On the days of the whole country will be celebrating the 400th anniversary of the liberation of Moscow from the Polish militia of Minin and Pozharsky. And who is that of Prince Pozharsky? Everybody knows it and nobody. This is finomene Pushkin wrote back in the 30s of the XIX century.
The cult Pozharsky began to develop during the Napoleonic Wars. The only monument in the main square of the country dedicated to Minin and Pozharsky. Naming Pozharsky cruiser called the royal, the White and Russian navies. Armored trains with the name Pozharsky served in the armies of the Red and snowy. But the iconic image of Pozharsky is very far from reality.
Pre-revolutionary Russian historians and greatly distorted image of Dmitry Pozharsky. This was done for various purposes, and the result came out one. Pozharsky made of humble gentleman, a brave and professional governor, but weak little politics, completely devoid of ambition. Generally such a serviceable campaigner-besserebrenika: did feat, bowed and walked away.
Here, for example, wrote about Pozharsky eminent historian Ivan Zabelin: "He was a man poor talent. He did not do anything unusual, zauryad acted with others, did not show anything, condemning the mind of the ruler and the possibility of the commander. Its not all adored and not all obeyed. He himself was aware of the spiritual poverty of themselves. "
So we willy-nilly will have to deal with a pedigree Dmitry Mikhailovich.
The Princely PEDIGREE: WE Ruricovich
By the beginning of the XVI century, Prince Pozharsky in wealth is much inferior to the Romanovs, but kind of nobility or the Romanovs or Godunovs not good to hold a candle to them. Pozharsky was no need vcherkivat a nomadic Germanic ancestry ("came from Prussia") or Mongolian MPD who came to Russia to found an Orthodox monastery ("The Legend of Chet"). There was no need of Prince Pozharsky cling to the noble band of women on maternity leave. Pedigree princes Pozharkovo-Starodubsky goes through the male strip from the majestic Prince Vsevolod Huge Jack (1154-1212). And none of the 1st historian is not the slightest doubt of the truth of it.
In 1238 the majestic Prince Yaroslav Gromov gave an inheritance to his own brother Ivan Vsevolodovichu city Starodub on Kliazma with the area. Since the end of the XVI century Starodub began to lose its meaning, and by the beginning of the XIX century, this village has been Klyasminskoye Kovrovskogo County town of Vladimir province.
Starodubsky specific principality was comparable small, but occupies a strategic position between Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod principality. Incidentally, the patrimony of Dmitry Mikhailovich Mugreevo village, set in the starodubskiy principality.
Ivan Gromov was the founder of the dynasty Starodubsky-independent princes. His great-grandson of Fyodor Ivanovich Staradub was killed in 1330 in the Horde. Ivan Kalita Khan wrote a denunciation of Uzbeks starodubskiy prince. Khan offered Fedor a choice to take a ferocious penalty, or to convert to Islam. Prince chose death. Fedor at his own feat earned him the nickname Blessed and was canonized. The scion of Blessed, Andrew F. Staradub, distinguished himself in the Battle of Kulikovo. Second son of Andrei Fedorovich, Basil, to possess town with the city Fire (Pohar) starodubskiy in the principality.
By the name of the town Fire (Pohar) Prince Vasili Andreyevich and his offspring received the nickname of Prince Pozharsky. First XV century Starodubsky become vassals of the princes of Moscow, but retain their own destiny.
Prince Pozharsky served the rulers of the capital. According to the entry in the "thousandths of a book" for 1550 year the royal service on 13 Starodubsky princes: "Prince Ondrej yes Prince Fedor Ivanov Knyazh kids Tatev. Prince Ivan and Peter Knyazh Borisov kids Romodanovskii. Prince Vasili Ivanov Knyazh Carpet offspring. Prince Ivan Chorna yes Prince Pyotr Vasilyev Knyazh kids Pozharsky. Prince Timothy Knyazh Fedorov son Pozharsky. Prince Fedor yes Ivan Knyazh Ondreevy kids Bolshoga Gundorova. Knyazh Fedorov son Daniel. Prince Fedor yes Ivan Ivanov Knyazh kids Tretyakov Pozharsky. "
Ivan Pozharsky was killed near Kazan in 1552. The father of our hero Mike Steward F. Pozharsky distinguished himself in the capture of Kazan and the Livonian War. But in March 1566 Ivan the Terrible rounded up with their own destinies all descendants Starodubsky princes. In this case, a failure that has happened is not their fault, but because of the "cunning" intrigues of the king. Deciding to deal with his cousin Vladimir Andreyevich Staritsky, Ivan IV changed his inheritance to tear him from his native roots, to deprive his loyal nobility. In exchange, Vladimir was given Starodubsky principality. Starodubsky a crowd of princes sent to Kazan and Svijazhsk. Among them were Andrey Ryapolovsky, Nikita M. Soroka Staradub, Fedor Pozharsky (grandfather of the hero), and others.
Expulsion Starodubsky princes were not only part of the Terrible scheming against his brother, and the element of the colonization of the Kazan region. Our historians are accustomed to read about the conquest of Kazan in 1552. In fact for many years in the Kazan region was a ruthless struggle against the Russian Mongolian population. Starodubsky princes did not come alone, but with their retinues, and the servants. They got enough solid estates and secondary positions in the administration of the Kazan region. For example, Michael B. Pozharsky was appointed commander in Svijazhsk. Starodubsky rulers brutally suppressed the uprising of Tatars and brought a great contribution to the colonization of the region.
In the 80 years of the XVI century, part of the estates of the former principality evenly Starodubsky was returned to legitimate owners. But "Kazan seat" has caused severe damage to Prince Pozharsky in the service and parochial attitude. They drove an old princely families and a new "nobility", nominated for the Terrible's reign. So Makar, Pozharskie that were in XIV — early XVI century, one of the reputable sorts of Rurik, were on the periphery, which gave occasion to Russian historians call them the "seedy come."
In discrediting communications will not see
Dmitry Pozharsky was born on November 1, 1578 in Kazan region. But his youth was far from Suzdal to the family nest Mugreevo village by the river Luh. Dmitri was the second child in the family, he had an older sister and a younger brother Daria Basil. In 1587, his father passed away, Michael F., and all the cares of the family had to take my mother, Maria Fyodorovna, nee Beklemishevo.
In 1593, 15-year-old Dmitry Pozharsky the first time arrived at the noble views. Boris Godunov, there was nothing to be angry at Prince Pozharsky, and of other kinds of Starodubsky princes. On the other hand, they did not have any special services to Boris, well, himself the ruler of preferred consistent risk ranks of servants. As a result, Dmitry Mikhailovich was left at the royal court, he was promoted to Horns, and a few years Solicitor.
In 1602, the Government granted a steward Boris Mikhailovich and Dmitry Pozharsky Ivan Petrovich. For 24-year-old prince Dmitry there were a good start this career. Steward Dmitry Pozharsky by royal decree has been sent to the Lithuanian border.
On participation in the war on Pozharsky False Dmitry I no documentary evidence. Most likely, he remained in Moscow with the person of the emperor. Co
upled with all the Muscovites Dmitry Mikhailovich kissed the cross and remained king Demetrius stolnik at his court.
On the night of May 17, 1606 Pozharsky was out of town. He was at the family estate Mugreevo and accordingly was not involved in the coup Basil Shuya. Dmitry Mikhailovich fantastically lucky, and can, in contrast, had no luck, and he stayed away from all the coups. And the new government gave him no and not punished. SHUISKI made a "bust" attendants, during which over 100 people were stripped of the title. Pozharsky same as before was "eternal" stolnik.
At the end of 1607, near Moscow Pozharsky has participated in many battles with the army of Ivan Bolotnikova. In June 1608 Pozharsky distinguished himself in the defense of Moscow against the troops of the Tushino thief. Specifically, his cavalry unit on the night of June 4 Poles suspended Rozhen Vagankovsky on the field.
In July 1608 Pozharsky was first appointed commander and took command of a separate detachment. At the time there was a continuous struggle of the royal troops and the Tushino thief for control of communications.
Voivod Pozharsky ordered to storm the "Lithuanian people" in the village of Vysotsky (now a city Egorevsk). Tushinites were routed and fled, leaving Pozharsky train — "a lot of the treasury and reserves." With all this Pozharsky quarreled with Artemyevs commander Ivan Pushkin, who chose to sit in prison and refused to give the Warriors to help Pozharsky. In the end, a few weeks after the fight Pozharsky had to plead with the king Basil brazenly zamestnichavshim Ivan Pushkin. Rhode Pushkin had just as "fake" pedigree as the Romanovs, and pulled at Prince Rurik. Naturally, the government rejected their claims, but to tear them Batog, as in those days was necessary for the signified sin, did not because of the precariousness of their situation.
Pozharsky same government granted an estate in Suzdal district, the center of which was a huge village of Lower Landekh.
In 1609, the Government announced Pozharsky commander in Zaraysk. The city was of strategic importance. First Zarayskaya tree fort was built in the XV century on a cape formed by the highest bank of the river sturgeon (the right tributary of the Oka River) and the peninsula Bubnov.
During the overthrow of Basil Shuya and the beginning of the council of seven Pozharsky was without a break in Zaraysk and its districts. Pozharsky refused to kiss the cross and waited for the prince Vladislav forthcoming developments. Procopius Lyapunov from Ryazan began sending letters calling collect militia and go to Moscow. Now the governor Vasily abdicated, and free from the oath of Dmitry Mikhailovich Lyapunov measured conscience support.
Business partners and associates
Lord of Sigismund decided to kill Lyapunov and especially for this Ryazanschine sent a large contingent of the Poles and Cossacks led by commander Isak Sunbulovym. The news of the approach of the Lyapunov Sunbulova caught Procopius in his estate, and he had to take refuge in the fortress of wood Pronsk. Warriors in Pronsk was not much, and Lyapunov sent to nearby towns desperate letter for help. First moved to PRONSKAYA Pozharsky with their Zarajsky warriors. Along the way, they were joined by groups of Kolomna. Upon learning of the arrival of the troops Pozharsky, the Poles and Cossacks fled from Pronsk.
After a while Sunbulovu managed to gather his armies, and he decided to take revenge Pozharsky, who returned from Pronsk in Zaraysk. At night the Cossacks tried at one point to capture Zaraisky Kremlin (jail), but were repulsed. A dawn raid Pozharsky arranged. The Cossacks fled in panic and do not show up in Zaraysk.
Ensuring the safety of its own campus, Pozharsky was able to go to Ryazan to Lyapunov. They agreed that the Lyapunov with the militia will go to Moscow, and Pozharsky will raise a rebellion in the town itself. To do this, Pozharsky and went to the capital. There is reason to believe that he came to Moscow not alone, but with a group of "fighting men."
As you know, in March 1611, the Muscovites Pozharsky led a revolt against the Poles. Having received a severe wound, glorious governor was taken to his estate.
Kuzma Minin raises Nizhny Novgorod against the Poles. Newcomer need a militia commander. Kuzma bezotstupno asked to call Pozharsky, and only him.
As governor Pozharsky never lost a battle. As steward Pozharsky never violated loyalty to the king. He was devoted to turn to Boris Godunov, False Dmitry I and SHUISKI until their death or abdication was not released from his oath. Pozharsky not sworn nor Tushino, nor thieves Pskov, as well as King Sigismund, and Prince Vladislav.
Very principle was the fact that Pozharsky was near the village of Lower Mugreevo. After all, is not the last role was a personal acquaintance with the Prince of Kuzma Minin.
The fact that the co-owner of Feodor Minin brine pipes Lunitskaya was … Dmitry Pozharsky. So, before becoming teammates on the second militia, Minin and Pozharsky were comrades in the production and sale of salt.
Until January 1612 the governor Pozharsky famous knowledge of strategy and personal courage. As head of the militia, from the first day he showed himself an outstanding strategist and politician quality. Kuzma Minin around undeniably supported the governor. Both leaders understood that go straight to Moscow for the connection to the host and Zarutsky Trubeckogo — is to repeat the fate of Lyapunov and kill the second guard.
Pozharsky offered to go to Moscow to crawl up on the Volga. Upon learning of his intention, and Troubetzkoy Zarutsky decided to overtake him, grab Yaroslavl, on the Volga River to block the way and cut the militia of the Russian North. Go to Yaroslavl with Ataman Andrei Prosovetskim moved detachment of Cossacks thieves.
Pozharsky reacted immediately and sent to Yaroslavl mobile unit under the supervision of Dmitry Petrovich Shovels-Pozharsky. But the main militias marched solemnly in a campaign of Nizhny Novgorod in the day majestically post February 23, 1612. In Balachna, the first town on the way home guard, the inhabitants of bread and salt met Pozharsky, and the local governor Matthew Plescheev joined the militia.
Yaroslavl without a fight, ran second in the hands of the militia. In early April 1612 the main forces of the militia under the bell buzz came to Yaroslavl.
Ratna icon "Blessing of the Rev. Irinarkhov, Recluse Boris and Gleb, Orthodox Russian army, national heroes — leaders and saviors of the fatherland — Kozma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky in 1612." XVII Century
Minin and Pozharsky decided to do away with the Troubles once and for all — to collect Cathedral in Yaroslavl for the election of the king and the patriarch and only then move on to Moscow.
The convening of the Council in an atmosphere of confusion and chaos — it's not weeks and months long. Because in Yaroslavl, without waiting for the Council, was created zemskoe government that rules are for the most part of.
On the instructions of Minin and Pozharsky in Kostroma, Suzdal, Ustiuzhna, Uglich, Pereslavl, Byelozero, Tobolsk, Rostov-on-Don, Vladimir, Kashin, Tver, Kasimov were replaced by magistrates in place which have been put faithful people. In Yaroslavl appeared institutions such as ministries: Local Order (who ruled the clerks Martemjanov and Likhachev) The discharge order (Brews and Daniel), the Grand Palace (Emelyanov), monastic order (Vytautas and Dmitriev), Ambassadorial order (Romanchuk). Siberian territories became Golovnin man
age and Novgorod Yudin first quarter, then Ivanov.
Obviously, apart from the secular authorities should have the power and the spiritual. For the convening of the Great Cathedral of time was needed, as long as the Spiritual Board was created, headed by was staged last Rostov Metropolitan Kirill.
Yaroslavl government organized and new municipal coat of arms, which depicted a lion. On a large palace press were depicted two lions standing on its hind legs. If desired, the introduction of a new emblem can explain the fact that all the impostors were under the banner of a two-headed hawk, the emblem of the Russian country since the days of Ivan III. But, on the other hand, the new municipal coat of arms was very much similar to the coat of arms of Prince Pozharsky, where they were shown two roaring lion. Well, he Pozharsky now called the "Governor and Prince Dmitry Mikhailovich Pozharkovo-Staradub" ..
The activities of the Yaroslavl government began to bear fruit. Even remote areas of Siberia and Pomerania were sending money and their own representatives in Yaroslavl.
Considering himself the ruler of the country, Pozharsky took over all foreign affairs. Voivod was well aware that there is no second militia forces for a simultaneous war with the Poles and Swedes, and decided to buy time by entering into negotiations with Sweden. To do this, May 13, 1612 in Novgorod was sent Stepan Tatischev with certificates of Minin and Pozharsky to the Metropolitan Isidore, Novgorod governor Prince Ivan Nikitich Bolshennomu Odoyevskiy and Swedish governor Jacob De la Gardie.
Historical documents from the metropolitan and governor Odoyevskiy contained queries about the status of Novgorod and the relationship with the Swedish invaders. In the letter to De la Gardie Minin and Pozharsky wrote that if the master of the Swedish "will take ownership of the government and it shall be called in the Orthodox Christian faith", the second militia to support his candidacy for the throne.
In the middle of June 1612 arrived in Yaroslavl travel returning from the Persian embassy of Shah Abbas salting Austrian ruler Rudolph II Yusuf Grigorovich. It was adopted Pozharsky. During small talk somehow floated itself on the question of the nomination metropolitan throne pravitelskogo brother Archduke Maximilian. Documented not clear who first "said meow" about Maximilian, but it was hardly in a position to do salting, who did not have any sanction of the governor. Pozharsky Gregorovitch said that Russian Maximilian "will be with the majestic joy."
Historian Sergei Solovyov wrote: "The leaders of the militia on their own inexperience thought that Austria now want to be thankful to help the Metropolitan State in his need."
Now repeat these expressions anyone who writes about Pozharsky, and besides, does not put quotation marks. In fact the governor was not so inexperienced. Note that the Austrian kings have long sought an alliance with Russia against Poland.
So, try to arrange Pozharsky Poland a war on two fronts (in 1939!) At a sufficiently high probability of success. But for several reasons, including because of the Turkish danger, Rudolf II is not opposed Poland. But the fact of negotiations with the Austrian government Yaroslavl king was seen in Poland and became a harsh argument with Radney Lords against imperial war with Russia.
ELECTION PREPARATIONS OF THE KING
And inside the country talk about his brother the king of Sweden and brother of the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire did Pozharsky great propaganda effect. Well, imagine militia leaders gathered in Yaroslavl Cathedral of representatives of all Russian cities, and one candidate — steward Pozharsky. And others do not, notables, gathered under the banner of the second militia were, to put it mildly, are not serious. And would leave that Pozharsky chose himself. And here is the best in Europe and the Prince Archduke candidates. Another question is if the Church will see each of them fundamentally flaws. Well, excuse me, all over Europe found nothing not found the best, more certain to be king, as Dmitry Mikhailovich.
It seemed a little and Zemsky Sobor governor chooses the king, and Metropolitan Kirill Patriarch. With distemper would be done in a matter of months. The entire history of Russian country could go the other way.
But fate had a completely different way. In July 1612 the army of Hetman Hodkevich moved to Moscow. Minin and Pozharsky in front of a fatal problem appeared — to go to Moscow with their hands meant to kill rescue plan for the country, which was already on the verge of success. Near Moscow, willy-nilly will have to cooperate with the host of the first to recognize its legitimacy and to share the fruits of victory. And then, what is the audience of the first militia Pozharsky and Minin knew firsthand. There was no doubt that the thieves Cossacks and will continue to be a source of unrest and upheaval. But, on the other hand, wait until Khodkevich disperse Cossacks and releases Gosiewski army, too, was impossible. This would compromise the 2nd corps and in particular its leaders. After learning about the campaign Hodkevich, many of the Cossack chieftains camp near Moscow wrote tearful letters to Pozharsky for help.
A similar request to Pozharsky addressed the monks of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery. In Yaroslavl immediately left bursar Palitsin Abraham, who long tried to persuade Pozharsky and Minin. Of 2-evils had to choose the least, and Pozharsky ordered to prepare to march on Moscow.
The upcoming well known. The Polish army Hetman Chodkiewicz was defeated and fled to Mozhaysk and Polish garrison capitulated in Moscow on October 27 (November 4 on a brand new style), 1612. Later, the royal historians invent that Pozharsky proposed to elect a reign of 16 years Misha Romanov, who, along with all the relatives was sitting in the siege in the Kremlin.
What happened yet, why became stupid glorious governor? Maybe his Polish core shell-shocked or mace on the helmet gone? No, Dmitry Pozharsky passionately involved in the struggle for the throne. Why not left written testimony of witnesses about the election campaign Pozharsky? Well, in-1's, it is reasonable to imagine that all such documents have been destroyed by order of Misha, and in-2, Moscow — not Warsaw and Paris, loudly promise gentry zlotys for election to the throne and say the historic phrase that de Paris is worth a mass, is not accepted. Neither Godunov, nor Misha never offered himself to the throne, on the contrary, categorically renounce it. Accordingly Pozharsky and could not break the tradition. But how annoying it did not sound, he made two fatal mistakes. In 1-x, as already mentioned, has entered into an agreement with the boyars with the surrender of the Poles, and in-2, was unable to hold in Moscow nobility of the second part of the militia. As a result, the Cossacks Tushino danger to use force, and in some cases, and brute force to drag succeeded to the throne of Misha Romanov.
After the turmoil was a war
Whether we like it or not, but no national unity November 4 and in the following weeks in Moscow were not observed. How annoying would it sounds, Smoot not only after November 4, and after the arrival of Misha in Moscow not only did not weaken, and even intensified. Not much, if the end of 1610 on November 4, 1612 vowel trend of the Troubles was a struggle against Polish intervention, after the November 4 Poles out of the game for 5 years.
Smoot also acquired a purely civilian nature of the war — the Muscovites against the Muscovites. Local skirmishes in the north of the Swedes and the role of individual "polskopoddannyh" (in the main Lithuanians and Ukrainians) in the units of Russian thieves picture as a whole do not change.
After the seizure of power in Moscow tushinskaya supporters Romanov war flared up in the Capital with the latest state force. And widened the scope of
military operations from Viaz'ma to Kazan and Astrakhan from Solovki to. The loss of the Russian people no one believed, but you can not afraid to say that with the November 4, 1612 on October 18, 1617 (day resumption of active hostilities Poles) killed more people than any 5 years of the Troubles from 1605 by 1611.
I wonder who made a mistake fundamentally, proclaimed a day of transition of the national liberation struggle against the Poles in the purely civilian clothes war days of national unity? So on November 4, it's just brilliant victory of Minin and Pozharsky on the Poles. The victory that gave the Poles out of the war almost five years.
By the way, this year we celebrate and second round anniversary — the 200th anniversary of the victory over the Poles, who had invaded Russia in cooperation with the majestic Napoleon's army. In this army there were over 150 thousand ethnic Poles and about 200 thousand ethnic French. Thus, if the goal was to force Napoleon Alexander I do Tilsit conditions and other agreements, the nobles wanted to transform Russian Empire in the Moscow principality and the development of the Commonwealth "from sea to mozha," in other words, from the Baltic to the Dark Sea to Riga, Smolensk , Kiev and Odessa.