If Baron Ungern fulfilled its plans in Russia at the moment, perhaps, could be the area, and aimags
December 29 — 124 years from the birth day or baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg (1885-1921) — Russian military officer, known members of snow-white movement. Historians estimate his work in different ways, often badly. But nobody ranges — the life of Baron is an excellent example of "vseprimirimosti" of the Russian character, which read more about Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881). But the writer had in mind the possibility of synthesis of Russian patriarchal values with spiritual achievements of Western culture, and Ungern proposed eastern candidacy.
Rescuer of the eighth Bogd Gegen
In the last days of January 1921 in Urga, the capital of Mongolia (now Ulan Bator), drove an extraordinary rider. Snow-white thoroughbred mare was carrying on for yourself a European in a bright cherry Tatar robe and a snow-white fur cap with a badge of the royal army. Guests are not in a hurry, he slowly moved along the deserted streets of the allegedly extinct, flecked greyish rubble. Two months back in the city entered the Chinese Expeditionary Force General Xu Shuzhen — A curfew was imposed, the arrests and executions. In the middle of the prisoners was the high priest and Tatar — Dzhebtszun-dam-Khutukhta, the eighth Bogd Gegen, who was considered a reincarnation of the Buddha. This was the revenge of Beijing Mongols who dared to declare autonomy from China.
As is often the case in the Chinese army, the soldiers stationed in the town for a long time did not pay salaries, and the men often staged Xu Shuzhen looting and confiscation. Terrified Mongols could only hide deep into their own homes, away from doors and windows, but would not lure the attention of Chinese patrols. But the rider on the white mare seemed, it does not care. He drove to the house and the city governor Cheng, dismounted and looked around the yard and stared, as though what had happened, went back. Driving past the bullpen, he came upon a sleeping sentry. "Oh, you dog! How dare you sleep in the post! "- He called out in Chinese, hit on the head of his own ill-fated attacks tashura — polutoraarshinnoy reed cane. Poor guy could not long back from the shock, and when he raised an alarm, the rider has long disappeared.
Intruder was just Baron Ungern. Driven by their Asian Cavalry Division was surrounded by the Tatar capital, wanting to kick out the Chinese overthrew own governor. It was also necessary to free Russian emigrants, soldiers arrested Xu Shuzhen. Jan. 31, 1921 nearby fells heard a resounding "Hurrah!". The battle was a certain amount of days. Spreading to the streets of the town, he turned into a real mill ruin: in the course were grenades, bayonets and sabers. Place between the houses were covered with pools of blood, which lay chipped or broken body. But luck was certainly on the side of Ungern: the number of its divisions slightly exceeded one and a half thousand people, and yet its fighters managed to break the resistance of eight thousand Chinese.
3 February the city was taken, and Dzhebtszun-dam-Khutukhta released. Ungern convened to Urga Tatar princes and high lamas in order to hold an official ceremony recovery Tatar autonomy. February 22, 1921 Eighth Bogd Gegen with great pomp, was crowned as the Bogd Khan (Khan of the Mongols), and his rescuer gave an inspirational speech in the language of Genghis Khan (c. 1155-1227) and his descendants, in which remembered the best times majestically Mongolia and assured the audience that after the establishment of the country's theocratic glory will certainly return to this land again. Ungern himself was granted the title of Prince highest-ching Wang, prince of the first degree, with the title of "The Giver development of the state stately hero Commander." Since then, the baron took off his princely yellow robe with sewn on his epaulets Russian general. Naturally, all this ceremony could look like a medieval play or farce Brezhnev era (1906-1982), but in fact for Ungern, and everything that happens to the Mongols were very serious …
From corporal to general
Baron Roman Fedorovich Ungern was the son of the landlord of the Estland. According to family legend, his family came from Hungary and was very old: first ungernia has participated in the Crusades. Prefix Sternberg came later, when ungernia moved to the north of Europe. Naturally, all the men of the family are so nice opted for a military career. It was the same with Roman. At 17, he led the St. Petersburg Naval Cadet Corps. But here began Russian-Japanese war, and the guy he volunteered for the front. Soon, for bravery in battle, he was promoted to corporals. After returning home, the young baron entered the Pavlovsk Military School, after which (1908) was asked to serve in the Trans-Baikal Cossack army. The choice was not accidental. According to Roman, he had always had a passion for Buddhism and Buddhist culture. Frame this passion he inherited from his father, and he, in turn, from his grandfather. Baron claimed that the last many years pirated in the Indian Ocean and has a religion based prince Sakyamuni (623-544 BC).
But for a number of events during World War Baron met not with Transbaikalians, and in the 34th Don Cossack Regiment. Having shown exceptional courage, for three years fighting Ungern was awarded five medals, including officers Zhora, who was proud of the most. It was his first merit acquired for battle at the farm Podborek (Poland) 22 August 1914, at a time when broken in East Prussia, the Russian troops hastily retreated. On that day under cross artillery and machine gun fire on both sides Ungern managed to crawl to the German positions on the four steps and in a few hours to adjust the fire of Russian batteries, transferring data on the redeployment of the enemy.
At the end of the first year of military Ungern transferred to the increase in the 1st Nerchin Cossack regiment, in obedience to the famous Peter Wrangel (1878-1928) (by the way, the song "The White Guard Dark Baron" — it's not about Wrangel, and about Ungern).
The October Revolution of 1917 began Ungern already in Trans-Baikal, where he was sent, along with his close friend esaul Gregory Semenov (1890-1946) for the creation of the voluntary part of the drill. Ungern immediately intensively involved in combat actions against the Reds. Soon became the Trans-Baikal Cossacks Ataman Semenov made it to the generals and made the commander of mixed ethnic Cavalry Division, located at the Daura plant, near the border with Mongolia. In the puzzle Baron went supervision of railways from Russia to China. According to Misha Tornovskogo, 1st officer Ungern
This went on for two years — 1918 and 1919. But 1920 was miserable for the first snow-white: the army of Alexander Kolchak (1874-1920) was defeated and its remnants retreated to the east. In autumn of the same year Semenov left in Manchuria, and Ungern, renaming his army into the Asian Cavalry Division — in Eastern Mongolia, in Tsetsenhanovsky Aimag (Province). To the delight of the general, many Tatar princes were happy to s
ee it coming. In Russian they beheld the only escape from the tyranny of Chinese fighter. Asian division Ungern immediately received replenishment and food. In total, it fought representatives of sixteen nationalities: Russian Cossacks, Buryats, Mongols, Tatars, Bashkirs, Chinese, and even residents of the country of the rising sun. All of the volunteers. In October 1920, the Baron moved to Urga.
What ended operation — we already know, as well as the fact that taking the Tatar capital was perceived by General Ungern as more if ordinary tactical victory. In fact it was here about the goals of which mentioned in passing Tornovsky, makes Baron ruthlessly at Daura all in whom he sensed compassion reddish.
When the Mongols rescue the world
By his own scale plans Ungern fully comparable with the plans of Genghis Khan. It is not the first year had the idea of creation of the Middle or Central Asia, the countries that would include Outside Mongolia or Khalkha (modern Mongolia), Western and Inner Mongolia, Uriankhai edge (Tuva), Xinjiang, Tibet, Kazakhstan, South Manchuria and Siberia — a large area from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea. Manage them, according to Baron, was Manchu Qing Dynasty, the Chinese lost the throne 10 years ago. To achieve this goal Ungern tried to make contact with the Chinese aristocracy loyal to the former Celestial Emperor Pu Yi (1906-1967), who lived at that time in his own palace on the Rights of the Beijing foreign monarch. Perhaps specifically for this purpose in the summer of 1919, the baron, who could not bear a lady's society, has played in Harbin in the Christian ritual of marriage with the Manchu princess Ji Chzhankuy that became Lena Pavlovna Ungern-Sternberg. But at almost spouses have not lived. Two years later, they divorced.
Although, I must say that the nationality of the ruler of the country for the Middle Ungern was not so much fundamentally. Pu Yi was just at the right time in the right place. Baron monarchy was needed as a general principle of social organization, and it is completely possible to call the monarchical internationalist, blazing a fierce hatred for anyone who is a danger to the autocracy, whatever country it may concern. In his eyes the result of the revolution seemed greedy plans mired in vice people seeking to kill the culture and morality.
Baron was convinced that the monarch must be outside of any class or group, acting as a resultant force, emphasizing the nobility and the peasantry. But perhaps it was not in Russia conservator from the XVIII century, who would not burn incense upon the idea of saving society through a return to normal values stored Russian peasants — the "people-God-bearer." But Ungern can be called anything but no imitator. Speaking about the peasantry, the Baron was not referring to Russian men. According to the views of the general, "to their own weight, they are rude, ignorant, savage and bitter — hate everyone and everything, do not understand why, suspicious and materialistic, well, no sacred ideals." No, the light should come from the East! During the interrogation, it was Baron quiet but confident, almost harsh:
In the eyes of Ungern Mongols were just those people who happily cooperated within yourself and true to the tradition Protz, and fortitude, not perverse temptations of the industrial society.
Karma "angry executioner"
But the Baron was far from thinking to build a new ideology of the country only in Buddhism — the possibility of religious synthesis he was not embarrassed. But in the baron of the religion of Christ is almost nothing left: no humility, no love, no fear of God. So he took himself as severobuddiyskogo dokshity ("angry executioner" in Tibetan). There Lamaism class of creatures — fiercest defenders of truth, savagely destroying all its enemies. They are revered saints, as well as the bodhisattva. They, too, before passing into nirvana there is only one rebirth, but they do not go into the kingdom of endless peace, but remain on the earth, in the midst of suffering, and try to assist those who are completely entangled in this illusory world. It is believed that dokshity arise when the sympathy of bodhisattvas is powerless. Here Ungern just been one of those. In this case, it's not a metaphor, the Mongols really considered the epitome of Baron destructive force, designed to protect the good. General liked it. And not just because of the warehouse like it was a mystic, and so how is it an excuse animal hardness. Baron did not hesitate, after the death of his bliss awaits prepared for Buddhist saints.
Give the order to hang, shoot or hack to death a man he should not have anything. At times it was quite fall under the hot hand. But even if you turn out a well-deserved punishment, his ruthlessness exactly indicative of psychological pathology baron. Thus, the intendant, stained a few bags of flour, was drowned. Ensign Chernoff, shot dead drunk 2-Cossacks, the day was kept on ice, was later given 200 tashurov and finally burned alive. The story about the "sweet habit" Ungern daurskih times. Then all those shot were taken at the coming of the hill and threw without burial. According to the memoirs of the 1st of ungernovskih officers
At the sight of the baron of his fellows could tear apart nursing babies — he did not mind. He loved to be in general the torture. Namely, enjoying watching the fry on low heat for another of his victim does not wish to be kind to tell where the hidden gold or provisions. So when the Tatar Odyssey Baron was coming to an end and the death penalty is not imposed them left and right, some officers with orders to report to headquarters to "grandfather" (as between themselves called Ungern), hastily saddled horse and disappeared in an unknown direction. Happy were those who were spared this bowl, who for a small offense "only" had to swim in the late autumn clothes in the river and spend the night on the other side, not stoking the fire, or sit in a snowstorm on the day of the tree.
In spring 1921, the Baron, confident in supporting the farmers of southern Siberia, going to continue to struggle with reddish. Made by May 20: 7 thousand cavalry, 20 machine guns and 12 light guns. After a day or two division split. Ungern himself commanded a squadron of fighters in 2100, with 8 guns and 20 machine guns. In his puzzle was to take Troitskos
avsk — a town on the terrain of the RSFSR (modern Kjahta, two hundred kilometers south of Ulan-Ude).
The assault began on June 6. Reddish entrenched on the hills around the town, with machine guns trying to put a barrier in front of the advancing fire. But the spirit of the Asian Division, emboldened successes of Mongolia, was higher than ever. Baron personally went around in a full-length under the bullets of the stretched chains of their own fighters. He was not for their shameful. The hills have taken "a great success". Troitskosavsk feeble lying in the valley. But to develop the success of the Baron did not. It was a big mistake: the city and garrison did not exceed five hundred men. They say that superstitious general obeyed lamas soothsayers, who were always at the rate advised him to refrain from decisive action. It seems to be better or worse, the division moved into the ravine to rest.
Followed by reddish evening launched a counterattack and knocked patrols Asian division from the hills. Baron once again led his own men, and the Red Army fled. At 4 o'clock in the morning all over. One could go on coming, but Ungern wished people: leaving the hills of the Chinese, he gave the order to return to the rest of the ravine and sleep. An hour passed. Hollow asleep, falling asleep Chinese exhibited in outposts. At this time, the Red Army again climbed the hill. From the first shots, yellow-faced guards fled, in all directions.
Here in the mountains rolled out guns and started beating the sleeping army. Those who have one and a half hours back fearlessly walked into the bayonet, now rushing in the dark, crying helplessly, crushing each other and falling under the hooves of horses, frightened flares thrown from the hills into the hollow grenades. Killed over four hundred people, all the guns were lost. Troop Baron hastily retreated. Two weeks later, he teamed up with the rest of the division. A month passed in small skirmishes with reddish, of which ungernovtsev constantly went favorites. This lasted until August 8, when under Novodmitrievkoy Asian division was faced with armored cars. Without artillery they could not do anything. The situation has become critical. Urga, in which there are only two hundredths ungernovtsev, by the time the Red Army occupied parts and vorachivatsya there for the winter, it was unrealistic. Baron was going to go to Tibet. But the decision had to taste far to many. Division began to fall apart in a matter of days are fled whole units. In the end, against Baron ripe komplot. He was captured on the night of August 22, 1921. They wished to do with it — is unclear. Tatar detachment, escorted the captured generals, bumped into the Reds, and the Baron "get" them. September 15, 1921 he was tried in public in Novonikolayevsk (Novosibirsk), and on the same day was shot.
So ended his days of Russian dokshit. But Mongolia was the first bastion of socialism in Asia. Although, if it were not for the Baron, she might as well have remained a province of China: from the Reds did not then have strength to withstand eight tyscham Chinese.