Very often it happened that the Mongol campaigns disrupted maritime raids of the Don Cossacks, but at the time of the mid-40s of the XVII century the situation has changed.
In 1646, the metropolitan government put forward a plan of campaign to promote the Russian troops in the lower reaches of the Don. In the main it was a justified request of the Don Cossacks, emaciated struggle against the Tatars and Turks 1644-45 period. Ataman P. Chesnochihin on illumine 1645 were brought to Moscow a collective petition to Don Foreman, ask for help means bread and gunpowder.
Let us consider more carefully the instrument in the service of the Don free eager people Zhdanov Kondyrevym, among whom were our countrymen — komarichane — palace farmers Komaritskii parish Sevsky County. First, the staff of the latter-day selfless society was fully regulated in number — about 3,000 volunteers. To the device are not subject to the farmers, slaves and service people, this mandate Zhdanov Kondyrevym subsequent reads: "A military people were used to the Don of the fathers children, from his brother, an uncle of his nephews, and that services and taxes are not any sites zapustoshili.
Metropolitan government lozhilo high hopes for the Don Cossacks on the eve of a severe collision with the Tartars. In the lower reaches of the Don had to come up with their ratyami Prince Pozharsky and Semyon nobleman Zhdan Kondyrev from Voronezh — with 3 free tyschami eager people. Prince Pozharsky in conjunction with the Don Cossacks had to make a trip to Perekop and Zhdan Kondyrev — to hunt humans and Don people — the sea in ships to the coast of the Crimea.
In Moscow, at first were skeptical that Zhdanov Kondyrevym succeed in time to take sufficient number of volunteers, "Don services." Because he proceeds in this case was the scion of KRASNIKOV P. Boyarsky, who had to clean up a score of 3 thousand volunteers in 1000 Ryazhskikh, Pronsk, Lebedyan, Epiphany, Dankoff, Efremov, boots, Mikhailov and Kozlov. In parallel to the one in Shack and Tambov recruit eager people were entrusted Ugrimovu B. and A. Karpov. In all the southern Russian town of royal letters were sent to a call for volunteers, which were announced "on the trades and small torzhka for many days."
I hunt people were required by the court to build in Voronezh. The salary of the volunteers were assigned subsequent "who has his own musket" — at 5.5 rubles, having no "thereof" — 4.5 rubles, "all by the pound potions but two pounds of lead." But the most basic task of stay eager people the Don was the strengthening of the Don Cossacks, in this case — the number of staff.
April 5, 1646 Zhdan Kondyrev with the first group of volunteers comes to Voronezh. Contrary to the suppositions of the Government, the number of willing "to become the Don Cossacks' has exceeded the permitted limit. In the "free eager for people" tried to incorporate and serfs, slaves, small service people. So farmers fiefdoms O. Sukina of Novosilskogo county, every 1 person "forsake their foals" have moved to the Don volunteers.
The main motivations of the free population of the south of the Russian Federation to become a volunteer "Don Service "was the acquisition of personal freedom in the Don, and as revenge for the fallen in the Mongolian full of family, vengeance for her murdered relatives.
By the 20th of April the number of volunteers has significantly exceeded 3 thousand people, but the influx of eager people in Voronezh last. April 27, elected chieftain Singles Seversky cities Pokushalov Andrew leads a thousand volunteers from Ryl'a, Sevsk, Putivel and Kursk — from areas affected by a ruinous 1644-45 Mongol invasions's. First Zhdan Kondyrev resolutely refused to take them. Then people are eager for collective petition sent to Moscow by Ivan Telegin, in which claim that they are against the Tatars as "the people in their Crimean poimayu in full fathers and mothers and wives and kids, brothers and nephews."
The response of the discharge order to chelobite Seversky volunteers served an order to grant them salaries and leave the Don together with the main unit.
During the construction of ships most of the volunteers refused to pursue the case, unrest broke out, in this connection on May 3 Zhdan Kondyrev quickly rushed to sail in the lower reaches of the Don river vessels collected from everywhere. Together with him to the capital of the Don Army — Cherkassk — 3037 people arrived on 70 boats. Apart from officially entered in the register of a kind — name lists of volunteers — eager people — by Don Struga on the Seversky Donets moved several other groups from Belgorod, Chugueva, Oskol Valuek. Belgorod passed through several units Cherkas, volunteers from the Shatsky Tambov came down to the river Budarov Hopper. Judging by the post Zhdana Kondyreva summer 1646, the number of folk hunt for Don was 10 thousand man, more than half of them were left without giving the salary.
Curiously event that care farmers to Don among eager people officially attested in the books scribe 40s on Rila County — one of the main "suppliers" Don volunteers Severa "Andrew Pokushalova tier", while in the main villages of the landlords. To a greater extent with the permission of the landowner Don released under the sons of those farmers who had 2-3 offspring, what books to scribe a subsequent mark — "poshol the Don." It is obvious that a similar situation should be observed for other counties, with whom went to the Don steppe free porters.
Coupled with the military men of Prince Pozharsky, who approached from Astrakhan, number 1700, 2-thousand Nogai Tatars and Circassians Mutsha Prince Cherkassky in the lower reaches of the Don centered about 20 thousand man.
How this is to be waiting to command such a "disparate" contingent Prince Semyon Pozharsky was not easy.
According to the regulations of the Royal Decree whole motley army had to fight a war with the Crimea and Nogai, without touching the Azov and the Turks. But Don chieftains insisted on the march under the Azov, by then well fortified by the Turks. In the month of June and Don people still did it, but the attack was simply reflected the Turks. After the unsuccessful attempt storming the fortress of Azov Don people decided to smash uluses Nogai Tatars and the Sea of Azov. They were joined by the ratification of Prince Pozharsky. Everything came out very well, was taken into captivity and Nogai Tatars 7000, 6 thousand cattle and two thousand sheep. With all this booty warriors returned to Donetsk. In the division of all this stuff conflict broke out between the men hunt Kondyreva with the Astrakhan archers and Circassian prince Mutsha. It is entirely possible that the battered warriors did not want to admit to hunt humans equal to themselves. Extraction of people Kondyreva was hijacked and taken to Kagalnik, where there was a trophy for the coming divide. Angered by this circumstance, Prince Pozharsky claimed the return of some of his well-earned prey hunt people. He boldly came to the bandit camp and openly expressed his claims to Astrakhan and Circassians. The angry audacious act of the prince, troublemakers denied him with abuse and shot from 2-pishchals
The chronology of events of the Crimean this:
Do not even bring the conflict to bloodshed, Prince Pozharsky did
not insist on giving trophies.
Coupled with the Don Cossacks Zhdan Kondyrev organizes marine expedition to the shores of the Crimea on 37 plow for 50-60 people each. But, on the occasion of bad weather and storms 5 plows were broken on the mountains, the squad had to return to Donetsk.
First, in September 1646 a detachment of Cossacks and eager people went out into the Sea of Azov, soon moored to the pier top Berdy. Hence, the sea route Russian military men lying to the Crimean city Robotok and "to the Crimean yurts to Kazanrogu (Taganrog)," where a September NIGHT MODE (the first half of the month) at anchor. Days are going to Strugi not dare for fear of being seen Crimean people — why it was decided to wait a day at sea. But the ambitious plans the Don and eager people were violated raging nepogoditsoy — "that perpetrate Marine weather days are great." Struga blown by the sea, where the hapless Cossacks wore three day or until "… has not brought higher Gnilova Sea to the tract to the Herald Spit rozbilo to the shore, sir, Marine weather 5 plows." The victims of the Donets and hunt people managed to escape, reached by swimming to shore, where they were picked up by other comrades plows, but supplies were sunk. On the occasion of prolonged by as much as 10 days of the latest storm Cossacks had to wait out the storm on the shore. According to the petitioners, the seat of the detachment was found sentinel Mongolian troops "… and uchali Crimean Tatarovo about us and drive us zbirattsa." At the gathering Don Atamans with Zhdanov Kondyrevym and Misha Shishkin was decided to "transition to another" what's next unexpected coming into Mongolian town is unreal, "because those who committed the Crimean Tatars knows." The detachment went to the wharf Lower Berdy, and here again fighting men caught formidable nepogoditsa going 8 days. Using a short-term lull, the Cossacks and eager for people moved to Crooked Spit, where once again had to wait out the storm in the sea for 5 days. Re-night attempt to discreetly approach the Taganrog sea again was defeated, "… and in the night, sir, waged a weather-sea well, and plows, sir, on the sea roznosilo vrozn." How nepogoditsa subsided, martial people began to converge at the dock moved to the mouth of the Don. This detachment was again caught off guard by bad weather, natural "perpetrate majestic marine weather and the wind is unpleasant and suffered … from Don in the sea and rozneslo vrozn and brought into small places." Here plows stranded, "those plows with shoals svolokli the Don duct in Kutyurmyu." Meanwhile, from Azov Mustafa Bey, "Having met with the Tartars," came to the parking lot of the Cossack, starting to burn plows. Seeing such a thing, Don people "not of joy and themselves" were burning their own, so they do not fall into the hands of the Crimeans. They themselves fled plows standing near a bayou. Going on Strugi on the channel "beanpole in Don," Don people and eager for people Zhdana Kondyreva and Misha Shishkin came under artillery fire squad Mustafa Bey and Turkish janissaries, in the service of the Crimeans. Leaving Strugi rowers, Cossacks and eager for people descended on the store, where they took the fight. According to the petitioners said, the Cossacks "with a free people killed [Tatar] many, and other pereranili loshedey under them beat many." October 17 martial people came back to town Cherkassy. November 17, Ataman of the Don Pavel Fedorov, "and all the Don Army" thrashed brow Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, in any meaningful Cossacks laid out the whole course "of the Crimean campaign."
Synchronously unsuccessful Crimean campaigns swam all the costs of foreign exchange supply and commissariat Cossack troops and rati eager people — information on the reasons for the delay dragged on much salary until January of next year, while in the Don Army was not received mention that put the sovereign's salary "wintered" in Voronezh. In the letter instructed Dontso share salary with "novoprivodnymi" hunt people to feed their own supplies, the spring also promised to send the long-awaited salary "for the spring will be sent to you for." On occasion there has been a delay sending supplies and funds from the Tsarina — "to your Cossack town huts to 5 '5 thousand mosques rye flour.
A poor attempt to plant on the shores of the Crimea, the lack of supply of provisions and ammunition, intended unfavorable finale of the campaign. Autumn in the middle of eager people of famine, which led to the death of many volunteers that defined the general flight back to Russia. The main contingent of free eager people were farmers. October 5, 1646 in Kursk came from Don 52 people who were "bits on the trades" and planted in jail. From painting fugitives that in the middle of their kids knights typeset had 4 people, kids knights neverstannyh — 9, the landed farmers — 24, the monastery — 5 slaves — 3, idle people — 1, relatives of serving people — 3, areal clerk — 1 servant of the monastery — 1 Kurkov mailer — 1.
During the interrogation of the fugitives Kursk commander Alexander Lazarev all answered prototype, "went back on hunger", "go back, because the supplies are not given."
By the beginning of 1647 from 10 thousand eager people free on-Don have less than two thousand. Rati Prince Pozharsky long since left the Don land. However, the Russian government was not going to return the volunteers — in 1647, twice the Don was sent salary "old and new lyudem": food, money, and ammunition.
To the chagrin of the majestic archival correlation is no information on the Don komarichanah service — whether they sat on the Don and became "novopribornymi" Don Cossacks were killed in clashes with the Crimeans or had fled the towns of Ukraine — that we do not understand.
Lists of free eager people who have become "novopribornymi Don Cossacks", "who were to serve in the forces of the Don majestic Emperor" placed third in the book "Don cases" (p. 327-364). Second tier "free people tidy up Voronezh Zhdanov Kondyrevym, Misha Shishkin and Podyachev Cyril Anfingenovym" appointed to the Don sending State in the completion of the Don Cossacks are in the same book "Don cases" on pages 591-654. Geographical nicknames give a rough picture supplement the eager people tn "second tier" — from which regions would come to collect on the Don with gang novopribornogo free folk: Elchaninov, Kurmyshenin, Vologzhanin, Tulenin, Astrahanets, Yaroslavets, Kadomets, Kazanets, Lyskovets, Uglechanin , Kozlovets, Lomovskoi, Kurchenin, Moskvitin, Kasimovets, Krapivenets — etc. And that — about 60% of the total tribal fund clean up the free people. Judging by geographical nicknames — among them komarichan not …
Who served as the main element for the formation of free "pens" Don komarichan of service? In the main this palace farmers whores people and relatives of servitors — this provides an analysis of generic fund clean up the volunteers. In an article about the Cossacks datochnyh Komaritskii parish — as a precursor of the militia services palace farmers, we have tacitly pointed out that the very town, inhabited SEVRYUKOV, since the Lithuanian domination remained on a particular napolovinuvoennom position. The dense forests of the north of the township and its southern steppe Privolnaya constantly lured to discover all sorts of alien people, part of which was in itself an upcoming military-Peasant Society komarichan. So in the paintings of "peasants" and Brasovskogo Glodnevskogo mills in 1630
— who and how the fight should be in Bryansk in a state of siege, we find Dorogob
uzhskaya, Kurcheninov, Smolianinov, Shatsky and Ryazancev …
"Don works" give us a real opportunity to get acquainted with the individual composition of the rati eager people that can serve as a good start "platform" for genealogical research.
Handrails entries were followed properly (give one hundred percent as a nice template): "[after personalities] … all we [the city of the] people are eager for the free service of Don esmi we vouch for each other deset people who are in this Handrails imeny are written records, including that we took the sovereign's salary: at what their squeaking, 5 rubles funds, but not which pishchals not own, and we took the three rubles and a half but squeaked by the sovereign, and that we be alone out our bail, to serve the sovereign of Tsarevo and stately Prince Alexis BCEAO Rusii service in the army of the Don and be ready for all of us, where the sovereign's sovereign decree of the magistrates and clerks people, and Don Otaman will point us in the army. And what the sovereign's decree given us a salary, money and guns, and we bail for his sovereign's salary tovo not drink and do not embezzle, and neither x kokomu theft to not stick, and the emperor and the king of the majestic Prince Alexei Mikhailovich BCEAO Russia does not change, and s Don not leave without zbezhat not move out. And in the Crimea, and in Lithuania, and in ynye gosudarstva not drive off. And will bail out our hto s gosudarevay service s Don zbezhit or sovereign salary agile or sovereign Ukrainian gorodeh ostanuttsa, and for us to porutchikah fine emperor and king of the majestic Prince Alexis BCEAO Rusii and penalties that will point sir, and our porutchikovy heads together evo head. A Coy porutchik we will in the people, on the sovereign default interest, and mutual responsibility, and the sovereign's currency salaries. And then [name posluha or deacon who wrote Handrails record]. "
Mykhailo Ivanov son Dubinin, Mortin Pavlov Zmachnev scion, scion Dolmatov Mykhailo Dmitriev, Alfer Fedorov Prilepov Sevchenin scion, scion Fatey Borisov cool, Timofey Borisov scion of Cleves, Dementey Ivanov Shenyakov son, Gregory Alekseev Zakharov son, Ivan Grigoriev Bogdashev Zhelezin son, Andrei Ivanov offspring Mokarov, foreman Samoyla Lavrentyev Smykov scion, scion Pochaptsov Fedosov Mikhailov, Ivan Rogov Kireev offspring
Ortemey Pavlov Boyarintsev son, Ignat Semenov son Krupenenok,
Nahum Sidorov Vyalichin son, Rodion Lukyanov scion of authenticity, Vasily Fedorov offspring mill, Sidor Nikonov Kotykin son, Ivan Arkhipov Torokanov son, Maxim Ivanov Logochev scion, scion Dorofei Volodimer 5th, Kondratiev Mikitin offspring mushrooms, Ivan Maslov Ievlev son, Andrew Ievlev offspring Zhidilin, Nester Mikhailov Neustuka son, Vasily Mikhailov son buffoon, Maxim Semenov Bocharov son, Gregory Ekimov Pchelishev son, Ivan Fedorov son Reddish, Ivan Maximov Molokoedov son, Gabriel Semenov Penkov son, Ivan Fedorov son Vyaltsev,
Dmitry Kuzmin Komarichenin son, Gabriel Ivanov son Razhevo, Trofim Prokofiev Shchekin son, Gregory Daniel Carpenters son, Stepan foreman Yakovlev Liakhov son Timothy, St. George's son Boris, Gregory Yeremeev Folimonov son, Stepan Fedorov son Losev, Gregory son of Dmitry Prudnikov, Mikita Yakovlev offspring pups , Armey Kondratiev son Sevchenin, Ofonasey Onisimov Semikolenov son, Ivan Ostafyev son … A virgin (three bukovkoy not be identified), por Rodionov Rylyanin scion, scion Ostaf Ivanov Surzhakov Komaritskyi parish village Berezavki, Ivan Romanov offspring Medvedev, Mykhailo Vasilyav Logvinov son, Denis Fyodorov Truhvanav son, Gregory St. George's son Baribin, son of Zephaniah Yakovlev Yepishin town Sevsk centurion free eager people, Bogdan Zakharev Baranovska son, Maxim Safonov Epihin son, Stepan Kondratiev Privalov son, Fyodor Ostafyev Semerich son, Peter Grigoriev Bessedin son, Stepan Ivanov Petrov son, Ivan Alekseev Semikin scion, scion Gerasimos Nefed'ev Lovyagin, Dobrynia Ivanov Bocharov son, Vasily Fedorov Lepekhin son, Alexei Ivanov Suhadolskih son, Grigory Vasiliev Piyankov son, Vasily Galkin Kondratiev son, Ivan Mikheev Teleshev scion, scion Ostaf Ofonasev Sevchenin
Kondrate Frolov Pisnoy son, Ivan Petrov Polehin son, Isaiah Efremov Chikinev son, Fyodor Ondrej son Shubin, Yurya Kharitonov son Tepuhov Komaritskii parish village Podyvotya, son of Ivan Ondrej Fintarev town Sevsk free eager people centurion, Ivan Dementei Diyakonov scion, scion Sryvkov Potap Ivanov, Prokofiev Ofonasev son Karpov, Stepan Savelyev Gukov son, Bogdan Trofimov Azhov scion, scion Kubyshkin Davyd Ivanov, Ivanov Fedor Klimov scion, scion Savely Dementei Kudinov, Ondrej Arkhipov Sedelnikov son, Artyom Mikhailov son Kazakov, Ofonasey Osipov Zbrodnev scion, scion Trubitcin Kupreyan Stepanov, Ivan Stepanov son Kulikov, Yakima Anikonov Nechayev son, Vasily Samoilov son Venter Ivan Danilov Kavynev scion, scion Lukyan Nikonov Tokoro,
Timofey Vasiliev son Borisov, Klemen Kupreyanov Trubitcin scion, scion Carp Isaev burr Sevsky Komaritskii town township village Radogoschi, Mosya Gerasimov Kutyhin son, Stepan Grigoriev jiving son, Nikita Vladimer Borozdin son, Nahum Motveev Pronin son, Anton Vasilyev son Belyaev, Ignat Grigoriev son Shulga Sergei Ivanov Kol'tsov son, Kuzma Antonov scion, scion of Agathon Ivanov Tripod, Mino Mitrofanov son … Klee (three bukovkoy not be identified), Ignat Ivanov Premikov son, Michael Bulls, son Timothy Vasiliev Eagle Potap Ivanov Yurgin son, Ivan Ivanov Bychonok son, Andrei Mironov offspring Gridiushko, Dmitri Markov Plotonov son, Ivan Fedorov son Gerardo Porras, Ivan Romanov Krechetov son, Dovid YERMOLAYEV Leush son, Grigory Fedorov Kirilov son, Gregory son of Zenobia Sheplyakov, foreman Martin Artemov Skamorohov son, Martin Artemov son Borodin, Alexei Mikhailov Borodin son, Gregory Mitrofanov Shulzhonkov son, Gabriel Ivanov son doddering, Vasily Samoilov Cockroaches son, Timothy Ustinov son Sukhorukov, Kolistrat Rodivonov scion of Pisco, Perf Antonov Marahin son, Alexey Larionov son Katarzhnay, Klim Larionov son of Zenobia, Kostentin Sidorov Sapronov son, Ivan Vasiliev son Semerischev, Saffron Andreev son Sevchenin
Ozar Sergeyev son Goncharov, Arkhipov Yakovlev son Boybakov, Kondratiev Afonasev Butev son, Philip Semenov Kurchenin scion, scion Dementev Klim Vorobiev, Ekim Yermolaev Zvegintsev scion, scion of geeks Evsej Ivanov, Fyodor Vasilyev Schestakov scion, scion Larivon Ivanov Ilyin, Raman Stepanov son Kashirinykh Andrew Radzivonau Sal'kov scion, scion Alifan Prokofiev Ignatov, Avila Emelyanov son Chernikov, son of Ivan Antipyev Tolkachov, Frolov Semenov Sevidov son, Gregory Timofeev Ulaev son, Stefan Mikiforov son Selivanov, Rodion Timofeev Gayav with pishchalyu son, Ivan Grigoriev son Shipishipin (sic!) , Vasilej Olekseev offspring Carpenters, Simon Shatskago Nikiforov, Lorion Ivanov Drozzhin son, Ignat Stepanov Ontipov son, Ivan Leontiev son Duvoladov,
Mikifor Nefedov Smolianinov scion, scion Tunyasyav Osip Trofimov (sic!), Evsej Folimonov son Grinin Ermola Pavlov Lomazin son, Stepan Mikitin son Lapnin, Arkhipov Tarasyev son Stapnikov, Mitro Carpano son Erin, Taras Isaev Gubaryov son, Peter Kuzmin Galavachev son, Ilya Baris son Naleskin, Larionov Ivanov Zybin scion, scion Susoy Mikitin Kalachnikav Terent'ev Rodionav Pskavitin, Arkhipov Petrov Ganchar son, Thomas Vasiliev Hlapenikov son, Ivan Zhdanov, son of the foreman Kryukov, Levonty Mikitin Kopyrev scion, scion of Prokofiev Mikhailov Buttercups, Jane Smith Mozha son, Vasily Andreev Katov son, Mihail Mihaylov Chepurnova scion, scion Horlan Timofeev Boukreev, Mykhailo Poluehtov son Vyzhlay (sic!), Stepan Alexeev son Costin, Mikita Abramav Mom son, Stepan Savelyev Cherikov son, Maxim Grigoriev Semerich son, Fyodor Kirilov son Zlyvin, Levonty YERMOLAYEV son Panov, Prokofiev Mikifarav Simanav scion, scion Sysoy Ivanov sweeter Mykhailo Pant
eleev son Dmitriev Anofriev Fedorov Sakolnikav scion, scion of Chariton Trofimav Yakovlev.
VP Zagorovsky "Belgorod line", p. 114
RGADA, Belgorod Columns table, 36 l. 100
There, ll. 134-135
There, on 908, l. 273
RGADA, clerks of the table columns, d 162, l. 330
RIB, v. 24, St. Petersburg, 1906, p. 828
There, s.810-811, 860, 901-919
IB Babulin "Prince Pozharsky and Semyon Konotopska battle", St. Petersburg, 2009, p.19-20
AA Nowosielski "Fight Capital of the country with the Tatars in the first half of the XVII century", Moscow, 1948, p. 382
RGADA, Belgorod Columns table, etc. 228, ll. 146-154
Don affairs, St. Petersburg 1909, pp. 263-267
Ibid, p 228.
There, on 217, ll. 128-136
AS Rakitin, "Datochnye Cossacks Komaritskii parish", Moscow 2009
RGADA, Columns Sevsky table, 78, ll. 136-173
Don affairs, Vol. 2. St. Petersburg in 1906. Russian Historical Library, published by the Imperial Archeological Commission. T. 24. — "Columns № 931-1042 -« Handrails reciprocal free entry military men recruited in the Borderland towns to send aid to the Don in Don Host (1646). '"