Biting snakes and their bites.
Human life is full of surprises. In the tourist life of surprises even more — he is actively looking for them. And if a lover of architecture, painting and restaurants surrounded by civilization, the ecotourist can often rely on their own strength. But these forces are trying to undermine the many satellites tourist — various blood sucking and biting insects, biting animals — dogs, as well as snakes and clumsily used tools.
One of the most dangerous, in any case, are still snake bites. Not all snakes are poisonous to humans — from more than 2,700 species of snakes are dangerous less than 500, and, to our joy, the former Soviet Union found only nine hazardous — adder, long-nosed, Caucasian and Armenian, viper, ffs, the ordinary and the eastern cottonmouth and Central Asian cobra. The first six species belong to the viper snakes, copperhead — to yamkogolovym and Cobra — the Aspid. There are also other poisonous, but are not dangerous to humans snakes such as Orsini's viper, yascherichnaya cat and snake, arrow-snake, and others. Most dangerous: viper, ffs (both — up to 10-30% of deaths in the absence of adequate care) and Cobra (up to 70% of deaths). The good news is that the teeth of a cobra short and do not always bite through clothing. At the same viper teeth can be up to 2 cm
Deaths from adder bites occur unit for several years, copperhead bites — even rarer. The most dangerous bites that relate directly to the lumen of blood vessels, especially the superficial veins and arteries, as in this case the poison spreads quickly through the body, and from a similar cobra bite, for example, a person can die within 10-20 minutes.
weakness, dizziness. Finiteness thickens two or more times due to the swelling, it is purple-bluish, with blue-black spots, in severe cases, there are foci of necrosis. Appear bluish spots on the body. Man dies of total poisoning of the body, internal bleeding and kidney failure.
The poison of asps is the nervous system, causing paralysis of the respiratory Cetra, from what comes death. Maloboleznenny bite, numbness occurs in the bite, which is distributed throughout the body, muscle spasm, and then they relax with a sharp decrease in contraction strength.
Yad yamkogolovyh has both types of action, the development of poisoning are similar to those of the venom of vipers, but disorders of the nervous system are more pronounced.
I mentioned the "adequate" care, and rightly so, because in cases of death adder bites or cottonmouth unclear what eventually was the cause of death, poison, or "treatment", and on other snakes malpractice also spoils the statistics. Therefore, first we must firmly grasp what to do with snake bites, you should not:
1) Absolutely can not impose a tourniquet for bite and yamkogolovyh viper snakes! The limb and so operates poison if disrupt its blood supply, the limb may mortify in a few minutes. After removing the harness tissue breakdown products poison the body stronger than the strong venom.
2) Do not burn the bite — if the poison introduced to a sufficient depth (eg, viper bites). You sozhgete tissue, and the effect does not work
3) Do not cut the bite — eventually infitsiruete wound, and the benefits of zero.
4) Do not drink alcohol (although Bram and pointed to him as the surest means, he was wrong), especially for bites of asps.
5) Do not put the grass, earth, and other such things — teach the tetanus, and only.
And now that the same should be done.
Must carefully remove clothing if you skovoz snake bit her, and carefully examine: it so happens that all the poison of the snake injects into the thickness of clothing, then inspect the skin — they can also be a drop of poison that must be thoroughly and carefully removed, preventing contact poison with damage to the skin. Assess the depth of bite — if the damage is superficial — rinse with plenty of clean water.
Although I said above that the tourniquet is dangerous, but the bite of vipers (and sea snakes) can nalozht tourniquet on a limb immediately after the bite, but not longer than 30 minutes, then take a break for 5 minutes and then applied a tourniquet. The poison of the snake has no local action and leads to tissue destruction. Imposing a tourniquet to stop the blood flow and lymph flow in the limbs, stop flow of venom into the body, increase the efficiency of extraction of venom.
In some newspaper articles on snakes and first aid for bites, encounters the opinion that the suction of the poison is harmful, because there is no guarantee that the oral mucosa has no violations, as this will cause the poison gets into the blood through the damaged mucosa , from which, in fact, bitten and died. On this occasion, one may say that a professional journalist — he is certainly an expert in first aid, but other than that he is an expert in sports, politics, economics and all other areas of human knowledge, from which the head creates a hodgepodge, which already can not tell, what knowledge of any field. And most of the professional journalist can not trust any public matters, and especially in health. I, as a physician, with full responsibility: to suck the poison can and should be. Simple logic — viper venom introduced to a depth of 0.5 cm directly into the subcutaneous tissue, where it be absorbed almost 100%. Ate well suck it, then start immediately after the bite can suck more than 50% of the poison (it — a scientific fact). Even if one percent (which is unlikely) be absorbed through the oral mucosa damage, then be absorbed 50 +1% of 50 = 50.5%. Well, slightly pripuhnet mouth. Moreover, if swallow poison, nothing will — all kinds of snake venom protein in nature and have to be destroyed by proteases of the gastrointestinal tract. Suctioning venom held for 20 minutes after the bite. If it is satisfied by mouth, then suck the liquid spit, but because you can suck the venom and mouth, and any device type syringe, rubber bulb or even a bicycle pump. It should, of course aware of possible complications suction, such as infection of wounds. Chance of serious infection when it is very low. People, especially children, like animals tend to "licking" wounds, but for many it is the self ends with serious complications? Even during the "suction" can predacha ifektsy such as hepatitis, HIV, and others, as bitten, and the one who performs this procedure in order of mutual (if another bitten by a snake, for example, in the leg, and one is not a gymnast and circus performer and and up to this point can not reach the mouth — is it possible to refuse to help him, especially if the card's life?).
As for the first issue (infection) — the snake bite is subject to compulsory treatment with antiseptics, especially after extraction of venom. Concerning the second (transmission of disease) — a universal recommendation. It's one thing if the adder bite — you can do without suction, and another thing — if viper or a cobra: there is reduction in the number has grown deep poison is vital, if you are not confident or affected — use improvised aspirators.
Already during the extraction of venom and treatment of wounds should pay special attention to immobilization (immobilization) finite: if you bite your teeth snakes injected a poison directly into the lumen of the vessel (which also happens), the poison spread to lymph flow. Reducing skeletal muscle bitten limb greatly increases the speed of lymph flow. It is one thing — to distribute the entire dose of the poison in the body for 10 minutes, and quite another — for an hour. Do not move the limb and secure it with makeshift tires — sticks, stand tents prifiksiruyte limb to the body. The victim also has to lie down, transporting it — just lying.
The next thing you can do to slow the absorption of the poison — cool bite — wash with water, vodka, and even better, alcohol or acetone — slows down the absorption of venom from the tissues. Very good place to throw butane gas bottle — freeze before frosting. Or any deodorant, which in the tank under pressure.
Slow absorption of the poison, now comes the time to start reducing its lethality. First you need to reduce its concentration in the body. How to do it? Quite simple — it is necessary to increase the mass of water in the body and accelerate the elimination of the poison. The victim is assigned excessive drinking, he should drink almost constantly, which used tea, coffee (caffeine in them has a diuretic effect and poison the products of its impact will quickly excreted from the body), salt water, mineral water. The liquid should be warm — so she quickly be absorbed in the stomach. At the same time we need to encourage urination: about caffeine we have said, can add to this the use of diuretics (furosemide, veroshpiron) or cranberry leaf decoction.
After the event to reduce the level turn to address the impact of the poison. Then our arsenal is limited. Bites of vipers and yamkogolovyh can apply corticosteroids (prednisone, dexamethasone intravenously): although they inhibit protective reaction of the organism, but they protect the cells of action, leading to a decrease in the intensity of hemolysis and tissue damage override possible disadvantages, prednisolone in Scandinavia is a part of kits is as a remedy for snake bites. Enter large amounts of ascorbic acid (1.2 g intravenously or orally) — it also protects cells from the effects of toxins.
Bites aspidovyh also entered corticosteroids, should be ready for the respirator. Shows the use of respiratory stimulants — sulfokamfokain, camphor. It should be remembered that the effect is reversible neurotoxin from artificial respiration otkazvatsya not be as long as the heart beats of the victim, but in this case it is possible to conduct a closed heart massage. If you will take the victim to medical facilities even in this form, was a chance to save him.
Radical aid for bites is to introduce protivozmeinoy serum. More than one "but": the first — the author's knowledge, the serum against the venom of the common viper is not currently available, and second serum — a very expensive drug, and given the poverty of Medicine CIS countries, there is a possibility of its absence in health care and the third: in most its specific serum and one serum pomogoaet against only one species of snakes ("antikobra", "antiefa"). There polyvalent serum ("antikobra-atigyurza" etc.), but they are rare. Based on this, it is necessary to know what the snake bit (see above), or by killing the snake, to bring her to the clinic, so it determined its form. Introduction of serum almost always save the victim.
On common measures to help the talk, now turn toward the extreme. Immediately declare that the official science seriously doubt the effectiveness of the following measures, and does not recommend them, and all went on to say, there are personal opinions of the author, based on a sufficiently large number of learned experience zmeelovov and herpetologists.
If bitten by a cobra, viper, ffs, and you do not have any lekpreparatov and serum, and aspiration of the poison can not — in such cases zmeelovy sacrificed limb or segment. In general, in the extreme situation you can sacrifice a finger — but quickly.
Burn is not recommended, but in principle it is possible, if bitten by a cobra or ffs (teeth no longer than 0.5 cm), and the situation is similar to that described above: no drugs, serums and opportunity to suck the poison. This should be a hot firebrand or "hunting" with a match in the first few seconds after the bite, so to burn their own tissue to this depth. It will be very painful, but the poison (or at least a significant part of it) is destroyed, will treat burn IV extent of 0.5% of the skin.
Finally, keep in mind — it is easier to prevent a bite than to treat its effects. No need to reach into different slots, under driftwood and debris. In places where a lot of snakes should wear high shoes of thick leather or polymer, the path ahead should probe the toast with a long stick, carrying it on the ground. When you select a parking special attention should be paid to the place. Nearby there should be plenty of places that are suitable snakes as a shelter, there should be a large number of animals (mice, birds, lizards) suitable snakes as food. In setting up the parking lot and travels along it should be loud stomp on the ground, creating more vibrations — the snake will leave such a place. Tents should be closed tightly, leaving the slightest gap, shoes and clothes to clean the tent, laying them on the edges. The edges of the tent should be pressed to the ground with stones, not the snake crawled under the tent. You should not sleep in wall tents — a snake can bask in the warm your body from the outside, and when you turn and push it — it will bite you. 2-centimeter teeth for that is enough. Morning cautiously and carefully check the contents of the package left outside the tent — after a successful hunt there can rest snake. When moving at night and dusk should be as careful — most snakes in this period are most active.
Finally, respect the snakes do not bother them in vain and do not kill hurl — them and so every day becomes less and less.
But okay, if only snakes can bite the unfortunate traveler. Turistyatiny fans much more here and other vertebrates — dogs, foxes, cats, hedgehogs, and even immediate family tourist — Homo sapiens; adjacent to the huge number of arthropods, especially biting, but many of them are poisonous. A poor traveler can attack even annelid worms — the famous leeches, fish — such as scat hvostokol, coelenterates — jellyfish, and this can cause many unpleasant moments.
Following the logic of the narrative begun, continue to dismantle the consequences of meetings with poisonous creatures.
Skate hvostokol does not bite, and hits the bottom of the hapless gulyalschika Sea poisoned thorn, however, this does not become easier — stingray venom is dangerous to humans and can even lead to death. At the injection site has been a sharp pain, pale skin around the wound, and then gets red or bluish tint, then nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, chills, fever. In severe cases, there are convulsions, delirium, loss of consciousness and respiratory failure, which can lead to death. Based on the described picture, you should avoid meeting with hvostokolom, which, in the first place, do not go to the bottom of our feet South and Far East seas. However, if this happened, the victim should be as fast as possible to deliver in a hospital, because the drugs to treat the effects of injection into the free market does not occur.
Medusa also do not bite — they hit stinging filaments is their method of hunting. Hit jellyfish venom on the skin leads to a burning sensation, pain, edema, then developed a general toxic effect of poison: there are pains in the chest, abdomen, joints and muscles, there is choking. Disrupted the respiratory muscles. First aid is in washing the affected skin uchaska running water and soap, then placing a nourishing cream or oil based, shows the introduction or dimedrola suprastina. In severe poisoning, the victim should be taken to medical facility, and the need to be prepared for the artificial respiration.
The most dangerous of living in the former Soviet Union is a spider karakurt arthropods. It is found in the deserts and steppes of Central Asia, Ukraine, the Caucasus, the Crimea, some specimens kakrakurta found in the suburbs and even in Lake Onega. Black spider with red dots on the abdomen, females can reach up to 2 cm in length. Karakurt poison in power at least 15 times greater than the Texas rattlesnake venom. Maloboleznennen bite at the bite site shows a small red spot, which quickly disappears. After about 15 minutes, there is pain in the abdomen and chest, back pain, numbness of extremities, there comes such a strong mental excitement, even in large doses, alcohol is not drunk victim. Appears dizziness may be convulsions, vomiting. You may receive blood in the urine. In severe poisoning, death can occur within 1-2 hours, the percentage of deaths exceeds that of the adder, and can reach 4-6%!
A very effective way to deal with an immediate poison karakurt — immediate cauterization bitten place match, which is as follows: to the sting applied a match head, which ignited another burning match, but after two or three minutes after the bite, this method is not effective. Good help for poisoned karakurt intravenous vvdenie 10-25% solution of magnesium sulfate (10-20 ml), 10% solution of calcium gluconate or calcium chloride (10 mL). In attacks of breathlessness subcutaneously vvvodyat camphor, as well helps intravenous 3-5 ml of 2% solution of potassium permanganate, but this drug in injectable form is very rare. To remove the pain, I can enter a patient analgin.
The most effective introduction protivokarakurtovoy serum, which is possible when delivering bonogo to the clinic.
But, as in the case of snakes, the bite karakurt best help preventive measures related to the selection and organization of lodging: smooth surface without rocks, bushes, grasses, and rodent burrows and sleep in a tent with a mosquito net — not through her kakrkurt get through, as it did not try.
Other "Soviet" spider that can bite through human skin — Southern n tarantula, but it is not a circumstance to Karakurt. Tarantula bite causes pain, some discomfort, but no fatalities observed. Help needed from collapsing — the victim should be laid, legs raised, to give a hot drink.
Following dangerous insect — Scorpion. A single shot of a scorpion for a person, usually nonfatal, but there are cases of very severe consequences and even death. We found three types of scorpions — Crimean, Mingrelian and colorful. The strength of their venom about the same. When there is a sharp prick excruciating pain in the injection of poison, edema of the area. General phenomena are fever, diarrhea, vomiting. Specific assistance not apply initially cooling the bite, but after a while — warm, drink plenty of liquids. Introduced 40 mg of prednisolone, 1 ml of 1% dimedrol. In case of severe general condition of treatment is indicated in the medical institutions.
Poisonous centipedes Scolopendra also may encounter on the way, they live in Crimea, southern Ukraine, the Caucasus. Their bites are painful, cause a strong sense of burning, swelling, and sometimes some discomfort, but not dangerous for life (unless, of course, this is not a large tropical species). First aid — wash the bite and the "track" that left her claws weak solution of potassium permanganate, the cooling of the affected areas.
Stung at wasps, hornets and bees to remove the sting (if left), used local cooling. In severe intoxication patient injected 1 ml of a 1% solution dimedrola, up to 120 mg of prednisolone intravenously, ascorbic and nicotinic acid. The patient was taken to the hospital. Remember that life can be dangerous sting for a short time 30 or more bees and wasps, and 15 or more hornets. In this case, the victim must quickly bring to the clinic. Also, death can occur when a man stung in the throat if swallowed insect because edema, leading to an overlap of the respiratory tract. In this case, the assistance (tracheal intubation, and tracheostomy konikotomiyu) without special skills and knowledge have a very difficult, so the victim should be immediately taken to the hospital, was intravenously administered doses above dimedrola and prednisolone, the patient is given the cold water.
The great danger to life at Stung related not to the direct action of the poison, and with the development of allergic reactions, especially anaphylaxis, which manifests a sharp drop in pressure, bronchial spasm and edema, impaired central nervous system.
The first symptoms of developing anaphylaxis — anxiety, fear, dizziness, throbbing headache, cold sweat. Anaphylactic shock often begins with a strong itching with rash and massive development of severe swelling of soft tissue. In the future, there is shortness of breath, cough, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Pulse becomes weak and rapid. Anaphylaxis can develop a hurricane, the death of the victim within the first 5-10 minutes of the onset of the reaction and requires prompt action to combat it. Ensure the patient at rest, possibly introduce allergy medications (Diphenhydramine or Suprastin one or two vials, and Prednisolone one or two capsules (40-80 mg) intravenously, failing intravenous — intramuscularly) and immediately seek medical care, t . k preparations for full relief of anaphylactic shock in the free market does not occur. If breathing is difficult, you can use inhalers to relieve asthma attacks, patients may inhalation doses of one or two (no more) of the drug. Ensure monitoring of the patient's respiratory arrest and cardiac initiate resuscitation.
Ticks are dangerous borne diseases: tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease. The infection enters the body at the moment of the introduction of the tick under the skin of the head — tick introduces special anesthetic, and with it, and infection. Infected ticks encephalitis ranges from 1 to 40% in some regions of Eastern Siberia are infected can be almost 100% of ticks, the probability of infection by the bite is high. As always, the impact is easier to prevent than to deal with them: it is necessary to take the course as possible vaccinations, take care of individual protection against sucking mites, as often as possible to carry out self-and vzaimoosmotr, removing ticks from the skin. Also, be aware that ticks are afraid of repellents, such as DEET.
Cling to the skin mite abundantly moistened with a light oil (eg sunflower), then by grabbing the edge of the forceps or proboscis with draped filament loops in the same region of the tick is removed from the skin by means of careful rocking motion, while in any case should not be allowed rupture tick. Then the damaged skin obrabatyvayutyut hydrogen peroxide and iodine tincture. Remote tick in any case not crush (with the possible infection), and save for further research. As a precaution, encephalitis after being bitten recommended the drug yodantipirin scheme specified in the instructions, but do not neglect a visit to the infectious disease — there to determine whether the tick is infected, and may hold a course of prophylactic protivokleschevogo immunoglobulin, it should be remembered, that the effect of preventing, started later than three days after the tick bite, is significantly reduced.
If you go to a large self-contained trek across Siberia, Altai, Sayan Mountains and the Far East, it is best if your medicine cabinet will yodantipirin. As mentioned above, the effectiveness of prophylaxis, started later than three days after the bite, markedly reduced, and the nearest pharmacy where the drug is available you can get a lot more than 3 days. If the disease is yet to start, what is to help the patient outside the hospital is not possible: there could be as lucky. The probability that luck (illness will end without consequences) about 50/50. "
Mosquitoes themselves are not dangerous, but some varieties can be carriers of malaria, and their bites cause unpleasant itching, with multiple stings can develop allergic reactions to components of mosquito saliva. Malaria in the presence of health care professional risk to life is not, as a preventive drug can receive delagil. In case of itching after mosquito bites shown topical anti-inflammatory ointments, phenylbutazone, ortofenom, and with the development of allergic reactions — the use of antihistamines — diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegila.
As a carrier of various diseases, such as anthrax and glanders may be taiga and tundra midge. Fairly good protection from them, and mosquito repellents with DEET are.
Sucking leeches can lead to trouble, as wound infection and bleeding from the site of suction. Leeches should not be torn away from the skin, enough to sprinkle them with salt water and sprinkle with salt, you can sprinkle a little vodka — after these events leeches immediately fall off. Fighting infection is treated the wound with hydrogen peroxide, and its edges — tincture of iodine or a solution of brilliant green, in case of bleeding compressive bandage is applied for up to a day. In rare cases krovoteyachenie is very ample, then the patient should be hospitalized.
Again, go back to vertebrates, but not to poisonous, and just biting. In fact, does not really matter who you rubles gained teeth — virtually the same treatment for bites and cats and dogs and bears. Another thing is that rarely bear bites so that after that need help — this is a very aggressive predator, often perceived by the person (in contrast, for example, the Siberian tiger or wolf) to be your lawful prey — so the bear is better not to meet, and it bites fully avoided. The principle of helping one — first stop bleeding, then wound treatment and infection control.
According to the experience of the author, often a person becomes a victim of his friend and helper dog. Dogs are different — large and small, purebred and inbred, bred and rude. Most biting — small thoroughbred rude: statistics the most dangerous in terms of species is pocus Spaniel. Another thing is that in itself a small dog bite is much less dangerous than the bite of a large — area damage, bite depth, the probability of damage to major vessels and nerves is much less. However, the danger lies not only in direct action: we all know that dogs tend to eat the dirtiest and do not clean your teeth after that. Not only stray dogs (and cats and wild carnivores) can be carriers of dangerous disease — rabies.
So, first stop the bleeding. Bleeding are of four basic types: arterial, venous, capillary and parenchymatous. The last type of bite in the context of interest only in theory — it is observed in case of damage of the liver, spleen and other organs, and is usually hidden from observation. So let's talk about the first three — this is important in terms of the methods of hemostasis (stopping bleeding).
Arterial bleeding (blood type) — the most dangerous, because the volume rate of blood flow in the arteries of the highest among all types of vessels, respectively, and blood loss is growing fastest. It looks like a bleeding pulsating stream of blood scarlet. Sometimes, if the damaged artery hidden surrounding tissues, bleeding becomes a raging pulsating flow of red blood. In itself, the arterial bleeding stops only if the source is small (less than 1 mm in diameter) vessel. As more blood loss and drop in blood pressure decreases the amount of bleeding, but there is still to complete circulatory arrest (ie, the death of the victim), or stop the bleeding by external influences. If the damage of large arteries (brachial, femoral, carotid) people may die in the Techa first 10-15 minutes.
In most cases, stop arterial bleeding is done by imposing arterial tourniquet. For a short time it is possible to apply the method of pressing the finger — a finger to press down the artery to the subject bone formation. In some cases (damage to the arteries of small caliber, such as the arteries of fingers) to stop the bleeding by using a pressure bandage. Finally, in some cases (damage to arteries person) is optimal sarcotripsy.
The arterial tourniquet is applied above (closer to the heart) the injury site, while providing a uniform circular artery compression of the surrounding tissue and compression of the arterial lumen. Compression strength exceeding blood pressure, but in this case, the bleeding will stop, but do not tighten the tourniquet out vsekh forces — this will damage the surrounding tissue. To prevent damage to the skin, burning imposed through the soft tissue.
If the harness is imposed correctly limb becomes pale and cool to the touch, the pulsation of the arteries below the tourniquet is not defined (typical places of heart rate on the extremities — the forearm at the base of the palm side of the thumb, in the popliteal fossa, below and behind the inner ankle), the bleeding stops The sensitivity of the limb remains — not appear hurt, expressed a sense of numbness, "tingling" in the final, if such feelings emerged, perhaps that with the application bundle compressed nerve. In this case, the tourniquet should be imposed again by moving it a little bit, and slightly reducing the pressure. Tourniquet is applied in the summer does not last longer than two hours in the winter — for an hour and a half, depending on the cooling rate of the limb. Be sure to note the exact time of applying tourniquet on the note, which slips under the tourniquet. After a specified time harness removed for 5-10 minutes, press down the artery with a finger in the appropriate places so that the bleeding from it was minimal. Thus there is a partial restoration of blood supply to the parallel limb vessels. Then burn superimposed again.
When damaged arteries clamp a Face, in which you can use as though scalded cosmetic tweezers, though the clip — the main artery and bleeding to identify pinch it. To facilitate the search of the vessel can pin down the carotid artery (for no longer than 1-2 minutes), then dry the wound cavity sterile cloth and gently ease the pressure on the artery — so the point of the flow of blood can reveal the damaged vessel which is then clamped. Of course, in this case, the infection can be brought, but it should be remembered that in the near future from the victim did not die of infection and bleeding from — it may very well be, and the risk of such interference is much lower than the risk of leaving without assistance or applying tourniquet on the carotid artery , which may occur loss of neurons in the corresponding hemisphere of the brain. However, if you can not stop the bleeding by selective compression bleeding branches of the facial artery, have to resort to such a procedure, which is as follows: on the neck with an intact hand superimposed bus or corresponding hand pressed against the victim's head to prevent compression of the intact carotid artery, and then through bus (the hand) is applied a tourniquet.
Final stop arterial bleeding is made in medical institutions.
Venous bleeding is characterized by flow of blood cherry continuous stream. He is also a life-threatening, but less than the blood. May stop spontaneously in large blood loss and slowing the flow of blood, resulting in the formation and it is possible to fix a blood clot, but at such a low volume of blood in the body shock phenomena occur, which may result in death. Stop venous bleeding is done by applying a pressure bandage, tourniquet venous or finger vein compression for a long time (up to thrombosis of the vessel).
Venous tourniquet, as opposed to blood, applied below the bleeding, the force of compression should not be large, the artery should not peredavlivatsya harness. With the proper application of venous tourniquet saved ripple arteries below the overlay limb becomes purple, superficial veins below the overlay harness swell, bleeding stops. If you experience pain in the limbs, limb becomes bluish tint, or begins to lose sensitivity, it should be relaxed somewhat burned, but so that the bleeding is not renewed. After about an hour burn can be removed, and if the bleeding does not return, ie Vienna zatrombirovalas further harness can not impose.
Characterized by capillary bleeding after a relatively small amount of blood from the wound surface, vessel-source can not be identified. Usually stops quickly and not be thought of itself sereznoyopasnosti for life. Stopped by applying a pressure bandage, wound treatment with hydrogen peroxide. When oobshirnom damaged arterial tourniquet may be applied for a few minutes, after which the capillaries themselves thrombosing.
After stopping the bleeding begins to fight the infection, which is in abundant washing wounds with hydrogen peroxide, a weak solution of boric acid or potassium permanganate, at the very least you can rinse with clean wound (in any case is not open source) water. Then the skin about an inch and a half around the wound is treated with tincture of iodine or alcohol and a sterile dressing is applied. You can not pour iodine, alcohol, etc. into the cavity of the wound, because it will cause tissue necrosis and ultimately exacerbate infection.
Then bitten necessarily bring to the clinic, where he will be executed prevention of tetanus, rabies, if necessary — debridement. If bitten do not deliver to a medical facility, where he will have a preventive care rabies may develop the disease. In this case, a 100% fatal. Bitten must be delivered into honey. institution, even if it be to get weekly rabies incubation period ranges from 10 days to one year.
It must be remembered that all manipulations with the wounds are only made of rubber gloves, first, you will protect the victim from further infection, and secondly — myself someone else's blood can carry dangerous infections such as HIV and hepatitis. Also, you protect yourself from the contact, such as rabies infected saliva, etc. Saving people's lives and health, take care not to undermine their own.
This is far from a complete list of troubles awaiting us, which could cause us to take our smaller. There are two benefits: first — these troubles do not happen very often, and the second — we know what to do in these cases. Good luck on the trails!
Egor V. Voshchinin.
We express our gratitude Sergei Nikitin!