuels and components for onboard equipment control systems. In those years, fundamentally the feasibility of radio-controlled anti-aircraft missiles with a starting weight of 65 kilograms posed a swing that even the lightest missile air-to-air Russian production weigh at least 83 pounds. With all of this propulsion of missiles "air" has provided the smallest increment of speed versus required for SAM.
According to the results of the commission prepared a Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 09.07.1964, which provided for the release of the Tushino Machine Building Plant (plant number 82) from work on 9M33. Instead to connect the work of the OKB-2 GKAT headed Grushin. It sets a new term starting the test — 2nd quarter 1965. Also adjusted to the requirements of the rocket. The value of starting mass doubled and brought to realistically attainable level — about 115 pounds. Instructed to ensure destruction of targets with RCS MiG-19 at a range of 8-10 thousand meters, flying at a speed of 500 m / s at a height of 50-100 m to 5000, and aims hovering at subsonic speeds — at altitudes of up to 6-7 thousand meters and range to 10-13 thousand meters of the main designer of SAMs 'Wasp' instead Kosichkina appointed director of NII-20 Chudakov PM
Features and technical type of new missiles, and to finish under their introduction parts of the complex were required to submit a draft design, released in 1964
The government has set a new deadline for presentation of anti-aircraft missile system to joint tests — 2nd quarter 1967.
As early as 1965 began to self tests Hrušínský SAM missiles for "Wasp." On the Emba polygon (Chief PI Ivanov), the complex was presented in the 2nd half of 1967 to carry out tests on the joint. But already in July of next year, led by the State Commission Mykytenko TA stop the test, as revealed inconsistencies presented by anti-aircraft missile complex customer requirements in terms of the characteristics of reliability, efficiency, value workhouse time, as the lower boundary of the affected area. Remove burn through the nozzle array fails, when rockets were realized significant pointing error. Such deficiencies as demonstrated experience in the development of other systems, ultimately eliminated in refining carried out on the test results
But the commission found unacceptable defect is not eliminated without a radical redesign of MB. In the linear arrangement of the antenna post radar and launcher at the same level of firing low-flying targets beyond the machine completely ruled out. In addition, the launcher obscures a significant sector of the radar view to the machine. This was of course another "cardboard" design stage, but at the time the customer is not provoked criticism.
Regulation of the Council of Ministers of the USSR set a new deadline for the submission to the joint tests of the modified anti-aircraft missile system — 2nd quarter 1970. The main designer of "Wasp" was appointed director NIEMI MCI (last NII-20 SERC) VP Efremov, his deputy — Drize IM
Developers were required to turn away from the upcoming introduction of the already overloaded chassis "to 1040", which did not provide data of supplies course and speed characteristics of the combat vehicle. In the middle of the 1960s. considered, but they were isolated track carrier MT-LB. The Commission of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers of the military-industrial issues, decided that the development with the introduction of units and units of the ZIL-135LM nodes floating wheeled chassis 937 (later the "Base" or 5937) for anti-aircraft missile system "Osa" Bryansk auto plant MAP. Structurally separate launcher and antenna post were merged into a single DLC (antenna-starter).
On the Emba range (Head Kirichenko VD) in March and June 1970 successfully passed factory tests anti-aircraft missile system. In the period from July 1970 to February 1971 conducted joint tests under the state commission headed by M. Saveliev The complex had adopted 4 October 1971 Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR.
Immediately adopted ships of the Navy entered SAM "Osa-M".
The structure of anti-aircraft missile system "Osa" (9K33) were: fighting machine (BM) 9A33B with funds run, targeting and intelligence with 4 missiles 9M33, transport and loading vehicle (TLV) 9T217B 8-guided missiles, and facilities maintenance and control mounted on vehicles.
Transport-loading and military vehicles were located on the triaxial chassis BAZ-5937, which was supplied with a hot massive diesel engine, the jet to go on the water, navigation, topographic reference, communication, life support and power complex (PTO generator spindle motor and a gas turbine unit) . IL-76 was provided aviatransportabelnost. It was also possible to transport by rail within the envelope 02-T.
Radar detection of targets, placed on the BM 9A33B represented a coherent pulsed radar centimeter range of radial angle with the antenna stabilized in the horizontal plane. This made it possible to create a search and target acquisition in motion complex. Radar search produced radial antenna rotation (speed of 33 rpm per minute), and in elevation — by shifting the beam between the 3-positions at each turn. When the receiver sensitivity of about 10-13 W, pulsed output power of 250 kW, the width of the beam laterally 1 degree beam width in elevation — 4gradusa (two lower beam position) and 19 degrees up (in elevation of total field of view was 27 degrees), the station has detected hovering at an altitude of five thousand meters fighter at a distance of 40 km (at a height of 50 m — 27 km). The station had a good protection against passive and active interference.
Installed on the BM radar target tracking centimeter range with receiver sensitivity 10-13 W, pulsed output power of 200 kW and a beam width of 1 degree provided locked on to support at a distance of 14 km at an altitude of 50 meters and 23 kilometers in altitude 5 thousand meters RMS auto-tracking targets in the angular coordinates — 0.3 PDE, range — 3 meters. At the station there was a selection system moving purposes are also different means of protection against jamming. In the case of the strong support of active interference produced by radar detection and television-optical viewfinder.
In the radio command guidance system SAM "Osa", in contrast to the complex "Circle", used two sets of antennas medium and wide beams to capture and upcoming entry into the beam target tracking station 2-anti-aircraft guided missiles when you start with the smallest interval (3 to 5 seconds). Not counting used in "Circle" methods aiming at SAM "Wasp" in the conduct of fire low-flying targets (altitude of 50 to 100 meters) was used way to "hills", which provided podlet guided missile to the target from above. This allowed us to reduce the errors on the target missile launch and operation of radio controlled fuses excluded from the land.
Anti-aircraft guided missile 9M33 was made in a "duck". Stabilization of the slope there, because the on-board equipment is provided handler teams. To reduce the heeling moment created by the influence of the wings of the disturbed air flow control surfaces, wing assembly was made freely rotatable about the longitudinal axis. The key components of the rocket — Team radio unit (radio equipment), lettered defendant (apparatus radiovizirovaniya), cruise control, on-board power supply, radio fuze, warhead and safety adapter — located in the bow of the anti-aircraft guided missiles. In the rear placed engine, on-board transponder antenna and the radio unit commanders, as tracers used for tracking missiles with television-optical viewfinder.
Mass of the rocket — 128 kg, including a 15-kilogram warhead. The average speed of the incoming missile — 500 m / s. Missile length — 3158 mm, width — 206 mm, wingspan — 650 mm.
Anti-aircraft operated rocket did not achieve the prelaunch, except for installation of radio equipment on-board literature for charging the launcher.
The complex provides a hitting targets moving at a speed of 300 m / s at a height of 0.2 to 5 km in the spectrum ranges 2.2-3.6 … 8.5-9 km (for the purposes of the heights of 50-100 meters maximum distance was reduced to 4-6 km). For supersonic targets (speed up to 420 m / s, the height of 0.2-5 km) of the engagement — to 7.1 km. The parameter is 2-4 kilometers.
Calculated from the simulation results are also fighting anti-aircraft guided missile launches possibility of destroying the target type "Phantom 2" (F-4C) with one missile at an altitude of 50 meters was 0.35-0.4, at altitudes above 100 meters, it was increased to 0, 42-0,85.
A self-propelled chassis provides an average speed of SAM on dirt roads NIGHT MODE — 25 km / h, the days are — 36 km / h at top speed on the highway — 80 km / h Most water sp
eed — 10 km / h
The rocket delivered to the troops in a combat-ready form. She did not achieve parity and trimming operations during operation (with the exception of the yearly routine inspection).
Batch creation of weapons of war anti-aircraft missile system "Osa" organized by:
— Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant MCI (performed 9A33B fighting vehicles);
— Kirov Machine-Building Plant named after the XX Party Congress MAP (9M33 missiles carried).
For the creation of anti-aircraft missile system "Osa" certain developers (Rožnov AM, Osipov VV, et al) were awarded the Lenin Prize. Belokrinitsky BZ and others have become laureates of State Prize of the USSR.
Work on upgrading the S to increase its combat effectiveness and expansion of the affected area (under the code "Osa-A") was started in 1971 in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR. Completion date — 1974 year. Also, the decision of the MIC number 40 on 07.02.1973 has been entrusted to carry out R & D for option SAM (later received the title of "Osa-K") with an increased number of anti-aircraft missiles on combat vehicle up to 6 pieces. with their placement in the transport-launch containers. Development of SAM "Osa-A" and SAM "Osa-K" completed in 1973, with industrial prototype testing. In October 1973, a joint decision of the MAP, MRP, Grau was foreseen conversion of standard BM 9A33BM most experienced anti-aircraft missile system "Osa-A" to install it on the new launcher with six missiles 9M33M2 placed in transport-launch containers. In the period from September 1974 to February 1975 on the Emba range Grau (control polygon Vashenko BI) under the control of the commission headed by VA Suchocka conducted joint tests of the converted reference BM 9A33BM2 in the complex 9K33M2 ("Osa-AK") and the guided missile 9M33M2. On the arms of their adopted in 1975.
Compared with anti-aircraft missile system "Osa" complex "Osa-AK" had extended the affected area.
In BM 9A33BM2 changed the structure of computing devices have improved the accuracy properties of the control loop, which provided guidance on a high-speed missile target (500 meters per second instead of 420 at the "Wasp"), and maneuvering with overloads of up to 8 units (instead of 5). Provided an opportunity to hit a target at a speed of 300 meters per second on a Dogon courses. Improved conditions for automatic target tracking in clutter by introducing regime in target tracking station outside of coherence. Improve the overall immunity of the complex. Part of the block is made on the newest electronic components, thereby reducing their weight, size, power requirements and increased reliability.
In radio controlled fuses rocket finalized by entering into it with a standalone two-channel receiver circuit analysis heights when charging. This provided the failure to function radio controlled fuses from the ground at an altitude of 27 meters. Since SAM located in a container equipped with its wing having opening mechanism after the start. The upper and lower console in the transport position evolved towards. Before the start of the back and the front lid of the container and revealed by rotating the axes of fastening, rose up.
The warranty period of control increment from 1 to 5 years. Increased resistance to radiation missiles.
Combat effectiveness of the air defense system "Osa-AK" regardless of the position of the point and purpose of the SAM meeting in the affected area was 0,5-0,85.
However, anti-aircraft missile system "Osa-AK" could not beat well with helicopters gunships — the main modern means of destruction of tanks. Elimination of significant shortcomings were carried out when the development work "Mara", which was launched in November 1975 in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR. Factory tests upgraded BM 9A33BM2 curb SAM 9M33M2 were held in 1977. Based on the results of these tests missile finalized in terms of electrical and radio controlled fuses. The latest anti-aircraft guided missile tribute 9M33MZ name. State tests of the upgraded version of the complex, "Osa-AKM" (9K33MZ) Emba conducted on site in September-December 1979 (the chief of the landfill Zubarev VV) under the control of the commission headed by Zubenko AP In 1980, SAM "Osa-AKM" adopted it.
The delivery of fire on helicopters at an altitude of less than 25 meters in the complex using a special way of targeting anti-aircraft guided missile with automatic target tracking the angular coordinates with television-optical viewfinder.
In combat vehicle 9A33BM3 implemented following measures:
— thanks to the introduction of additional scale improved the resolution of the display station radial survey to detect targets in azimuth and range;
— by strengthening the resolver implemented method of targeting anti-aircraft guided missiles with a huge lead angles of sight missile strip goals in the vertical plane. This reduced the possibility of operating radio controlled fuses from hitting the ground and reduced the impact of fluctuations in the signal on the channel on the pointing accuracy;
— increment fragments flux toward the target. This was achieved by issuing a command to push the undermining of the warhead while approaching anti-aircraft guided missile to the target;
— provided for the issuance of a missile command adjustment of operating radio controlled fuses according to the area fragmentation warhead with fire vdogon.
9M33M3 rocket from the serial anti-aircraft guided missiles differed modified radio controlled fuses.
The finalized AA missile system in comparison with the serial prototype has the ability to defeat helicopters hovering at virtually zero altitude and soaring rates of up to 80 m / s at a range of 2,000 to 6,500 m at course setting up to 6000 m
The possibility of defeat helicopter type "Hugh Cobra" was located on the ground — 0.07-0.12, soaring to a height of 10 meters — 0,12-0,55, hung at a height of 10 meters — 0,12-0,38.
Complex "Wasp" and all its modifications were armed with infantry divisions in the anti-aircraft missile regiments. Each regiment "Wasp" usually consisted of five batteries and command Fri shelf with a battery management. V battery included four sets (combat vehicles) "Wasp" and the battery commander's point, filled Fri panel PA-12. Battery management regiment included control point CP-12 (M), and radar detection of P-15 (-19).
The work of the complex weapon systems ensure the implementation of TPM 9T217, 9V914 alignment machines, those machines. 9V210 service, group 9F372 spare parts, automatic control and test validation stations 9V242, and complex ground equipment 9F16.
On foreign channels zenith missile complex "Wasp" was delivered in the participating countries Warsaw Pact, India, Iraq and other countries of Near East, Asia and Africa. In total SAM "Wasp" has been adopted in 25 countries.
In the anti-aircraft missile systems at relatively small distances was achieved the highest ratio of energy reflected from the target signal to interference, which gave the opportunity even to use radar interference rich channels for the detection and tracking of targets, and the oppression — television-optical viewfinder. SAM "Wasp" by the level of no
ise immunity superior to at least some of the military anti-aircraft complex of the first generation. In this regard, the use of complexes "Wasp" during the fighting in southern Lebanon first 1980 opponent except electronic countermeasures equipment extensively used different tactics that reduced the fighting capacity of the complex. For example, the mass start was used drones simulating combat aircraft with the next attack aviation on the SAM position to use up its own ammunition.
Before the "Desert Storm" a special unit of the multinational force, using helicopters, seeped in Kuwait, captured and transported anti-aircraft missile complex "Wasp" with all the technical documentation. In addition was captured by a crew that consisted of the Iraqi military.
According to media reports, first in 1991 during the fighting Iraqi anti-aircraft missile system "Osa" shot down a South American cruise missile.
On the basis of missile complexes "Wasp" in the near future to implement on the slopes of up to 16 km have developed a target, "Saman", which mimics the goal with the EPR 0,08-1,6 m2.
The main properties of anti-aircraft missile systems such as "Wasp":
Name — "Wasp" / "Osa-AK" / "Osa-AKM";
Kill zone range — 2 .. 9/1, 5 .. 10/1, 5 .. 10 km;
Affected area height — 0,05 .. 5/0, 025 .. 5/0, 025 .. 5 km;
The affected area of the parameter — 2-6/2-6/2-6 km;
The possibility of defeat fighter one anti-aircraft guided missile .. 0.35 0.85 / 0.85 .. 0.5 / 0.5 .. 0.85;
The highest rate of the targeted objectives — to 420/do 500/do 500 m / s;
Response time — with 26..34/27..39/27..39
The flight speed of anti-aircraft guided missiles — 500 m / s;
Mass of the rocket — 128 kg;
Warhead weight — 15 kg;
Time expand / collapse — 3 .. 5 min.;
Number motivated channels — 1;
The number of anti-aircraft missiles on combat vehicle — 4/6/6;
Year of adopting — 1972/1975/1980.